Archive for Reviews

BOOK REVIEWS

In the last issue an appeal was made for help in reviewing books. Many thanks to the six persons who responded. From the next issue, book reviews will be organised by Michael Wise who will be helped by John Budge especially on article reviews. Michael Wise was at the Library of the University of Dar es Salaam from 1962, shortly after its establishment, until 1969 and has maintained contact with Tanzanian colleagues in the library profession throughout subsequent years. He has also worked in Library Science in Nigeria. He can be contacted at Fronhaul, Llandre, Bow Street, Ceredigion SY24 5AB. Tel: 01970 823351. John Budge has begun reviewing articles in this issue. He has been a journalist for many years and was Lecturer in English and Social Studies at Dar es Salaam Technical College from 1966 to 1970. For the following two years he was Journalist Training Officer at the Dar es Salaam ‘Daily News’. Thomas Ofcansky in Washington DC has also kindly offered to keep TA informed about new US publications on Tanzania – Editor.

BEYOND CAPITALISM VS SOCIALISM IN KENYA AND TANZANIA. Ed: Joel
D Barkan. Lynne Reinner Publishers. 293 pages. 1994.

This is an important book. There is very much in it which is instructive and it incorporates valuable statistical information to back up the arguments in eight generally well written articles. Perhaps inevitably, the articles do vary in quality, although most show evidence of good background knowledge and research. However, the considerable political bias of almost all the articles (and especially of the editor’s) needs to be recognised and borne in mind. Unfortunately, while each author (or group of authors) draws conclusions on the basis of just one aspect of the two nations’ development, there is none which looks at the total effect of their different policies on the lives of their peoples.

But perhaps this is to complain about something which was never intended. The first article, by the editor, sets out what appears to be the real purpose of the book – to present the argument that despite different policies in the past, both countries are now seeking to become some kind of capitalist economy and society – which (two years after the book was published) it is possible that the new government in Tanzania might dispute!
Nonetheless, this book could be very helpful to those concerned about, or having responsibility for shaping the future of Tanzania and East Africa generally. Much of its factual information is a painful but useful education for those who try, without full knowledge, to defend the policies of ujamaa na kujitegemea against allegations that they were an an unmitigated disaster for Tanzania in practice. Thus, valuable lessons about avoidable mistakes can be learned by socialists and others generally concerned for the well-being of the commonality of people; at the same time, factual ammunition is provided for anti-socialists! This book deserves to be read.

True as I believe that statement to be, the book would have been more helpful if its underlying and guiding assumption had not been along the lines that both Kenya and Tanzania made a mess of things in their different ways, but both have ‘seen the light’ and are in the process of reform. Even so, acknowledging the advantages of hindsight, and the paucity of educated and trained citizens in the 1960’s, might have been appropriate. Nor was it enough to mention only once or twice – and in passing – the important differences between the two neighbours.

The economic geographies of Kenya and Tanzania are and always were very different. There was considerable difference in the levels of human, infrastructural and industrial development which the newly independent governments inherited. And the dissimilar political configurations of the early postindependence administrations resulting from those facts, together with the different pre-independence policies of the colonial power in the two countries, had clear relevance to the success or otherwise of the policies they adopted after independence.

Further, it is only in the final article that the book really takes any account of the effects of external events on the development of the two countries. That, however – except for the instructive sections dealing with the IMF/World Bank as well as their operating tactics – is the weakest of the eight articles. The author’s experience is in international economics and the US State Department, but he has written also on political matters without sufficient research or care. For example, he refers at one point to the ‘low key approach to foreign policy’ by both countries from independence to the mid 1970’s; this is an astounding statement in the light of Tanzanian policies during those years. He also talks on page 237 of a Tanzanian ‘initiative’ in invading Uganda in January 1979, while on page 245, talking about the aftermath of October 1978 when ‘Amen’s forces invaded and occupied the Kagera salient. .. declaring it to be part of Uganda’!

Despite such irritations, the book is thought provoking and worthwhile. The article on the Politics of Agricultural Policy by M Lofchie, for example, is well written, well argued and factually supported: its being presented solely in economic terms, divorced from the countries’ stated social and political objectives, is probably the result of the brief given by the editor. It should be noted, however, that the author’s assertions of political and budgetary bias in Tanzania appear to be contrary to the conclusions of the article on urban policy by R Stern, M Halfani and Joyce Malombe.

The article on Education is also extremely important, albeit the participation of three authors (B Cooksey, D Court and B Mkau) is noticeable and perhaps accounts for its unevenness. The most recent figures given, for the time of writing, are frightening. This is especially true for Tanzania, where it is asserted that the primary school enrolment now covers only 50% of the children of the relevant age group; that is about the percentage in 1961. The article also gives evidence of a collapse (and in the past ten years even of abandonment) of endeavours to equalise educational opportunities among regions and among all income groups and religions. The dangers of this for a country committed to the principles of equality and justice and to safeguarding national stability, are very clear: they are recognised by the authors. It seems rather odd, therefore, that their conclusion should include the statement that ‘pluralistic politics and market economics are the two most important factors’ offering hope for ‘further educational decline being arrested’!

But despite all possible criticisms, the information and arguments of this book need to be studied and learned from. It is a pity therefore, that its price is high (more than £25 in UK) and that its print is so small and light that it is quite difficult for anyone with imperfect sight to read. Perhaps a Tanzanian publisher might be able to consider applying for permission to reprint – assuming that the authors would be willing to forego royalties for the purpose?
Joan E Wicken

THE DETERMINANTS OF INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY IN TANZANIA. A J Mturi and S Curtis. Oxford University Press.

In contrast with other developing countries, infant and child mortality in Tanzania after independence did not vary in accordance with the relative wealth or poverty of the parents. In demographic jargon there was ‘a unique lack of socioeconomic differentials’. Searching for a reason the authors concluded that it was due to the country’s post-independence development strategy, which began in 1967 with the ‘radical shift’ in policy when the government ‘changed the capitalist oriented development it had inherited to a socialist, centrally planned economy’ with special emphasis on rural concerns. Although communal production was disappointingly low ‘notable success’ was achieved in the provision of education, health and water supply to the villages. Another surprising consequence of their research is the importance they place on the presence in the household of a radio, ‘relatively widely used and valued in almost all parts of Tanzania’. They claim that it acted as an ‘economic indicator’ which in turn was likely to influence access to health services and the ability to provide adequate nutrition for the children’. They link this with the ‘enlightened education policy’ which, from the mid-1970’s resulted in Tanzania’s efforts and achievements in adult literacy being ‘lauded the world over and recommended as a model for developing countries’.

The authors believe, however, that in the process of building up and maintaining the rural health system, urban health services were neglected, especially in the provision of adequate staff, particularly nurses. The mortality levels in the coastal region, including Dar es Salaam, are among the highest in the country.

They conclude that although Tanzania’s child survival patterns may be different from those in other countries because of its development approach, infant and child mortality remain too high; they add: ‘It is difficult to predict the future due to the recent changes in policies and economic hardship among the people.’ John Budge

ADVENTURES IN EDUCATION. Bernard de Bunsen. Publisher: Titus Wilson, Kendal. 153 pages.

This book is a personal document written with informality of style. Although, in places, de Bunsen’s own feelings and reactions shine through, it is other people who loom large in his account of his life, written almost as though he was no more than an interested observer of the achievements of others.

de Bunsen writes about education in Britain, Palestine, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Senegal and, of course, Makerere in Uganda where he went to make this institution of higher learning into a University College. It is surprising to read that the letter of appointment to the principalship of Makerere was written by himself. de Bunsen writes about the difficulty of dealing with people at the College who did not want change, in making it autonomous, in seeing subjects and the college itself though African rather than British eyes, and about problems with the Art School and in the introduction of social studies.

The author then involves himself in the genesis of the University of East Africa and talks at length on the stages culminating in its beginning. Avoidance of unreasonable duplication and maintenance of common standards in the region were the factors that gave rise to the University. Politics, kept away from the British mode of education, was glaringly present in the East African countries. To the politicians the Africanization of important posts went a long way to speak of freedom of the black man. But Africanization of the content of education was being implemented very, very slowly. The University, a recipient of government funds, cannot sequester itself from the state. This was made very clear in Tanzania by the appointment of a ruling cadre , Pius Msekwa, as the Vice-Chancellor of the University.

It is advisable to read de Bunsen’s book and see the transitory nature of Man’s activities. The author himself writes: ‘….the most humanly absorbing job a man could be given, in the centre of a community, is transformation’. I believe that Prof. Geoffrey Mmari of the Open University knows better. Like de Bunsen he has been at the centre of Tanzania higher education transformation for decades. He owes the state a book of the calibre of ‘Adventures in Education1. It is a challenge directed at him to show us that we have our own de Bunsen’s in our midst. Edwin Semzaba

EXPERIENCE OF WOMEN IN TANZANIA. THE RIGHT TO ORGANISE AS THE MOTHER OF ALL RIGHTS. Nakazael Tenga and Chris Maina Peter. Cambridge University Journal of Modern African Studies. 34 1 (1966) 19 pages.

Nyerere’s declaration that “women in the villages work harder than anyone else in Tanzania but the men are on leave for half their lives” is at the heart of this excellent study. Nakaziel Tenga is a Dar es Salaam advocate and Chris Peter is Head of the International Law Department at Dar es Salaam University.

Women have always been a formidable force in Tanzania and after independence it soon became clear that although politics may have been traditionally regarded as a man’s domain, mothers, wives and daughters could not be ignored. The radicalism of TANU, the ruling party, appealed to a lot of women, not least to those who were Muslims active in the ngoma dance groups that characterised the highly-organised lelemama societies.

Nyerere ensured that TANU’s first constitution provided for a women’s section and that their leaders occupied various positions in the government. The authors mention that in several less tolerant communities, such as Bukoba, the women’s sections were closed down by the men, and in others women were only invited to take part when there was work to be done! When a single national organisation Umoja wa Wanawake wa Tanganyika (UWT) was set up Bibi Titi became the first chairman, with Kanasia Mtenga as her deputy and President Nyerere as patron. When later amalgamated with Zanzibar’s Afro-Shirazi party it became Jumuiya ya Wanawake wa Tanzania. To all intents and purposes a branch of the government in a one-party state dominated by men, it nevertheless managed to record some positive achievements. The authors state that it played a part in burying for ever the colonial myth that African marriage was equated with ‘wife purchase’; the 1971 Law of Marriage Act combined all forms of marriage in ways that comfortably accommodated Christians, Muslims, Hindus and others. There was powerful support from the judiciary in reforming the divorce and custody laws and an old lady in Bukoba, who took her husband to court over land inherited under her father’s will, is aid to have caused a judge to comment that “it had taken a simple old rural woman to champion the cause of women, not the elite women in town who chant jejeune slogans years on end on women’s lib without delivering the goods”.

Another judge was said to have decreed that domestic chores, looking after a home and bringing up children were valuable contributions which had to be taken into account when considering family assets which might be the subject of division if the marriage were dissolved.

During the marriage law debate the authors report that there were complaints that men were losing long-established customary rights and one parliamentarian pronounced that if a man had to get his wife’s consent to a second marriage the African tradition “where a man has always been superior to a womant” would be endangered.
The UWT was also in the forefront of the struggle to change
labour laws so that all working women would receive paid maternity leave and not just those who were married, and to ensure that young women were equally entitled as men to university entry.

Things changed with the introduction of the multi-party system in 1992 when the UWT’s affiliation to the CCM meant that it no longer spoke for all women, so a women’s council, the Baraza la Wanawake Tanzania (Bawatu) was set up. The new constitution continues to acknowledge the marginalisation of women by reserving a number of special seats for them in the National Assembly, but the authors acknowledge that, although women are no longer taken for granted, ‘a great deal of progress needs to be made.
John Budge

MIRADI BUBU YA WAZALENDO. (THE INVISIBLE ENTERPRISE OF THE PATRIOTS). Gabriel Ruhumbika. Tanzania Publishing House. 1995. 168 pages.

When the history of Tanzanian literature of the 20th century comes to be written, the small islands of Ukerewe in Lake Victoria will hold a place of honour quite out of proportion to their size and economic significance. For these islands have produced some of the most significant authors of the century, notably Aniceti Kitereza (1896-1981); E Kezilahabi, who pioneered the ‘free verse’ forms of Kiswahili poetry and introduced the critical realist novel into Kiswahili fiction; E Musiba, whose significance lies in the direction of ‘popular’ fiction; and now, Gabriel Ruhumbika. They all, except Musiba, belong to the Abasilanga clan, the traditional ruling family of Ukererewe.

Miradi Bubu is a sweeping and chilling tale covering 50 hectic years of Tanzania’s recent history i.e. the 1930’s to 1980’s. This is the first Swahili novel to portray this period of drastic socioeconomic changes and struggles. It is an attempt to recapture history as experienced by the various social forces – the rural proletarians, the ordinary office workers, the women, the youth and the nascent state bourgeoisie.

The novel’s structure is based on a simple narrative principle: that of parallel life profiles. Characters include Saidi, a government messenger who becomes a chief messenger; Nzoka, the up-start who benefits from the post-independence Africanization policy who becomes a parastatal executive, a tycoon and a polygamist into the bargain; and Munubi, a rural proletarian-cum-overseer whose yearning for justice eventually lands him at the gallows. Others who interact with them include politicians such as Julius Nyerere, white settlers such as Tumbo Tumbo, Indian shopkeepers, women petty traders such as Mama Ntwara, office girls, the wives, children and grandchildren of the main characters.

Miradi Bubu is not the kind of novel that one reads for mere entertainment or sheer excitement. Although it does have some humorous bits, the novel is, on the whole, serious business that demands some intellectual effort from the reader. It starts at a slow, leisurely pace, but manages to pick up momentum as we enter the exciting sixties, the frustrating seventies and the desperate eighties. At the end, the reader is left angry and depressed, critically reflecting on our chequered history and our inhuman condition.
M. M. Mulokozi

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL PARTIES IN TANZANIA (AFTER THE 1995 ELECTIONS). FACTS AND FIGURES. Max Mmuya. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung. (In English and Swahili). 44 pages plus 32 pages of maps, pie charts and tables. 1996. Shs 5,000. This extremely useful guide is what it says it is – a publication filled with facts and figures on the political parties, the structure of the two governments and parliaments and related institutions. It also includes a brave attempt at the difficult task of identifying policy differences between the parties. One criticism – its very detailed analysis of the election results in 1995 is based on the regions. How much more useful it would have been if it had been based on parliamentary constituencies. Its summing up of the kind of people which the policy of each of the main parties appeals to, could form the subject of many debates. Highly recommended – DRB.

60 YEARS IN EAST AFRICA: LIFE OF A SETTLER 1926-1986. Werner Voigt. General Store Publishing House, 1 Main St. Burnstown, Ontario, Canada KOJ IGO. 1995. 178 pp. Canadian dollars 24.95. The author, a German, was a settler initially in Deutsch Ost- Afrika and then Tanganyika. He worked on numerous plantations during his career. His memoirs, which are largely impressionistic, nevertheless provide an important insight into this period of Tanzania’s history. The book is illustrated by numerous photographs. (Thank you Thomas Ofcansky for letting us have this notice – Editor).

DONOR INTERVENTIONS IN TANZANIA 1989-94. A Report by the U.N. Development Programme (UNDP) in Dar es Salaam. 1996. This fact and figure-filled report analyses in great detail donor aid by region and by donor. It shows how overall aid flows are shrinking and how Mbeya Region, for example, has had most aid and Singida Region has had least during the years covered.

TRAWLING FOR TROUBLE. B S Sekento. African Farming. Jan/Feb 1996. 2 pages. Overfishing, weeds and ecological changes are threatening Lake Victoria; but this article lacks statistical information.

ROTATIONAL WOODLOTS FOR SOIL CONSERVATION, WOOD AND FODDER. R Otsyma, S Minae and P Cooper. Tanzania-ICRAF Agro-forestry Project in Shinyanga and the Southern Africa Development Community Project in Tumbi Tabora. In the coastal and western regions of Tanzania, where deforestation has been acute, farmers have to travel up to 15 kms in search of firewood and poles for construction. Many are using animal dung and crop residues for fuel, which means that valuable soil nutrients are going up in smoke. Pressure on land leads to long fallow periods giving way to intensive but short-duration fallows and even to continuous cropping affordable by small-scale farmers which do not provide the benefits that come with traditional fallows. The authors look at ways of reintroducing trees into existing crop and shrub land, in the form of ‘rotational woodlots’ established by villagers mobilised by local organisations such as women’s and youth groups – JB.

SOIL FERTILITY DECLINE UNDER SISAL CULTIVATION IN TANZANIA.
A E Hartemink. Technical Paper No 28. International Soil Reference and Information Centre, Wageningen. 1995. 67 pages. The dramatic decline of the sisal crop in the first few years of independence is statistically presented. When attempts were made to revive the industry in the late 1980,s little notice was taken of soil fertility problems despite the evidence. The author recommends an intensive production system including the application of sisal waste and the use of legumes and fertilisers – JB.

BRIDGING THE ‘MACRO-MICRO’ DIVIDE IN POLICY-ORIENTED RESEARCH: TWO AFRICAN EXPERIENCES. David Booth. Development in Practice. (15) 4. November 1995. A discussion about how to combine rapid-appraisal methods with inputs from more conventional styles of research. Case studies are taken from Tanzania and Zambia.

COMPARISON OF PRIVATISATION ECONOMIES OF EASTERN AFRICA AND EASTERN EUROPE. Jean M Due and Stephen C Schmidt. African Development Review. Vol. 7. No 1. June 1995.

ASSESSING HEALTH OPPORTUNITIES: A COURSE ON MULTI-SECTORAL PLANNING. M H Birley and others. World Health Forum. Vol. 16. No 4. 1995. An account of a type of planning, tested in Ghana, Tanzania and Zimbabwe, which can yield major benefits for health, especially in water resource development projects.

Comments (1)

REVIEWS

THE RACE FOR THE PRESIDENCY. THE FIRST MULTIPARTY DEMOCRACY IN TANZANIA. T L Maliyamkono. Tema Publishing, Dar es Salaam. 1995. 90 pages $15.00.

I have often wondered why it takes book publishers so many months to publish a book when Sunday newspaper publishers take less than a week to provide an equal amount of reading. So this attractively designed little book with colour illustrations and very useful statistical appendices produced in record time, represents an achievement. Unfortunately the content shows that it has been produced in a hurry. The book begins well with a useful summary of Tanzania’s economic plight. In its political content, however, it assumes that the reader is familiar with recent political events and therefore covers them and particularly the characteristics of the parties and personalities in rather a superficial way. The author takes the story up until two weeks before the election. He indicates that he knows what he is talking about by scoring high marks in predicting what the result would be. He predicted a victory by Benjamin Mkapa with 55% to 65% of the vote (he got in by 61.8%), that the CCM would have a landslide victory in Parliament (CCM did!) and that in Zanzibar ‘1 would expect neither party to take a majority either in Presidential or Parliamentary voting’. Most observers would go along with that.

The book contains a succinct chapter on Nyerere’s achievements and failures and points out that he has been involved in the transfer of power three times in succession without military intervention – something the author rightly describes as Tanzania’s greatest achievement’ – DRB.

JAPANESE AID TO TANZANIA: A STUDY OF THE POLITICAL MARKETING OF JAPAN IN AFRICA. Kweku Ampiah. African Affairs 95 (378). January 1996. 17 pages.

Japan has a good reputation in the aid world. Its aid budget has increased dramatically in amount – from $252 million in 1985 to $1.04 billion in 1991 and anyone who has seen the change in the state of the roads in Dar es Salaam knows how effective it can be.

The value of this article is the skilful way in which the author analyses the motivation behind the giving of the aid to a country (Tanzania) which Japan clearly recognised as being different or special. Thus, Tanzania became by far the biggest recipient of Japanese grant aid among African states and was second to Kenya in technical aid. A country which promised little or no economic benefit to Japan (Japan was Tanzania’s third most important trading partner in 1991 but Tanzania was only Japan’s lOlst trading partner) tended to get little loan aid because of opposition from the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry – Kenya was the main recipient. It was the Ministry of Foreign Affairs which was the primary initiator of Japan’s economic assistance to Tanzania.

The author argues that it was not just charity because Tanzania got so much more aid than other African countries. It was Tanzania’s leading frontline position in Southern Africa, Tanzania’s popularity in the Third World and, because of a Japanese tendency to place great importance on individuals, the centrality in it all of Julius K Nyerere. Ampiah notes significantly that Tanzania was understanding of Japan’s ‘predicament’ as a nation that survived on trade and therefore had to continue to deal with the then outlawed state of South Africa.

There is much more in this article including useful statistics, brief evaluations of the different aid projects and a note on the very limited Japanese investment in Tanzania – by 1993 seven private Japanese companies had invested a total of only $5.5 million – DRB.

BAGAMOYO – A PICTORIAL ESSAY. Jasper Kirknaes and John Wembah- Rashid. (Obtainable from J Kirkenes, P 0 Box 128, Frederiksberg. Denmark 2000. £4 plus postage).
HISTORICAL ZANZIBAR. Introduction and captions by Professor Abdul Sheriff. HSP Publications. 7 Highgate High St. London N6. Tel: 0181 340 3054. £19.95 (Postage free for UK BTS members).
Bagamoyo marked the final stage of the long overland route from the Great Lakes via Tabora and was the main port for the shameful trade in slaves and ivory in the first half of the nineteenth century. It was also the starting point for the famous expeditions by Burton and Speke in 1857 and Stanley in 1871.
With the gradual ending of the slave trade and the establishment of a Catholic mission in 1868, Bagamoyo became a haven for the welfare and education of freed slaves. The Germans made it the administrative centre of their newly acquired East African Colony until 1891 when the capital was moved to Dar es Salaam.

The historical background is briefly set out in the first of these books – a ‘pictorial essay’ which includes some 50 black and white photographs with an attractive cover in colour showing the beach and old Customs House. The order is at times confusing, with scenes from the German period of rule in the 1890’s on the same page as views from the 1990’s. Some of the references to the British presence in Bagamoyo are rather tendentious.

With few, if any, books available on this historic town, this publication is to be welcomed as a reminder of Bagamoyo, the place where ‘one lays one’s heart to rest’. Professor Sheriff presents us in the second book with a splendid album of (mainly Victorian) photographs taken from Zanzibar’s archives. Many of these fascinating scenes have probably not been published before. Here we have the State Barge presented to the Sultan by Queen Victoria: a locomotive of the Bububu Railway complete with American-style cowcatcher; and a photo of the Sultan taking tea with British officials which is vintage Evelyn Waugh.
The darker side of Zanzibar’s history is shown in disturbing photographs of chained slaves and of the damage done by the 1896 bombardment. The earliest photograph is that of the explorer Henry Stanley receiving an address of welcome; the most recent shows the last Sultan opening the last Assembly shortly before the 1964 revolution, while Karume sits quietly a few feet away.

Professor Sherrif’s six-page Introduction succeeds in summarising the main features of the period without succumbing to anti-colonial cliches, and there is a clear and informative plan of Zanzibar town. This attractively produced book is recommended not only for those under the spell of Zanzibar but also for anyone planning a visit who wishes to learn something of the Spice Island’s fascinating history. John Sankey

BLOOD, MILK AND DEATH. BODY SYMBOLS AND THE POWER OF REGENERATION AMONG THE ZARAMO OF TANZANIA. Marja-Liisa Swantz with the assistance of Salome Mjema and Zenya Wild. Finnish Anthropological Society. 1995. Bergin and Garvey. 168 pages. Hardback £44.95.

The Zaramo are a coastal people, closely related to the Kwere and the Zigua, living in and around Dar es Salaam. Once elephant hunters, they became farmers , and are now increasingly urbanised; but through all these changes they have preserved their character and identity. Marja-Liisa Swantz has lived among the Zaramo and studied them as an anthropologist for the last 25 years. This short and accessible book is a compilation of her writings with, as a kind of descant, the notes of a young Zaramo woman recalling her life and upbringing.

They are a people whose unity is based, not on attachment to land, but to their common valued way of life. What sometimes appears to outsiders to be inexplicable economic ‘backwardness’, is in fact a deliberate opposition to government directed ‘development’ which has not taken their needs into consideration. ‘The Zaramo have been steadfast in their determination to evade incorporation into alien systems, even when they would gain economic ally^. This book looks at the symbols that bind Zaramo life together, centred round the puberty ceremonies of young people, especially the girls. From their seclusion, which is a kind of death, they emerge to life, through a series of rites with a complex symbolism on how they will play their part as women and mothers. ‘The Zaramo’ writes Swantz, ‘as far back as oral and written history can determine, have chosen.. ..to live according to their own values.. . This book is an attempt to describe some of the values that guide the Zaramo, and to come to some conclusions about how they have so consistently been able to find their way1. She concludes that the close-knit communal way of the Zaramo has much to offer to modern Tanzania if the nation can only find a way to acknowledge and incorporate it.
Virginia Luling

OUTLOOK FOR SURVIVORS OF CHILDHOOD IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: ADULT MORTALITY IN TANZANIA. Henry M Kitange et al. British Medical Journal. Vol. 312. January 27 1996.

A team mostly from the Tanzanian Ministry of Health and Newcastle upon Tyne University has recorded adult deaths and death rates in Tanzania. Very high death rates in infants and small children are well recognised in sub-Saharan Africa but hitherto little has been known about mortality in those who survive the most dangerous first years.

Trained enumerators carried out censuses from mid-1992 until mid-1995 in 8 areas of Dar es Salaam, 59 villages in Morogoro and 47 in Hai district with a total of over 160,000 adults aged 15 to 59 years. Nearly 5,000 deaths were recorded in this age group.
The death rates were lowest in Hai, a relatively prosperous area growing cash crops, greater in Dar es Salaam and higher still in Morogoro where there is much subsistence farming with sisal cultivation. It was estimated that 32% of those aged 15 would die before their sixtieth birthday if current mortality persisted; 46% would die in Dar es Salaam and 53% in Morogoro. Women fared far worse than men from ages 20 to 34 in Morogoro and from 15 to 39 in Dar es Salaam. In Hai only women aged 25 to 29 had higher death rates than men.

The authors took great care to obtain complete censuses over three years, so these figures are the best available. They paint a bleak picture. Women aged 20 to 24 in Morogoro, for example, have a mortality which is over 40 times greater than women of the same age in England and Wales. The causes of death have not yet been analysed fully, but HIV and maternal mortality probably cause most excess deaths in young women.

The authors hope that these results will provoke a debate about health expenditure. Concentration on preventing infant and child mortality may have led to the relative neglect of adult mortality, much of which could probably be prevented. Epidemiological studies are of immense importance and the authors must be congratulated for their work and their paper. Long-term studies are particularly valuable, so we must hope that these observations can be continued.
John Wood

COME OVER AND HELP US – A DOCTOR IN AFRICA
. Dr. Leader Stirling. AMREF Tanzania Publishing. 1995.
Dr. Leader Stirling originally published his autobiography in 1976 but it has been up-dated and re-issued with a supplement to the introduction written by Julius Nyerere in 1995.

The overwhelming impression , which made me enjoy it so much is Dr. Stirling’s obvious enthusiasm for almost everything he was involved in and his bubbling sense of humour comes out on almost every page. For example, I was fascinated by the extraordinary fact that one of his instructors in surgery was able to whip out an appendix in two minutes forty seconds! or the story of Louiza with acute septicaemia, whose progress to health was greatly assisted by a crate of Guinness; or the inspector from the Directorate of Medical Services whose previous encounter had been when Stirling had tried to restrain him as he ran naked down Victoria embankment late one night! The inspection went off well. There are many things touched on, more or less in passing, but without elaboration. I would have been very happy to have read about the remarkable improvisation at which Dr. Stirling became so adept. In this day of modern medicine, it is fascinating to read that quite simple techniques or equipment may be equally effective in saving lives. Triple distilled water with a bit of salt and glucose added to prepare intravenous infusions may shock the ‘modern’ doctor, but has saved many lives. A corkscrew is effective in removing tumours from the uterus, and a teaspoon has many surgical uses. Sterilised hippo fat makes an excellent aseptic ointment. I found the book entertaining and fascinating but my main criticism is that it was too short. For example, Leader Stirling was active in scouting throughout most of his life, but I would have been happy to read a lot more of the various ‘adventures1 with wild animals, despotic colonial officials and so on. I hope he will soon publish the sequel.
David Gooday, Elubisini Farm
Swaziland

INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE, INNOVATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: AN INFORMATION SCIENCES PERSPECTIVE. Paper presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the African Studies Association, Boston Massachusetts. A Lalonde and G Morin-Labatut. IDRC. Ottawa. This paper focuses on the movement of development

priorities in recent years away from the solely economic to ‘people-centred development’. More attention should be given to ‘Indigenous Knowledge (IK)’ the authors say. An example of development which has ignored IK to its cost is the Canadian Wheat Scheme in Tanzania. It is suggested that, had the Barabaig been included at an early stage, there would have been improved planning of land utilisation and the project would have been more sustainable.

I feel doubtful as, not only are there two systems of farming at opposite ends of the spectrum, but also little was known about the Barabaig in 1969/70 – in fact, not many people wanted to know about them. An entirely new approach would have been necessary by planners, involving lengthy research and negotiation using specialist personnel when what was required was a quick answer to feeding Tanzania’s growing urban population. We are indeed wiser now, but to say that it could have been otherwise in the beginning is hypothetical. No doubt the writers of this paper could have found a better example to illustrate their proposition.
Christine Lawrence

ASANTE MAMSAPU. E. Cory-King. Minerva Press. 1995. This rather ordinary autobiography provides a fascinating insight into life in Tanganyika in the inter war period from 1927 to 1939. The story, as such is essentially of the author’s own childhood, although, through the eyes of ‘Putzi’ are recorded the exploits of her father, the well-known writer Hans Cory, as he undergoes a transformation from plantation manager to social anthropologist. The environmental and social backdrop of Tanganyika is vividly evoked, but the brevity of the period and the structural limitations of the autobiographical form hinder the development of the book and allow for very little narrative progression.

Nevertheless the nature of the autobiography is used to great effect in the highly entertaining portrayal of the book’s diverse characters: the omnipotent Hans, frivolous Lili and the countless caricatures throughout are the book’s main strength, bringing a personal, entertaining and human perspective on life in the territory under the British. The author’s own nationality – as an Austro-German she is in a minority and easily distanced from other nationalities – lends itself nicely to the caustic and hilarious appraisal of the other colonists that is one of the book’s delights. In fact, this device is much more prevalent towards the end which is indeed where the story becomes increasingly engaging. Her cynical eye it seems is used to much better effect when turned on the other Europeans rather than her own family. This artistic eye for detail and an affinity for nature combine to give us an intimate picture of the environment that surrounds her. However, her descriptive style is invariably and perhaps inevitably a reflection of her colonial experience: paternalistic in her social comments but wonderfully observant in her faithful translation of the Tanganyikan landscape and perhaps slightly nostalgic, judging by the numerous Kiswahili euphemisms that pepper the text. Still, this is obviously the mark of an author in love with her subject, regardless of the fact that the narrative lacks compulsion.

I think Cory-King’s intricate and personal story of a childhood in Tanganyika would be particularly rewarding for those who knew Tanganyika and Hans Cory or know Tanzania, since the beauty of her autobiography lies in the realistic and sensuous evocation of the landscape and the people rather than in anything inherently remarkable about the stories of her upbringing.
Ben Rawlence

WOMEN WIELDING THE HOE. CROSS CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES ON WOMEN
.
No 16. Centre for Cross Cultural Research on Women. Oxford
University. Edited by Deborah Fahy Bryceson. Berg, Oxford.
This paper arises out of a workshop held in Holland in 1995 and looks at women as farmers in Africa and discusses a whole range of issues relevant to women’s lives in those African societies where hoe agriculture is prevalent.

Of the 14 chapters, six are from researchers whose work has developed in Tanzania. The editor has written an excellent introductory chapter on the mystique surrounding African women hoe cultivators.

Pat Caplan contributes an article from her return visits to Mafia where she did her field work 20 years ago and presents narratives of women’s views on the function and practicalities of motherhood in work and life. All very readable and a real pleasure to hear directly from womens’ own voices. Ulla Vuorela discusses truth in fantasy by presenting a number of powerful morality tales about women’s experience in marriage told for and by women in Msoga village in Northern Tanzania. A sharp insight into a world of difference between stories which begin at the point where stories from western cultures end in the ‘happy ever after…’ Han Bantje contributes a review of the relationship between maternal workloads and reproductive performance. His chapter contains very interesting factual information and reflections on human resilience which challenges conventional theories of nutrition.

Deborah Fahy Bryceson’s own fine contribution summarises the changing direction of development agencies’ policies and their gradual recognition of their tendencies to impose western assumptions on women’s lives in Africa even when demonstrably inappropriate. It is summarised by its title ‘Wishful thinking; Theory and Practice of Western Donor Efforts to Raise Women’s status in Rural Africa’.

An important and readable publication which is definitely
recommended to BTS members, especially for its value in helping readers to re-adjust their focus, which past perspectives and policies have often left seriously askew. Compulsory reading for anyone planning to go on the BTS visit to Tanzania in July, and who want to understand the position of women in Tanzania today.
Maura Rafferty

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

REVEALING PROPHETS. PROPHESY IN EAST AFRICAN HISTORY. Edited by David Anderson and Douglas Johnson. James Currey. 1995. 310 pages. Hardback £35. Paperback £12.95. This study contains a chapter by Marcia Wright, Professor of African History at Columbia University New York, in which she analyses in some detail the background events, with particular reference to peasant grievances and prophetic religion, which led up to the Maji Maji Rebellion in southeastern German East Africa in 1905 HEALTH SECTOR REFORM AND ORGANISATIONAL ISSUES AT THE LOCAL LEVEL: LESSONS FROM SELECTED AFRICAN COUNTRIES. S Mogedal, S Hodne Steen and George Mpelumbe. Journal of International Development 7 (3) 1995. 18 pages. Experiences with health sector reform in Botswana, Mozambique, Zambia and Tanzania including issues such as decentralisation, user fees, privatisation and human resource management.

INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE IN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: IRRIGATION IN MSANZI , TANZANIA. Ophelia Mascarenhas and P G Veit . World Resources Institute, New York. 1995. 34 pages. How the people of Msanzi in Rukwa Region have successfully managed their water and irrigation system.

WHO CARES ABOUT WATER? Jan-Olof Dranqert. Waterlines. 13 (3). 1995. 3 pages. Whether a source of water in Sukumaland is developed by an individual or by a group, the belief is that it is a gift from God; everyone is entitled to use it. What incentive is there for individuals to develop a new water source? But individual ownership and use is acceptable where the new source is from a previously (traditionally) unknown arrangement, for example, construction of large storage tanks.

EVALUATION OF NETHERLANDS AID TO INDIA, MALI AND TANZANIA: SUMMARY EVALUATION REPORT. Netherlands Development Cooperation. 1995. 218 pages.

STRENGTHENING NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN AFRICA. World Bank Technical Paper No.290. October 1995. 164 pages. Tanzania is one of the 12 countries covered in this discussion on strengthening of agricultural research.

ASYMPTOMATIC GONORRHOEA AND CHLAMYDIAL INFECTION IN RURAL TANZANIAN MEN. H Grosskurth et al. British Medical Journal. Vol. 312. 1996. A study of 500 men in Mwanza Region which confirmed that these infections are asymptomatic; the results have important implications for the design of control programmes.

LIBERALIZATION AND POLITICS. THE 1990 ELECTION IN TANZANIA. Ed: R S Mukandala and Haroub Othman. 1995. Dar es Salaam University Press. 319 pages. Paperback $30.00. Includes case studies on the elections in Zanzibar, Chilonwa, Bunda and Mtwara .

EVOLUTION OF OPERATIONAL RESEARCH STUDIES AND DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIONAL CONTROL STRATEGY AGAINST INTESTINAL HELMINTHS IN PEMBA ISLAND 1988-92. E Renganathan et al. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 73 (2) 1995. 7 pages.
PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECONDARY EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A COMPARATIVE STUDY. E Jimenez, M E Lockheed and associates. World Bank Discussion Paper 309. January 1996. 144 pages. $9.95. This paper compares costs and achievements in private and public secondary schools in five countries including Tanzania.

POLITICAL PARTIES AND DEMOCRACY IN TANZANIA. M Mmuya and A Chaligha. Dar es Salaam University Press. 223 pages. $21.50. Comprehensive study of the foundation of the new parties. BIOGAS DIGESTERS. Katia Jassey. Agrotec Newsletter 9. June 1995. The use of biogas digesters for cooking in Tanzania.
TANZANIA’S FIRST MULTI-PARTY ELECTIONS AS SEEN BY A. M. BABU. Maendeleo. C/o Londec, Instrument House, 207 Kings Cross Road London WC1 9DB. 1995. 12 pages. A M Babu is the Overseas Representative of the NCCR-Mageuzi party. This personal account of his experiences concludes on a hopeful note. ‘Tanzanians must take heart. All is not lost. Behind the dark clouds of deception and rigging there is a silver lining. Whoever imagined only six months ago that … the opposition would still muster 40% of the popular vote in this first experiment in multi-party democracy … the majority of the 40% are energetic young people, the cream of young Tanzanians who have suffered the worst aspects of Nyerere’s economic nightmare … the opposition must strive to build on this formidable base . . . . l

FINANCIAL INTEGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: A STUDY OF INFORMAL FINANCE IN TANZANIA. M S D Bagachwa. 1995 £6.00. This paper is part of a report on an Overseas Development Institute (ODI) study of financial systems in four Anglophone countries.

DEVELOPMENT, DEMARCATION AND ECOLOGICAL OUTCOMES IN MAASAILAND. Kathreen Homewood. Africa 65 (3) 1995. 19 pages. This paper, using precise quantitative data, documents what it describes as the progressive erosion of territory and the imposition of new boundaries on the Maasai from the 1880,s to the present and how the Maasai communities have dealt with this by circumventing imposed boundaries, exploiting and sometimes attacking the resources the boundaries were designed to protect and in developing strategies to use to good effect the opportunities that boundaries can present.

TANZANIA BOOK NEWS. Ed: A Saiwaad. Children’s Book Project, P 0 Box 5702, Dar es Salaam. 1995. 8 pages. The first issue after a long break. Includes tenders for the publication of school books, TEPUSA – an NGO for the promotion of publications in Africa and an overview of the book project.

KILIMANJARO TALES: THE SAGA OF A MEDICAL FAMILY IN AFRICA. Gwynneth and Michael Latham. Radcliffe Press. 211 pages. £24.50. The story, based on the diary of his mother, of the life of Don Latham, a District Medical Officer in the 20’s and 30’s including background on Michael Latham’s own time in Tanzania.

GLOSA ENGLISH-SWAHILI DICTIONARY. Leonard A Sekibaha. Published by Glosa, P 0 Box 18, Richmond, Surrey TW9 2AU. 36 pages. £5.95. Glosa was originated by Prof. Hogben in 1943 while he was fire-watching in Aberdeen during the Second World War. This booklet contains the 1000 words which it claims are all that are needed to write, read, speak and understand the language; all the words are from Latin and Greek roots. The author runs the Glosa Centre in Pangani.

CONTINUITY AND AUTONOMY IN SWAHILI COMMUNITIES: INLAND INFLUENCES AND STRATEGIES OF SELF-DETERMINATION. Afro-Pub and SOAS, London. 1994. 231 pages. £28.00

POTATO CULTIVATION IN THE UPOROTO MOUNTAINS, TANZANIA: AN ANALYSIS OF THE SOCIAL NATURE OF AGRO-TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE. Jens A Andersson (Wageningen). African Affairs. 95 (378) January 1996. 19 pages. Although over supplied with sociological jargon and completely lacking in quantitative data (‘because of its unreliability’) this paper is revealing in pointing out a) the influence of migration of people on the choice of variety of potato grown in this area of South- Western (Southern Highlands) Tanzania b) the rise and fall of the pyrethrum industry c) the attractions of Kenya as a market for potatoes grown in Northern Tanzania d) changing consumption patterns in Dar es Salaam e) improved transport facilities – all these in addition to the normal agronomic factors of production.

THE CULWICK PAPERS 1934-1944. POPULATION, FOOD AND HEALTH IN COLONIAL TANGANYIKA. Ed: Veronica Berry. Academy Books, 35 Pretoria Ave, London E17 7DR. £22.75 incl. p&p. The first half of this book consists of articles written by A T Culwick, a District Officer and his anthropologist wife about the Ulanga valley and the second half is a survey conducted in 1938-39 of ‘Bukoba and its context in nutrition’. The book is illustrated with 88 contemporary photographs, 4 maps and numerous tables. MIRADI BUBU YA WAZALENDO (The Invisible Enterprises of the Patriots). Gabriel Ruhumbika. Tanzania Publishing House. 1995. 168 pages. This saga written in Swahili with a Kikerewe flavour tells the story of a group of people facing the big changes which have occurred during the period from the 1930’s to the 1980,s.

A new edition of the HISTORICAL DICTIONARY OF TANZANIA is in the final editing stage and should be published later this year. (Thank you Thomas Ofcansky from Washington DC for letting us have this advance notice – Editor).

Comments

REVIEWS

THE HISTORY AND CONSERVATION OF ZANZIBAR TOWN. EU: Abdul Sheriff. James Currey. 1995. 164 pages. £35 cloth; £12.95 paperback. (Special offer to readers of ‘Tanzanian Affairs’ – paperback copy – £10).

The papers presented in this volume formed part of an international conference on the history and culture of the islands, convened in Zanzibar in December 1992 by the Department of Archives, museums and Antiquities of the Zanzibar government. Five papers deal with the history of the Stone Town; seven discuss its current and future status. In addition to a general introduction to the volume, Sheriff contributes a paper giving an outline history of the Stone Town, and another dealing with the socioeconomic implications of mosque building.

Sheriff begins by tracing the growth of the town since the 19th century. He argues against attributing the success of Zanzibar solely to the plantation economy. If that was the true explanation, Zanzibar would have been a larger version of Kenya’s 19th century Malindi. Sheriff believes that the immense cultural richness and cosmopolitan dynamism of Zanzibar town was due as much to its vibrant commercial port, and an emerging hinterland of huge economic potential. Sheriff’s second paper (published in a journal elsewhere) explores the connection between the building of mosques and the economic growth of the town, especially of its merchant community. Thus one sees an unfolding demography of the various religious communities through the endowments of their wealthy benefactors among whom were several property-owning women.

A facet of the cultural richness to which Sheriff refers is portrayed in Garth Andrew Myers’ article ‘The Other Side’ of the Stone Town, Ny’ambo, an area which has traditionally been considered a dwelling place of the poor. Myers does away with the notion that Ny’ambo was a dirty and chaotic area, and shows the development of its settlement to have been clean and orderly, possessing a ‘fascinating variety of house types and …. a gradually emerging solidarity of its peoples’.
The remaining two history papers can be taken together as their themes are similar, and in many ways they complement Sheriff’s article on mosques.These are Amina Ameir Issa’s contribution on the burial of the elite in the 19th century Stone Town, and Jean-Claude Penrad’s ‘The Social Fallout of Individual Death: Graves and Cemeteries in Zanzibar’. Issa deals with the burial locations of Omani and Hadhrama Arabs respectively, and also those of Comorians, Indians, and ‘othersr, a category which includes Africans, Europeans, Americans, slaves and members of other ethnic communities. Issa mentions the measures taken by the government to control and govern the allocation and upkeep of the burial sites. But such ‘ethnic’ burial was abandoned in 1969 by the Wakf Department in order ‘to end racialism’. Instead all people were required to bury their dead at Wanakwerekwe, four miles from the town. It is this social aspect of death, symbolised by the graves, tombs and their locations, which Penrad discusses in his article. The burial sites represent symbolic perceptions by the various communities about themselves and their beliefs.

The first of the seven papers on the conservation of the Stone Town is historically orientated, as it describes in detail the project to restore the ‘Old Dispensary’ a building with which the family of this reviewer has had some connection in the past. Steve Battle’s paper outlines the background and purpose of its original construction, and the current attempt to revive it as a functioning building.

The historical thread continues in Andriananjanirana- Ruphin’s paper which surveys the development of the Stone Town between 1890 and 1939. Of interest here is the story of the creation of the Municipal of Zanzibar in 1909, and its efforts during the years under consideration to undertake town planning and provide services for a growing municipality. A.Ruphin shows that its success was limited by ‘problems of land control, lack of financial means, shortage of staff, administrative slowness, conflict among the decision-making authorities, and absence of a clear policy of town planning.’ Remarkably similar ingredients to the ones listed above underlie the concerns expressed in the remaining papers in relation to the current and future condition of the Stone Town. The papers by Erich Meffert (‘Will the Zanzibar Stone Town Survive’) and Saad Yahya (‘Zanzibar Stone Town: Fossil or Foetus?’) pose the same question in different ways. Both emphasise the need for proper planning and for immediate action. Meffert is blunt and urgent in his plea: ‘One thing is certain: nobody will come to Zanzibar, or will look at the Stone Town. ..if the prime attraction of the historic landscape has been destroyed by more and more insensitive developers’. Yahya lists characteristics common to coastal towns, including Zanzibar, and suggests that this be utilised in developing not only the town itself but the islands as well. He lists some ideas for doing so.

The theme of planning is taken up in the last three papers by Archie Walls, Emin Balcioglu and Francesco Siravo. Walls’ plea is that the revitalisation of the town must make use of traditional methods of building; otherwise (as he has observed elsewhere) there is a risk of permanent damage. Balcioglu and Siravo discuss the work of the Aga Khan Trust for Culture and, in particular, its ‘Historic Cities Support Programme’. It is throughout the latter that the AKTC has initiated a planning project manned by AKTC appointees and Zanzibari officials to work out a realistic plan for the conservation and utilisation of the Stone Town.

The book is invaluable as a source of the history of the Stone Town, made all the more so by the inclusion of maps, drawings, and photographs of an era that has now disappeared. James Currey is to be congratulated for its production and for the insertion of the postscript which appears on page 142! Farouk Topan

WITCHCRAFT IN CONTEMPORARY TANZANIA. Ray Abrahams. African Studies Centre, Cambridge University.

This is an interesting book on a complex subject which demonstrates the link between traditional cultures and contemporary society. Witchcraft has been defined as the inherent power to harm others by supernatural (mystical) means. It is a phenomenon which many Tanzanians, both rural and urban, regard as an ugly reality, that can undermine the harmony of village society, but whose eradication can also lead to victimisation and violence.

Four case studies describe the incidence of witchcraft in the Bena, Sukuma and Pogoro tribes and how societies deal with suspects and false accusers. According to Mesaki, Ministry of Home Affairs statistics, from 1970 to 1984, reported the death of over 3,600 people – 240 a year – in witchcraft related incidents in 13 regions of mainland Tanzania. A direct link with witchcraft has not been conclusively demonstrated in all these cases. Over 60% of the cases occurred in Mwanza and Shinyanga (Sukumaland). The majority of victims were women.

Various ways of dealing with suspected witches are described – starting with warnings by the traditional village head, imposition of fines, moving on to driving the suspects out of the village, and finally the extreme case of killing the alleged witch, as in the clandestine operation of vigilante (Sungusungu) among the Sukuma. The Pogoro seem to have a benign way of dealing with suspected witches through a ritual shaving ceremony, kunyolewa. Green’s paper describes this effective social sanction.

Both Mesaki and Mombeshora give good assessments of the significance of legislation. It is doubtful if the formal legal process was ever very effective in rooting out witchcraft or in dealing with malicious accusations, which can be as destructive of a stable society as witchcraft itself. Post-independence governments, while deploring its existence, have had difficulty in dealing with witchcraft in the courts and have preferred to regard it as a civil dispute to be settled in the village. Bugurura, in his study of the Kahama district, describes how the village party leaders assess accusations of witchcraft even while they assert that it has no place in modern society.

Several of the authors, picking up a theory anthropologists have addressed in other African societies, allude to a possible link between the increase in witchcraft and the confining effect of villagization. Social strains in an enclosed society certainly increase as pressure on resources builds up. Young people’s unwillingness to conform to ancient lineage rituals can also lead to allegations that their elders are practising witchcraft.

The monograph is an exploration of a difficult topic in one country, rather than definitive statement of the place of witchcraft in African society. Nevertheless it does forcefully demonstrate the destabilising effects of maleficent beliefs and false accusations. As Professor Abrahams emphasises in his introduction, we are reminded that evil and harm in witchcraft in Tanzania have parallels in recent European experience with sectarian violence, ethnic cleansing and allegations of child abuse.
R Fennel1

AFRICA. THE ART OF A CONTINENT. The Royal Academy Of Arts. 4/10/95 to 21/1/96.

This is a large and ambitious exhibition displaying many artefacts from all over the continent dating from pre-history to the beginning of the 20th century. The very first item on display is a simple hand axe from Olduvai, Tanzania. Over one and a half million years old it is two million years later than the Laetoli footprints, but it is the earliest hand tool known. Other items from Tanzania are all from the 19th or early 20th centuries. Among the most interesting are a Nyamwezi chief’s chair; a Makonde man/beast mask; and, a very beautiful Iraqw leather skirt embroidered with beads and bells. Makonde ebony carvings are notably absent, presumably because they are of a more modern age.
Christine Lawrence

OTHER PUBLICATIONS
ESTIMATING THE SECOND ECONOMY IN TANZANIA. M Bagachwa and A Naho. World Development. 23 (8). August 1995. 12 pages.

THE IMPACT OF STRUCTURAL POLICIES ON WOMEN’S AND CHILDREN’S HEALTH IN TANZANIA. Joe L P Lugalla. Review of African Political Economy. No 63. 10 pages

THE INFORMAL SECTOR AND STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT: STRENGTHENING COLLECTIVE COPING MECHANISMS IN TANZANIA. M Schulz. Small Enterprise Development. 6 (1). March 1995. 10 pages.

FOREST-DEPENDENT LIVELIHOODS: LINKS BETWEEN FORESTRY AND FOOD SECURITY. S Dembner. Unasylva 182.Vol 46 1995. 6 pages. Includes brief case studies on Bolivia, Thailand, Vietnam and Tanzania – in two villages in Mtwara Region.

AID AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN TANZANIA. Thorvald Gran. Dar es Salaam University Press. 1994. 154 pages. £8.95. An evaluation of NORAD aid to Tanzania.

SOCIAL CAPITAL AND DEVELOPMENT CAPACITY: THE EXAMPLE OF RURAL TANZANIA. L Putterman. Development Policy Review. 13 (1). March 1995.

SUMMARIES OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF AN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES FOR TANZANIA: AN AGENDA FOR THE 21ST CENTURY. L Msambichaka and H Moshi. Dar es Salaam University Press. 1994. 95 pages. £7.50. Contains 23 papers on this 1993 conference.

CONSUMPTION AND POVERTY IN TANZANIA IN 1976 AND 1991: A COMPARISON USING SURVEY DATA. A Sarris and P Tinios. World Development. 23 (8). August 1995. 18 pages.

COMPARING EARNINGS PROFILES IN URBAN AREAS OF AN LDC: RURAL TO URBAN MIGRANTS VS NATIVE WORKERS. W P M Vijverberg and L A Zeager. Journal of Development Economics. 45 (2) 1994. 22 pages. A comparative study of labour productivity in Tanzania.

TEA ESTATE REHABILITATION IN TANZANIA. M Faber. World Development 23 (8). August 1995. 12 pages.

IMPORT SUPPORT AID. EXPERIENCES FROM TANZANIA AND ZAMBIA. H White. Development Policy Review. 13 (1) March 1995. 22 pages.

ECONOMIC REFORM AND SMALLHOLDER AGRICULTURE IN TANZANIA: A DISCUSSION OF RECENT MARKET LIBERALIZATION, ROAD REHABILITATION AND TECHNOLOGY DISSEMINATION EFFORTS. L Putterman. World Development. 23 (2). February 1995. 15 pages.

LIBERALIZATION AND POLITICS. THE 1990 ELECTION IN TANZANIA. Ed: R S Mukandala and H Othman. Dar es Salaam University Press. 1995. 319 pages. £16.75. Includes case studies on elections in Zanzibar, Chilonwa, Bunda and Mtwara.

TERTIARY TRAINING CAPACITY IN TANZANIA. ESAURP. Tanzania Publishing House. 1994. 234 pages. £14.95. A research report prepared for the Eastern and Southern African Universities Research Programme.

THE FUNCTIONAL DIMENSION OF THE DEMOCRATISATION PROCESS. M Mmuya. 1994. 148 pages. £9.95. Papers from a conference on the democratic process in Tanzania and Kenya.

CHAGGA. Leeman and Biddulph. 40 pages. £ 20. A course in the Vunjo dialect of the Kichagga language with two accompanying cassettes.

POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN TANZANIA. RECENT RESEARCH ISSUES. Ed: M S G Bagachwa. Dar es Salaam University Press. 270 pages.

£26.50. Seven papers from a 1994 workshop and a proposal for a long term research project.

Comments

BOOK REVIEWS

AFRICAN PERSPECTIVES ON DEVELOPMENT. Eds: U Himmelstrand, K Kinyanjui, E Mburugu. 1994. James Currey.

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS IN AFRICA. W Tordff. 1993, Indiana University Press.

POWER IN AFRICA. P Chabal. st. Martins Press. New York. 1994

‘African Perspectives on Development’, a tightly argued case laced with hard facts, calls into question much of the data and methodologies used by ‘experts’ (Eicher, Hyden, the World Bank) on the subject of Tanzanian agricultural production and its supposed decline during the years preceding the foreign exchange crisis of 1978. Marjorie Mbilinyi’s command of the history of agricultural production leads to conclusions that contrast sharply with those of the experts. Mbilinyi points, for example, to the tendency to aggregate crop data, combining plantation and peasant crops. Imagine aggregating data that include the collapsing sisal plantation industry with the positive growth of crops like tea and coffee planted by peasant and small capitalist producers! How easy to beat up on the small farmers once again; and how easy to justify unnecessary food imports.

From her factual base, Mbilinyi’s commentary is harsh. ‘Structural Adjustment Programmes’ (SAP’s) in agriculture are structured around the rehabilitation of the large-scale plantation and large farm sector owned by foreign, and, to a lesser extent, national enterprises and TNC’s, and the provision of a regular supply of cheap labour by impoverished peasants and farm workers. That the ‘cheap labour’ is mainly female is clear: by 1978 63% of all waged and unwaged agricultural labourers aged 15-29 were women. The campaign against the smallholder is further evidenced by data on credit: 90% of total lending in 1983 went to indigenous heads of household (covering some 4,300 out of 8,700 villages) as compared to only 15% of all peasant household heads in 1976. But following the SAP, only 2,000 villages received credit in 1986.

Recognising women’s grassroots organisations (in 1979 more than 7,500 economic groups on the mainland), and given the predominance of women in rural areas together with the much increased incidence of female-headed households, the author poses as ‘one of the greatest challenges to scholars and activists’ to ‘catch up with the ordinary women’. Much greater attention is due to the excellent writings of M Mbilinyi.

In the same volume, Samuel Chambua states that , irrespective of what development paradigm a sub-Saharan country has followed, the result has been the same ie: the failure to liquidate underdevelopment. This reviewer cheered his warning that ‘belief in the market has to be viewed with suspicion’ since the market was found wanting in the 1960’s as the solution to development problems. Both ‘modernization’ (dual economy) and ‘dependency’ theories are inadequate. Chambua calls for a theory and strategy that transforms the peasant economy while recognising that state and collective farms failed in both Ethiopia and Tanzania.

Also in ‘African Perspectives’, Benedict Mongula spoke to the ‘economic recovery experiments’ that have directly increased mass impoverishment, unemployment and destitution because both the social services sector and peoples’ real incomes have been affected. He points to the ‘considerable measurement problem’ in assessing the effectiveness of economic stabilization policies, due to such factors as the erratic inflation rates that follow currency devaluations and the challenge of comparing GNP’s when exchange rates and prices vacillate so much. Considering Mongula’s observations, one is tempted to question the exactness of economics as a science. After reviewing development theories and trends (often mentioning Tanzania) the author calls for a new kind of planning that would return control of their economies to the concerned countries themselves and avoid the blind liberalization of the economy advocated by the IMF.

Ernest Maganya scans the history of agricultural transformation in Southern Africa during the past three decades and the ongoing debate over modernization v dependency paradigms. Holding that the ‘free market’ can be ‘used or misused’, Maganya presents clear cases of government actions to improve or destroy the contributions of peasant farmers. He foresees the debate shifting from the issue ‘centrally planned economy v the market place’ to ‘the nature of the state that will have the political will and the technical capacity to harness the advantages of the market place and use it in the interests of the majority of the rural producers and smallholder peasants’.

The comprehensive analyses by the four Tanzanian authors above tempt one to ask the publishers of ‘African Perspectives’ to get a copy of their volume into the hands of every World Bank, IMF, and government planner. ‘Power in Africa’ a political essay labels as failures ‘paradigms lost’- all of the theories that have been employed to explain post-colonial politics. Patrick Chabal’s discussion of the African state as inherited from colonial powers, a state that did not arise from but had to create a nation, go a long way toward explaining why the post-colonial years have been perilous and why current economic adjustment programmes that disempower already fragile states’ capacities, carry with them a serious risk. Perceiving the state as the dominant economic actor in Africa – whether values are socialist, capitalist or mixed – Chabal nonetheless accepts ‘the politics of external aid’ from the West, the World Bank and the IMF as givens. He holds that ‘the system of dependence which is underpinned by the World Bank is one of the most significant factors in the survival of the post-colonial state. He sees such dependence as ‘hardly dependence at all’ but rather ‘inter-dependence’ – because, in his judgement, the donors finance African states ‘because the result is a relatively stable international order’ .

Some people, including this reviewer, hesitate to agree with Chabal, believing that the inherited risks that accompany adjustment programmes place ‘the social sectors in crisis’ as the World bank has itself said about its results in Tanzania (see ‘Adjustment in Africa’ page 413).

William Tordoff’s new edition of ‘Government and Politics in Africa’ is rich with detailed examples and refreshingly critical of both donor and developing countries. A former professor at the University of Dar es Salaam, Tordoff covers Tanzania thoroughly, from the East African Community through to President Mwinyi. He finds it ironic that ‘in the name of political and economic freedom’, western governments seek to deny African states the freedom to choose the political and economic systems that best suit their individual circumstances’. Questioning whether the African state as yet possesses the institutional capacity that the market economy system requires, he sees paradox in the SAP’s envisaging a ‘stronger society and a weaker central state’.

Reading Tordoff, I was reminded of President Nyerere’s response to questioning at a UN seminar in 1994. The gist of his statement was: They tell me all countries – the USA, Japan, Tanzania – participate on equal terms in the global ‘free market’. But putting Tanzania into that global market is like putting me in the boxing ring with champion Mohammed Ali! Margaret Snyder

THE MANAGEMENT OF HEALTH SERVICES IN TANZANIA: A PLEA FOR HEALTH SECTOR REFORM. P Sandford, G J Kanga and A M Ahmed. International Journal of Health Planning and Management. Vol. 9 No. 4. 1994. 13 pages.

This report on a research project in Kisarawe overturns widespread belief that management of health services can be substantially strengthened by such measures as development of information systems, training and evaluation. More radical changes are needed including the broadening of the base of funding (precise proposals are made) which would take into account an annual population survey in each district; full autonomy to health unit managers; the introduction of the private sector as provider; and, labour market reform including promotion to larger health units as incentives.

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

INFLUENCE OF ARABIC LANGUAGE ON SWAHILI (WITH A TRILINGUAL DICTIONARY). I Bosha. Dar es Salaam Univ. Press. 1993. 268 pages. £11.95. The author does not accept that Swahili was of Arabic origin. There were linguistic interferences from both sides. The book includes a list of Swahili words believed to have originated from Arabic.

DOCTOR’S CONTINUING EDUCATION IN TANZANIA: DISTANCE LEARNING. S S Ndeki et al. World Health Forum. Vol. 16. 1995. 6 pages.

THE POETRY OF SHAABAN ROBERT. Edited and translated into English by C Ndulute. Dar es Salaam University Press. 1994 179 pages. Shs3,260. A selection of the best and most representative of the poems.

QUALITY REVIEW SCHEMES FOR AUDITORS: THEIR POTENTIAL FOR SUBSAHARAN AFRICA. Sonia R Johnson. Technical Paper No 276. World Bank Findings. 1994. This paper concentrates on one aspect of financial management: the role of the external auditor and describes the results of two pilot quality reviews of government and private auditors in Tanzania and Senegal.

ECONOMIC CHANGE AND POLITICAL LIBERALIZATION IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA. Jennifer W Widner. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press. 1994. 307 pages. £14.00 paperback. The results of a 1992 colloquium in 1992 at Harvard; six case studies including one on Tanzania.

BUILDING CAPITALISM ….. SLOWLY. P Lewenstein. BBC Focus on Africa. Jan-March 1995. Two pages on how Tanzania is encouraging grass-roots capitalism.

THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACT OF HIV/AIDS ON FARMING SYSTEMS AND LIVELIHOODS IN RURAL AFRICA. T Barnett et al. Journal of International Development. Vol. 7. No 1. 1995. 12 pages.

MARKET AND STATE: EVALUATING TANZANIA’S PROGRAM OF STATE-LED INDUSTRIALISATION. M Costello. World Development. Vol. 22. No 10. 1994. 10 pages

STRUCTURALLY ADJUSTED AFRICA: POVERTY, DEBT AND BASIC NEEDS. D Simon, W van Spengen, C Dixon and Z Narman. Pluto Press. £12.95. Essays in this book cover the workings of structural adjustment in several African countries. The Tanzanian case study is on urban migration and rural development.

ESSAYS ON THE TRANSITION TO MULTI-PARTYISM IN TANZANIA. Pius Msekwa. Dar es Salaam University Press. 1995. This book of 10 essays by the Speaker of the National Assembly, which is apparently not-for-sale, describes the transition to multipartyism, shows how pluralism helped Parliament to recapture its supremacy from the CCM National Executive Committee, questions the decision to reject a three government structure for the country, suggests new methods of arranging presidential elections and points out that there is still no provision for independent candidates to stand for election.

URBAN FRUIT AND VEGETABLE SUPPLY IN DAR ES SALAAM. Geographical Journal. 160 (3). 1994. 11 pages.

THE POLITICS OF ADULT EDUCATION IN COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE: MODELS, RATIONALITIES, AND ADULT EDUCATION POLICY IMPLEMENTATION IN CANADA, MEXICO AND TANZANIA. C A Torres and D Schurugency. Comparative Education. 30 (2). 1994. 21 pages.

BETTER HEALTH IN AFRICA: EXPERIENCES AND LESSONS LEARNT. World Bank. 1995. 240 pages. Tanzania is praised for its radio programme Man is Health which has been followed by two million people and also its health personnel plans where, in some cases, targets that were set up two decades ago have been surpassed.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT DECENTRALISATION AND THE HEALTH SECTOR IN TANZANIA. Public Administration and Development. 14 (5) 1994. 26 pages.

WOMEN AND COOPERATIVES IN TANZANIA: SEPARATISM OR INTEGRATION? Margaret R Msonganzila. Economic and Political Weekly. October 29. 1994. 11 pages in small type. This article discusses integrated cooperatives with men and women members and women-only cooperatives but states that the perspective and practice of Tanzanian Cooperative policies is biased against women.

The January 1995 issue of the JOURNAL OF FINANCE MANAGEMENT of the Institute of Finance Management in Dar es Salaam contains articles on the taxation of pension benefits, accounting and its environment in Tanzania, women executives and stress, an introduction to livestock insurance, safety management and on cushioning Tanzania’s external debt.

Comments

BOOK REVIEWS

NYERERE – THREE BOOKS

Nyerere Book

MWALIMU – THE INFLUENCE OF NYERERE. Edited by Colin Legum and Geoffrey Mmari. Mkuki Na Nyota, Dar es Salaam; Africa World Press, Trenton USA; and, James Currey, London. Published in association with the Britain-Tanzania Society. 1995. Clothbound £35. Paperbound £11.95. Special offer price to readers of ‘Tanzanian Affairs’: Clothbound – £10 from James Currey, 54B Thornhill Square. London NI IBE.

The British Empire had many achievements. One which is rarely cited is the remarkable group of leaders who led its colonies to independence. Had these colonies been fortunate enough to inherit power at the same time they would have been among the tallest on the world stage. Liberation movements attracted many intellectuals who might otherwise have taken careers other than politics. The quality of British education at home and in the colonies contributed to their formation. When history is written Julius Nyerere will rightly occupy one of the foremost places in this galaxy along with Gandhi, Nehru, Jinnah, Kaunda, Lee Kwan Yew and others.

This book is neither a biography nor the orthodox collection of eulogy produced on the retirement of an eminent figure. It is a scholarly compilation of some 14 essays covering his ideas, the policies that followed from them and their application to Tanzania during the 30 years of his leadership. It merits attention as one of the few attempts to analyse in depth and with objectivity the achievements of a very poor country immediately after it assumed control of its own destiny.

Nyerere has many qualities of heart and head. Huddleston, in his contribution places stress on his humility, austerity and dedication. Mmari reminds us that he did not lack determination. His attachment to his Catholic faith is an important factor in his life. Above all the theme is repeated that he is a thinker and a mwalimu (teacher) hence that honorific has been bestowed on him permanently uniquely among political leaders who have generally preferred to emphasise their power and leadership. Gandhi, Nehru and Mao were Asian leaders of an earlier generation who also had a vision of creating a New Society and of moulding a new man. Needless to say they differed in the essentials of that vision. Nyerere had a vision of building a more perfect society and a better individual in Tanzania based on African roots and socialism which encompassed Fabian humanist Marxist ideologies. Some day it is hoped that a study comparing Nehru and Nyerere will be made as these charismatic leaders had much in common. Nehru died in harness. Nyerere, having retired from office is still with us, active in the public service. Among their achievements, as Green points out in his contribution, is that much of the political engineering they accomplished continues to survive – a rare occurrence in post independence societies.

The gaining of independence from colonial rule was seen by the leadership as a new dawn when everything could be achieved. In the euphoria they believed that the same enthusiasm and the same willingness to sacrifice that enabled the ouster of foreign rulers would continue indefinitely. This would provide the motivation for the revolution to be brought about in the social structure and the economy. It was soon discovered that human nature and habits cannot be radically altered nor can vested interests be removed without enormous effort and education over a period of time. Too often unable or unwilling to confront this task the post-colonial leadership has moved back to authoritarianism. In many cases this was the penultimate stage before military rule. Nyerere realised he could not achieve his goals by using the system left by the British. As Kweka explains he believed a one-party state would better serve the entire nation. Democracy would be preserved by ensuring freedom of discussion, a policy debate and a choice of candidates for Parliament. In reality the party became all powerful and power and decision making were centralised. The one-party state instituted in 1965 was eventually dismantled in favour of a multi-party system in 1992. By that time Green states that sturdy institutions, a plural society and faith in the system had been firmly implanted. Legum, while acknowledging the achievements, prefers to remain sceptical about the future.

The overall thrust of Nyerere’s philosophy is enshrined in the Arusha Declaration of 1967. This emerged after much debate but it was essentially the distillation of Nyerere’s own thinking over a long period and was largely imposed from above. Its facets appear in most of the chapters of the book. Irene and Roland Brown sympathetically spell out the reasons behind the perceived need for planning, for education for self-reliance and for community formation in the ‘ujamaa’ village. They and other contributors recognise that it was not so easy to implement these policies. Legum points out that, although some people had to be forced, what has been achieved with very limited coercion is indeed remarkable. India, with her partly successful Five-Year Plans and community development programmes in various forms, knows very well that revolutions in agriculture and economics do not come overnight. But they do come slowly at different speeds in different places. Enthusiasm for rural modernisation can be generated. Ultimately awareness grows with decentralisation, grassroots democracy and especially education. All this needs adequate resources. Groups and individuals have to feel that they too benefit from the revolution in the quality of life and being able to acquire goods unobtainable earlier. That is why socialism and planning do not succeed if they neglect to inject a sufficient measure of market forces. Nyerere may not have realised this till the 80’s and 90’s. But he has never lost sight of the importance of self-reliance and its relevance to independence in policy formulation. It is only in the post cold war era that this reality has been forced on many developing countries which had relied on aid-driven development.

Svendsen, writing on the economic sphere, explains how, after the shocks of the 1979-81 period, the costs of implementing the Arusha Declaration became impossible to sustain. Pride had to fight with need. As countries like India had discovered 15 years earlier, altruism does not exist in international finance and commerce. Tanzania fought a spirited battle with the World Bank and the Fund but the inevitable compromises had to be reached.

‘The development of a country is brought about by people and not by money’ as Komba asserts. To do this in Tanzania required an initial revolution which most other countries did not need. There were no rural communities. People were gathered into villages with the intention that these would eventually evolve into full-fledged cooperatives. Unlike in the soviet union and China this was done mainly by consent. It is however not clear from the book how Tanzanian society has evolved; in the desire to emphasise the unity achieved, the normal process of emergence of group identities is not clearly analysed.

The book is somewhat weak on Nyerere’s international achievements. Ramphal’s contribution highlights the Commonwealth role and touches upon Nyerere’s contribution as Chairman of the South Commission. The Commission’s contribution to the economic reform now going on around the world might not be fully appreciated in the pain of ongoing structural adjustment. Self-reliance is being accepted. Just now this is being done at the national level rather than at the multilateral level as the Commission had hoped. It is perhaps utopian to hope that the new rich will be any more altruistic than the old rich.

Nyerere was always a Pan Africanist as Ramphal points out in his reference to Nyerere’s offer to delay Tanganyikan independence to help preserve the East African Union. His outspoken statement that Tanganyika would not share the Commonwealth table with South Africa after it achieved independence in 1961 prompted the latter’s exit from the Commonwealth. Decisions on Southern Africa were not without cost to the Tanzanian economy. But they were borne bravely.

Legum explains the rationale behind the final ouster of Idi Amin and the incorporation of Zanzibar into Tanzania and how this was motivated by the same philosophy of African solidarity. The TANZAM railway may not have been a success but it was another effort in the same direction.

For anyone interested in Julius Nyerere and Tanzania this book is essential reading. It suffers from the defect of people on the inside writing about their special subject. Almost every contributor has worked for the Tanzanian Government or the University of Dar es Salaam. outsiders may feel that they have not been provided with the adequate foundation of facts and data on which the analysis is based. There is also no attempt at any comparative study of neighbouring African or other developing countries. This would have provided some benchmarks against which judgements can be made. These are however minor points against the carefully drawn and relatively objective picture that is projected and is retained by the reader. The Mwalimu’s legacy is indeed that of his ideas. Maybe some of them need to be updated. But the basic thrust which comes through loud and clear still remains valid for Tanzania and indeed for many other nations.
Eric Gonsalves

UONGOZI WETU NA HATIMA YA TANZANIA. Julius K Nyerere.
Published by Zimbabwe Publishing House. 1994

This is a short book but one which seems to be of exceptional significance. Its launch in the late Autumn of 1994 created such interest that the first printing became unobtainable in a matter of days. When the author addressed a meeting of the Press Association in March this year, at which he was to return to its major theme, over 800 people are reported to have attended.

Readers in the UK might wonder what all the fuss is about. We have become accustomed to the attacks of Edward Heath on his successor and on the seeming reluctance of Margaret Thatcher to show much enthusiasm for hers. But this is of a different order. Nyerere is the ‘father of the nation’; he led the movement for independence; he presided over a Party which, whatever its internal di visions, presented to the public a sense of unity in building a peaceful nation, free from racism, tribalism and religious intolerance, a nation seen as an example to the rest of the world, even if its economy ran into major problems. Moreover, Nyerere retired voluntarily with the status of a world statesman. Ten years later, though the economic framework to which he had committed himself is fast being dismantled, and though there are those in Tanzania who dismiss him as a figure of the past, he retains great influence among large sections of Tanzanian society.

The thrust of the book is a passionate defence of the united Republic and the main features of its constitution. Nyerere believes there are those working to split the Union into the two constituent parts that existed in colonial times. He points out that the present borders of Tanzania represent virtually the only example of a post-colonial state which has borders different from those determined by the colonialists and borders which have reunited people of the coastal area and the islands who had been divided by imperial force. He argues that, once the Union were split into two parts, there would be a danger of a descent into regionalism and into divisions based on religion. which of us in Europe, looking at events in the former Yugoslavia, can confidently say this is wrong?

But Nyerere goes much further. He accuses the then Prime Minister and the then Secretary General of the CCM – both since moved to posts of lesser importance – of conniving in these moves. They are alleged, with much documentation, to have defied the policy of their own ruling Party, undermined the authority of the President and done this to further their own personal political ambitions. He says that this would not worry him so much if he could see signs of an effective opposi tion party. As it is, without such an opposition, he thinks it even more important that the CCM should look to the strengthening of its internal democracy. Failing that, he sees the danger of dictatorship of the kind he observed in a neighbouring country.

The book is of importance in the lead up to the first multi-party general election. It must be of interest to all students of Tanzanian Affairs. I understand that an English translation will be available shortly.
Trevor Jaggar

THE DARK SIDE OF NYERERE’S LEGACY. Ludovick S Mwijage. Adelphi Press. 1994. 135 pages.
It is common knowledge that a secret intelligence service was very active in Tanzania during the Nyerere years and, as a result, a number of people were detained and some were ill-treated. Most of this book is devoted to the I exciting’ (as the publisher describes it) story of these detainees. The author made no secret of his opposition to the one-party state and in 1983 fled, first to Kenya and then to Swaziland when he knew that he was in danger of arrest. He describes in dramatic detail how he was then abducted, treated very roughly, and taken back to Tanzania via Mozambique and how he was then detained there.

Part of the book skims hastily over scores of other cases of injustice, reported at the time by Amnesty International, and perhaps inevitable in a system in which democratic differences of opinion were suppressed and in which, as in the case of Zanzibar, violent revolution seemed to be the only way of bringing about change.

The author began as a teacher in Bukoba. After his release from detention he fled to Rwanda I then Portugal and is now, apparently, in Iceland studying for a degree in social sciences with Britain’s Open university! – DRB

LIMITED CHOICES. THE POLITICAL STRUGGLE FOR SOCIALISM IN TANZANIA
. Dean E McHenry Jr. Lynne Rienner Publishers. 1994. 283 pages. £33.95.

This book looks at the endeavour by the political leadership in Tanzania to establish a socialist state. Its coverage is wide and quite good in my opinion, and it includes some developments almost as recent as its year of publication.

One thing which impressed me was its tile ‘Limited Choices’. The author was clearly trying to tell something impressive about Tanzania but at the end of it I felt that he still wished to tell a bit more than he actually did. The theme of the work is very much like the experience of Tanzania and the Tanzanians; they tried to achieve something significant by pursuing socialist policies but in the end they do not have much to show for it.

McHenry shows that Tanzania had few logical options other than pursuing the strong appeal of the socialist ideals which had been opted for through the Arusha Declaration. He isolates a number of factors essential either as the vehicles to achieve socialism or define its objectives in Tanzania. These include a standard of socialist morality in the leadership, democracy, equality, rural cooperatives, the parastatal sector and self-reliance. The author’s finding is that at the end of the period under study, none of them had been achieved to any commendable standard. Socialist morality, and even commitment by the leadership had been virtually abandoned. But McHenry does not indicate that the choice of socialism should be regretted.

He does not blame the socialist option for the country’s economic failure; he puts the blame on the agreement with the IMF’ and the conditions attached to it. As evidence he points to the fact that Tanzania did make some progress after the Arusha Declaration. But serious decline came in with alarming consistency after the signing of the agreement with the IMF’ in 1986. He shows further that the trend in Tanzania’s development has been just like that of other countries in subSaharan Africa, including Kenya, which never contemplated a socialist option.

McHenry’s work is very rich in its factual account of Tanzania’s political and socioeconomic development. But somehow it leaves you with the impression that the author has been too uncritical of the country generally. While blaming the IMF’ can be justified, it is not easy to understand the author’s total reluctance to try and apportion blame to local factors like mismanagement, corruption and other factors which may not necessarily concern policy, but which may nevertheless affect economic performance, irrespective of whether the policies have been socialist or not, and irrespective of the IMF conditions.

In fact the author has sometimes appeared to be too sympathetic to Tanzania. Thus, while showing quite graphically the overall decline in incomes even before the IMF, he makes no attempt at all to explain that decline. Instead he tends to view it rather positively because there was, simultaneously, an apparent decline in income inequality!

Most writers about Tanzania have found the dominance of Julius Nyerere extremely difficult to avoid. McHenry’s work, while not being an exception, must be commended for its reasonably successful attempt to draw attention to the role of persons other than Nyerere. In fact he even asserts rather boldly that, shortly after initiating socialist policies, Nyerere surrendered his ‘proprietary rights’ over socialism to the party as a collective unit. Unfortunately, the author does not assess whether indeed the party ever accepted socialism as an objective. That assessment is necessary in view of the virtual abandonment of the Arusha Declaration (through the Zanzibar Resolution of February 1991) barely six months after Nyerere’s exit from party leadership.

McHenry categorises Tanzania’s socialists, particularly in the political leadership, into ‘ideological’ and ‘pragmatic’ socialists, each struggling for control, while Nyerere maintained a midway position between the two. I find this categorisation rather disturbing. Some of the people categorised as pragmatic socialists and most of the things they have stood for are not considered as socialist, at least not in Tanzania. They may have been pragmatic but certainly not socialist. Perhaps the author made a misleading assumption that, because of Tanzania’s commitment to socialism, the entire leadership consisted of socialists only.

There are a few inaccuracies but they are negligible as far as the main thrust is concerned. But while commending the author for the effort he made to authenticate his sources he could have done a little better if he had tried to cross check what he read in the government-owned Daily News with other sources including the independent papers which emerged after 1990. Some of them are in Kiswahili, which could be a limitation to some researchers, but not to McHenry; each chapter in the book opens with its own all encapsulating Swahili proverb.

All in all this is a work well worth reading. Even if you disagree with the author’s views, arguments or conclusions his work will certainly tell or remind you about things concerning Tanzania which you may have overlooked.
J T Mwaikusa

ARMED AND DANGEROUS. MY UNDERCOVER STRUGGLE AGAINST APARTHEID. Ronnie Kasrils. Heinemann. 1993. 374 pages. £6.99.

MBOKODO. INSIDE MK – MWEZI TWALA. A SOLDIERS STORY. Ed Benard and Mwezi Twala. Jonathan Ball Publishers, Johannesburg. 1994. 160 pages. South African Rands 19.99.

These two action-packed and well-written books tell parts of the same story – what it was like to be involved in the armed struggle against South African apartheid. And, as Tanzania was an early headquarters of the African National Congress (ANC) to which both main authors belonged, Tanzania gets more than a mention.

Ronnie Kasrils was head of ANC military intelligence. He was, called the ‘Red (because he was a dedicated communist) Pimpernel’, South Africa’s most wanted man. He is now Deputy Minister of Defence in the South African government. For him his period in Tanzania (he was also in the Soviet Union, Cuba and East Germany for training and in Angola, Mozambique, Swaziland and South Africa on active service) was a generally happy one, and followed an escape over a ladder on the South Africa/Botswana border. He arrived in Tanzania in a six-seater chartered plane. He started by licking stamps, and answering the telephone at the ANC’s ‘shabby office’ in Dar es Salaam. The ‘romantic town’ reminded him of Durban. He married there – ‘The colonial registrar, who was still in place in 1964, stuck by the book and refused to marry us because we did not have our divorce papers (left behind in S. Africa) but we knew the Tanzanian Attorney General, who wrote a curt note ordering the registrar to stop being obstructive!’. Later, Kasrils had to say his traditional Judaic incantation at the Israeli Embassy in Dar es Salaam when he heard that his father had died back at home.

Tanzania in the 1960’s was the centre of much radical political activity. ‘An unforgettable event’ Kasrils wrote ‘was an address to 200 people by the legendary Che Guevara at the Cuban Embassy …. I met him later as I was sitting on the harbour wall. He was smoking a large Cuban cigar; it was his striking features, almost feline, that set him apart from ordinary mortals’.

Kasrils also met, sometimes on the verandah of the New Africa Hotel, such personalities as Oliver Tambo, the Shakespeare-loving Chris Hani, Joaquim Chissano, Jonas Savimbi ‘the gentle Malcolm X’ and many others. For Mwezi Twala, the person whose experiences are described in the second book, (‘Mbokodo’ is a Xhosa word for a grinding stone and was used to describe the security branch of the ANC’s armed wing – ‘Umkhonto we Sizwe’) Tanzania was a very different place. As was the ANC. Mr Twala is now an organiser for the Inkatha Freedom Party in South Africa.

He was a dissident from an early age having organised a strike in his primary school! And when, as a training officer in the ‘Umkhonto we Sizwe’, he sometimes disagreed with policy, he was inclined to say so. The result was that he was brutally punished in ANC detention camps in Angola and later transferred, as a prisoner to Tanzania.

His first stop was Dakawa camp where some 700 South Africans were housed in two villages and a large tent community called ‘Hawaii’. Here the author was happy at first. He was elected as a camp leader and made responsible for brick making and the manufacture of prefabricated walls for the growing settlement.

But, according to the author, Chris Hani and other senior ANC officials came to the camp. Chris Hani, ‘strutted with all the arrogance of a cockerel, while barking orders like a dog. He proceeded to issue banning orders on all of us’.

He and eighteen of his friends decided to plan an escape. And their chance came when the Tanzanian contractor with whom they had been working, apparently without the knowledge of the ANC authorities, invited them for a two-day New Year break in Dar es Salaam. Conditions had not been good at Dakawa. On the way to Dar somebody pushed a coke into his hand. ‘It was the most beautiful coke I have ever tasted in my life’.

Chapter 9 of the book describes the following period in early 1990 – imprisonment in Dar es Salaam, hunger strike, appeal to foreign embassies – and Chapter 10 describes the escape, helped considerably by friendly Tanzanians, to Malawi and eventually, after the release of Nelson Mandela, to South Africa. I After fifteen years absence, the changes that had taken place in Johannesburg were mind boggling’ the author concluded. ‘Everything I saw exuded wealth’.

Quite a lot of other things in these two exciting to read books are also mind boggling!
David Brewin

STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT: A TREASURY EXPERIENCE
. J P Kipokola. Institute of Development studies Bulletin. Vol. 25. No 3. 1994 Sussex university. 5 pages.

The evaluation of structural adjustment (SA) is a growth industry these days. This article however has two merits – it tells the story of Tanzania’s SA remarkably concisely and it tells it from the point of view of the recipient treasury.

The lessons which have been learnt include:
– the value of an inter-ministerial technical group;
– the importance of timely action – something which Tanzania was slow to accept;
– the need to prioritize those resources with the most rapidly visible recovery impact; in the case of Tanzania agriculture, industry and transportation;
– not to postpone financial sector reforms;
– avoiding over-emphasis on exchange rate policy and interest rate structure;
– not to accelerate privatisation and thus create new monopolies owned by foreign enterprises;
– the need to continue to protect local infant industries;
– the need to be patient – DRB.

PARADISE. Abdulrazak Gurnah.
This book reached the Booker Prize Short List for 1994 – Ed

This book is about many things; the growing up of a young boy, the disintegration of traditional society under colonialism, the nature of freedom, and even a tragic love story.

At the age of twelve, Yusuf, the central character, is torn away from his family for reasons he does not wholly understand. It quickly becomes clear that his parents have become indebted to a wealthy trader – ‘Uncle’ Aziz – and that Yusuf is the payment. Khalil, who is older than Yusuf, has already suffered the same fate as him and thus attempts to protect Yusuf from his youthful naivety and vulnerability. Yusuf’s confusion is understandable as he faces up to the contradictions of his new situation. On the one hand Yusuf is forced to understand his new position in terms of a masterservant relationship; he is told that his ‘uncle’ is not his uncle, he should now call him Seyyid. On the other hand Khalil emphasises the honour of their ‘master; ‘He buys anything … except slaves, even before the government said it must stop. Trading in slaves is not honourable’.

The whole area of slavery, bondage and freedom is thus introduced into the book at an early stage and is pivotal to Yusuf’s transition to adulthood. Yusuf is presented to us as an innocent. He is passive, things happen to him, not because of him.

‘It never occurred to him …. that he might be gone from his parents for a long time, or that he might never see them again. It never occurred to him to ask when he would be returning. He never thought to ask ….. ‘

He is frustrating in his passivity; one finds oneself demanding, along with Khalil ‘Are you going to let everything happen to you all the time?’ Of course this passivity is bound up with him coming to terms with this position of bondage, and it is this that he realises that he must ultimately challenge. Yusuf cannot understand why Both Khalil and the gardener, Mzee Hamdani, have refused to take their freedom when offered. He accuses them of cowardice and impotence respectively. But of course Yusuf’ s greatest challenge comes when he realises he himself is free to go – like Khalil and the gardener he is freely n the service of the Merchant. This forces him to reconsider his position and face up to his own inability to control his life.

Yusuf’s final action is to attempt to take control and deliver himself from ‘slavery’. Of course the fact that he left one slave-master relationship for what was clearly another, means that his liberation was obviously limited. Nevertheless it was clearly a progression and was reflective of the lack of choice that someone in Yusuf’s position would have had.

The style of ‘Paradise’ is poetic. Gurnah attempts a fusion of myth, dream, religious tradition and realism. He succeeds in this, although it must be said that he comes nowhere near the poeticism and magic realism of Okri’s ‘Famished Road’. Gurnah is most successful, however, in providing a sensitive portrayal of one young boy’s transition to adulthood in a society where a legacy of slavery and an ever increasing colonial presence complicate notions of honour, freedom and bondage.
Leandra Box

“DRIVE SLOW SLOW – ENDESHA POLEPOLE”
. Carlotta Johnson. !994. 91 pages. Obtainable @ £6 from Jane Carroll, Britain-Tanzania Society (which will receive receipts from sales) 69 Lambert Road, London SW2 5BB.

An account of a six-month’s return to Tanzania, Uganda and (briefly) Kenya after 17 years. Carlotta Johnson allows us to dip into her journal. And it makes evocative reading. I wanted to ask questions, to know more, to ‘see round the edges’ as one often does with the television screen. It is not an easy book to categorize, being neither a reference book for prospective travellers to East Africa, nor yet a guide for ornithologists – although it has something of interest for both. It is a very personal account of belonging and not belonging: of stranger-ness after many years away from a much loved country. It is both a questioning and an understanding of the clash of cultures. The poems between the chapters are an added bonus; this from “So, what did you go out in the world to see?”: ‘To try and understand about distance,/ separation, homecomings, here and there,/ to see what far is, discover/ if I can be at home away.’

Archbishop Huddleston has said that this book should be read by anyone who knows and loves Tanzania. It should also be read by anyone who recalls their own youthful contribution to that fascinating country, how little they learned at the time and how much they have realised since.
Jill Thompson

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

TRADE ROUTES IN TANZANIA: EVOLUTION OF URBAN GRAIN MARKETS UNDER STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT. Sociologia Ruralis. 34 (1) 1994. 12 pages.

ACCUMULATION, INDUSTRIALIZATION AND THE PEASANTRY: A REINTERPRETATION OF THE TANZANIAN EXPERIENCE. Journal of Peasant studies. 21 (2) January 1994. 34 pages.

PREVALENCE OF HIV-1 INFECTION IN URBAN, SEMI -URBAN AND RURAL AREAS IN ARUSHA REGION. K Mnyika and others. Aids. 8 (9). september 1994. 4 pages.

TANZANIA. Jens Jahn (Ed) • Fred Jahn, Munich. 527 pages in German and Swahili. 1994. £57.00. This is described in the ,Art Book Review Quarterly’ as a superbly illustrated (b & w) catalogue of traditional sculpture in Tanzania. It shows ceremonial works, figurative wood carvings, ornate staffs, furniture and masks. The text indicates the similarities in the aesthetics of Western Tanzania and southeast Zaire.

MINING AND STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT. C S L Chachage et al. Sweden. 1993. 107 pages mostly about Zimbabwe but with a section on mining and gold in Tanzania.

CONSERVATION OF ZANZIBAR STONE TOWN. Abdul Sheriff (Ed). 1994. 224 pages. £12.95. Essays on culture, history and architecture.

THE ORGANISATION OF SMALL-SCALE TREE NURSERIES. E Shanks and J carter. Overseas Development Institute. 1994. 144 pages. £10.95. This is designed for policy-makers/professionals and includes case studies from six countries including Tanzania.

TEACHING AND RESEARCHING LANGUAGE IN AFRICAN CLASSROOMS. C M Rubagumya (Ed). 1994. 214 pages comparing experiences in four countries including Tanzania. £14.95.

WHAT’S IN A NAME? UNAITWAJE?: A SWAHILI BOOK OF NAMES. S M Zawawi. 1993. 86 pages. £6.99.

ECONOMIC LIBERALIZATION, REAL MARKETS AND THE (UN) REALITY OF STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT IN RURAL TANZANIA. sociologia Ruralis. 34 (1). 1994. 17 pages.

SOCIAL CHANGE AND ECONCMIC REFORM IN AFRICA. Ed: P Gibbon. Scandinavian Institute of African studies. 1993. £12.95. 381 pages. Contains three papers on Tanzania – on the effect (or lack of effect) of structural adjustment on the growth of NGO’s, on education and on agriculture.

ECONCMIC POLICY UNDER A MULTIPARTY SYSTEM IN TANZANIA. Eds: M S D Bagachwa and A V Y Mbelle. Dar es salaam university Press. 1993. 218 pages. £14.95.

THE DEMISE OF PUBLIC URBAN IAND MANAGEMENT AND THE EMERGENCE OF INFORMAL LAND MARKETS IN TANZANIA. A case of Dar es salaam City. J W M Kombe. Habitat. Vol. 18. No 1. 1994 20 pages. Management of urban land can be undertaken by either state-led or market-led instruments. This paper explains, through four case studies, the extent to which the infonnal market-led sector is growing largely because of deficiencies in allocation under the old system.

SOME LESSONS FROM INFORMAL FINANCIAL PRACTICFS IN RURAL TANZANIA. A E Ternu and G P Hill. African Review of Money, Finance and Banking. 1/94. 26 pages. This paper, which is full of interesting insights, explores in some detail informal financial practices in the Kilimanjaro Region. These include the keeping of cattle for emergencies, borrowing from friends and relatives, borrowing livestock and using money lenders; it points out the lessons bankers can learn from this informal sector.

BEYOND DEVELOPMENTALISM IN TANZANIA. Geir Sundet. Review of African Political Economy. No 59. 1994. 10 pages. ‘The Arusha Declaration is arguably the most influential policy paper to came out of Africa’ this writer states and goes on to analyse theories of political economy and the nature of the ‘African state’. He questions present modes of analysis of African political systems.

RECENT DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE IN TANZANIA: CAUSES, CONSEQUENCES AND FUTURE PROSPECTS. A J Mturi and P R Andrew Hinde. Journal of International Development. Vol. 7 No 1. 1995. 17 pages. Fertility in Tanzania is very high by world standards – a woman bears on average more than six children (it used to seven in the early 1980’s). The population growth rate is around 3%. These writers argue, in a fact-filled paper, that a further decline in fertility will depend mainly on the family planning programme.

DOCTORS CONTINUING EDUCATION IN TANZANIA: DISTANCE LEARNING. S S Ndeki, A Towle, C E Engel & E H 0 Parry. World Health Forum. Volume 16. 1995. 7 pages. This a description and evaluation of a programme of distance learning for 150 medical personnel in the Arusha, Kilimanjaro, Tanga and singida regions. The most popular module was the one on obstructed labour; the most difficult was on epidemiology. Costs were $341 per trainee or $0.38 per person in the region. The paper points out the lessons learnt.

TANZANIA DEVELOPS GAS. T land. Southern Africa Economist. October 1994. 2 pages.

ESTIMATING THE NUMBER OF HIV TRANSMISSIONS THROUGH REUSED SYRINGES AND NEEDLES IN THE MBEYA REGION. M Hoelscher. AIDS. Vol. 8. No. 11. 1994. 7 pages.

POLITICAL COMMITMENT, INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY AND TAX POLICY REFORM IN TANZANIA. 0 Morrissey. Univ. of Nottingham. 1994. 25 pages.

Comments

REVIEWS

THE ROLE OF COMMERCIAL BANKING IN RECOVERY FROM ECONOMIC DISASTER IN GHANA, TANZANIA, UGANDA AND ZAMBIA. Charles Harvey. Institute of Development Studies. May 1993.

In this paper Charles Harvey examines the deterioration of the banks in four African countries and the slow progress of reform. He provides a lucid discussion of the economic and historical context and identifies a number of key themes which explain the enormous obstacles to creating sustainable and efficient banking systems.

Harvey focuses on three different types of banks. In Tanzania the expatriate banks were effectively nationalised after independence and it is only in the last year that commercial banks have re-entered the market. The first two, Standard Chartered and Meridien are dwarfed by the 100% government-owned National Bank of Commerce (NBC) and the smaller but substantial Cooperative and Rural Development Bank.

The author suggests that the colonial period did not leave any effective legacy of banking supervision and that the lending policies of expatriate banks in the countries where they continued to operate, still largely exclude most businesses aimed at and managed by Africans. At independence it was scarcely surprising that governments became closely involved in the direction of bank credit towards the needs of the newly created parastatal companies.

As a mechanism for directing credit, each of the four governments created new 100% owned government commercial banks. The intention was to provide more credit than before to borrowers previously neglected. This was bound to be hazardous because the new banks were pushed into the riskier and more marginal lending business. In Tanzania, for example, the banks built up significant exposure to the marketing boards and cooperative societies.

In African economies trying to build economic growth a major part of the economic strategy is to rely much more than in the past on the private sector which, in turn, will need a banking sector if that strategy is to succeed. The author suggests that to meet this role a banking sector must provide efficient financial intermediation and a payments mechanism. He concludes that in the countries under focus the banks have failed to perform these basic functions. In part defence, it is worth pointing out the constraints to performing these functions in a country such as Tanzania. These include the lack of a securities market (which would provide alternative and additional sources of liquidity to banks and operations) and the problems created by the lack of properly functioning telecommunications at a national level.

In the period since their formation most of the government owned banks allocated credit using non-commercial criteria; for example to loss making parastatals according to instructions from the government, or to their own directors and their businesses. Government pressure on the new commercial banks to lend to politically favoured customers created significant problems. The fact that the loans were made under pressure from governments or simply under orders, meant that the banks felt little need to evaluate the loans or to press for loan servicing. Failure to service bank lending was regarded as the government’s, not the bank’s problem. This led to reckless lending and borrowing.

The effect of this was to create an increasing government liability. Governments had either to create grants to repay their commercial loans, or to recapitalise their commercial banks after writing off their loans to parastatals. One way or another it became impossible to reform the banking system without at the same time doing something about the parastatals. Meanwhile, the quality of lending to parastatals reduced the credit available to the rest of the economy. Harvey picks out Ghana as being furthest along the way to banking reform and Tanzania as being at the earliest phase.
The main features of banking reform that he identified are:
– the transfer of non-performing assets to an assets recovery trust with interest bearing bonds being issued on these to the originating banks;
– replacement of the senior management and boards of directors of parastatal banks, while giving a mandate to the replacements to improve lending policy and practice, with the main emphasis on profitability;
– the establishment of new banking laws covering licensing, capital requirements, capital adequacy ratios, and portfolio concentration, to be enforced by central bank supervisory departments; and,
– the introduction of international accounting and audit principles.
The author sees Tanzania’s position as being particularly difficult due to the extreme concentration of the banking market in the hands of the NBC, the precarious economic situation of the parastatals and the legacy of subversion of the credit process away from commercial criteria and towards other goals. In the period up to 1992 NBC’s lending effectively became an extension of the government budget, with the banking system failing to direct lending to those who could make productive use of credit.

He describes the reform of Tanzania’s banking system as an impressive attempt to sort out an impossible mess, depending on the simultaneous reform of the commercial banks and the parastatal sector. He is less optimistic about Tanzania than the other countries, primarily because government did not just interfere but completely took over the allocation of credit. As a result employees have had little or no experience of commercial lending decisions for twenty years or so. Effective change will therefore depend on significant cultural change and a substantial investment in training a new generation of staff .

The author concludes that the transition to self-sustaining recovery from recovery strongly dependent on aid will take a very long time, much longer than was thought by the donors when structural adjustment programmes were first agreed. The slowness of commercial bank reform is not the only reason for this but the paper argues convincingly that it is an important contributory factor.
Chris Darling

THE ANTICLIMAX IN KWAHANI, ZANZIBAR. PARTICIPATION AND MULTIPARTISM IN TANZANIA. M Mmuya and A Chaligha. Fredrich Ebert Stiftung/Dar es Salaam University Press. 1993. 145 ps.

The first parliamentary by-election under multi-partyism was held in the Kwahani constituency in Zanzibar on April 18th 1993. It was an anti-climax because all the eleven opposition parties except one (the small Tanzania Peoples Party – TPP) boycotted it because of what they described as an intransigent and belligerent CCM regime in the Isles.

But the book itself is far from being an anti-climax. One cannot but be impressed by the sheer quantity of facts and figures and the skillful analysis of the political scene in Tanzania which is squeezed into this modest little publication; about the tangled politics of Zanzibar and how people still tend to be categorised as either supporters of the revolution or supporters of the former Sultan; the ideological vacuum; the Union issue; the powerful influence of the main opposition party the CUF: the religious factor; the effectiveness of CCMrs well-organised campaign; the part played by flags/dress/poetry/dance/music/gifts in the election; the details of the electoral process (including government funding) which had been laid down in the Political Parties Act No. 5 of 1992; the determined and successful efforts of the Electoral Commission to ensure a free and fair election; and, a lot of sound advice to aspiring opposition politicians.

Above all, the book gives an analysis of the significance of the 205 different ‘Maskani’ (neighbourhood meeting places which have become associated with the traditional and radical CCM at the grassroots) and how they are becoming a problem both to the CCM leadership and the new opposition parties. And the result of the by-election? The CCM candidate won with 89.3% of the votes cast. This is an essential read for anyone interested in politics in Tanzania in 1995 – DRB.

A COORDINATING AND PARTICIPATORY APPROACH TO MANAGING CITIES: THE CASE OF THE SUSTAINABLE DAR ES SALAAM PROJECT IN TANZANIA. Francos Halla. Habitat International. 18. (3) 1994. 12 pages.

This paper begins by demolishing the supporters of the ‘Master Plan Approach’ to town planning. The author quotes approvingly another writer’s criticism of it – ‘misleading in stated objectives, unrealistic in expectation of future conditions, invalid in diagnosing underlying causes of the most pressing problems, irrelevant in choice of major professional concerns, inflexible and static in methods and procedures, ineffective in influencing the direction of public resources or interventions …. We learn that Dar es Salaam has been ‘master planned’ (‘futile preoccupation’) in 1948, 1968 and 1979.

By contrast, after only two years, the pilot ‘Sustainable Dar es Salaam Project’ (SDP) with technical assistance from UNCHS (Habitat) is pronounced a success. The SDP seeks to ‘coordinate the development activities of all the key actors and promote their participation in all sector’s of the city’s community – popular, private and public’. The procedure involves four stages:
– preparation of the city’s environmental profile;
– consultation on environmental issues;
– preparation by working groups of action plans;
– strategic planning framework as a policy document for an increasingly effective management of the city;
The paper records achievements to date but indicates also some of the practical and institutional constraints. For example, unsuitable offices, the bureaucracy of both central and local governments, lack of funds, the dominance in working sessions of the public sector, the tendency for some of the actors to be entrenched in the orthodoxy of urban planning, and, most disturbingly, the author’s statement that ‘the continued existence of the approach has to a greater extent depended on the determination of the technical support team and financial support by international donors. Is this another imported project destined to disappear when the funds run out? – DRB


INSECT MAN: A FIGHT AGAINST MALARIA IN AFRICA
. Alec Smith. Radcliffe Press. 1993.

This is one of a series of a dozen very personal memoirs of the lives of British expatriates in Africa at the end of the colonial era. Alec Smith spent the decades before and after independence in Tanzania working on the mosquitoes which carry disease and on insecticidal methods of controlling them. In 1950 he went to Ukara island in Lake Victoria to work on the mosquitoes which carry filarial worms, the cause of elephantiasis. There he first acquired the nickname Bwana Dudu from which the book’s principle title is derived. He then went to the Pare district to participate, during the late 1950ts, in the important Pare-Taveta scheme, in which residual deposits of the insecticide dieldrin were sprayed on the inside surfaces of the walls and roofs of houses to kill mosquitoes as they rested before or after biting. It is rather shaming to present-day medical entomologists to note that the Pare-Taveta scheme, with 1950’s technology, did a better job in suppressing malaria and the child mortality which it causes than anything which has been achieved in recent years anywhere in tropical Africa.

Around the time of Tanzanian independence Alec Smith and his wife moved to Arusha where he was on the staff, and later Director, of the Tropical Pesticides Research Institute. This Institute is intended to act as a base for evaluating insecticides, herbicides etc. for use throughout Africa, and beyond, against insects of medical importance, as well as agricultural pests of all kinds. Among his other achievements Alec Smith developed ingenious designs of experimental hut for the thorough evaluation of insecticides which repel and/or kill mosquitoes. Groups of these huts were built at Magugu, beside the road from Arusha towards Dodoma, and at Taveta on the Tanzania-Kenya border. These huts, built in the early 1960rs, are useful to researchers to this day.

Despite the book’s subtitle ‘a fight against malaria in Africa’, these important achievements are dealt with quite briefly and most of the book is devoted to an often very detailed account of what it was like for a young British couple to live in upcountry stations and in Arusha in colonial Tanganyika and in newly independent Tanzania. Matters such as amateur theatricals and tennis tournaments which apparently occupied much of the spare time of the hard-working British expatriates of yesteryear, are given much prominence. After leaving Tanzania in 1973 Alec Smith took up W.H.O. postings in southern Africa, Nigeria and Geneva. The period was very productive – the still current W.H.0 manual on chemical control of vector insects was compiled at this time by Alec Smith. He also claims credit for the idea of impregnating mosquito bednets with pyrethroid insecticides, which is the currently most popular, and rapidly spreading, method of protection against malaria mosquitoes. The roots of this idea can (as with most good ideas) be traced to several sources (repellent treated clothing in the USSR and USA , DDT treated bednets used in the Second World War, pyrethroid treated clothing in North America and insecticide treated bednets in China and in francophone Africa). However, Alec Smith certainly deserves credit for presenting the idea to a W.H.O. meeting and having it endorsed and propagated through widely-read W.H.O. manuals.
Chris Curtis

LAND TENURE REFORM IN EAST AFRICA: GOOD, BAD OR UNIMPORTANT? T C Pinckney and P K Kimuyu. Journal of African Economics. Vol 3. No 1. March 1994. 28 pages.

Despite its ambitious title this 1991/92 study was based on only about 115 households each in similar coffee-growing communities with very different historical backgrounds in Kenya and Tanzania. The authors compare the individual smallholder property rights developed in Kenya, which they conclude were cost ineffective, with the policy of abolition of private land titles by Tanzania after independence. Coffee had been developed in Tanzania as an African cash crop from about 1905, with its greatest expansion after 1920 whereas in Kenya it was developed as a ‘European’ crop, with prevention by the ‘settlers’ of ‘African’ development pre-1946 except in the remote districts of Meru and Kisii. Thereafter expansion was inhibited by the Mau Mau Emergency and the government’s programme of consolidating the numerous fragmented smallholdings.

The surveys were chosen from clusters which had been sampled in national surveys in the late 1970’s and again in 1982-83 in the Kenya district of Murang’a and above Moshi in Tanzania. The land holdings averaged two acres in Murangfa and four acres on Kilimanjaro, half in the coffee/banana zone and half below where annual crops are grown. The purpose of the study was to compare the individual land tenure under Kenya’s programme of consolidation of fragmented smallholdings, which was aimed at encouraging effective crop husbandry through possible access to credit and better security of investment, with Tanzania’s nationalisation and prohibition of purchase, sale or rental of land. While the Kenyans appreciated land consolidation, the authors consider that the funds needed for the subsequent land registration could have been much better spent because land titling did not lead to any increase in land-secured credit, partly because of failure to develop it. The authors did not examine the issue of indigenous tenure systems versus individualisation. The argument is about small farm tenure. Kenya embarked on its programme of consolidating densely fragmented smallholdings and the registration of land titles in 1956 and the prograiame has continued to this day, .even in remote areas. They started in areas with good potential for cash crop development – coffee, tea, pyrethrum and export of horticultural crops. The study does not consider or evaluate the benefits of economic crop development.

The authors find that densely populated communities as in Kenya may lead to landlessness and poverty. In Tanzania, the emphasis was on equity which demanded that land should became state property leaving a situation of laissez faire. In fact, in the area of Tanzania under study, land under permanent cultivation (coffee/bananas) was personalised for people to cultivate as long as they wished and land was still inheritable by sons, thus the tenure was as good as freehold. So, while the two countries have pursued extremes in land policy, the authors have come down on the side of Tanzania!
R J M Swynnerton

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE NGUMI HILLS: IRON AGE AND EARLIER CERAMICS.
Carolyn Thorp. Azania. Vol 27. 23 pages. 1992 DRIVE SLOW SLOW – ENDESHA POLEPOLE. Carlotta Johnson.1994. 91 pages. £6. Obtainable from Jane Carroll, Britain-Tanzania Society (which will receive receipts from sales), 69 Lambert Road, London SW2 5BB. An account of a return to Tanzania after 17 years. The author describes it as a very personal account of belonging and not belonging and recommends it to anyone who recalls their own youthful contribution to the country, how little they learned at the time and how much they have realised since.

STYLISTIC APPROACHES TO E KEZILAHABI’S NOVELS AND POETRY.
Elena Bertoncini-Zubkova. Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere. Vol 31. 1992. 62 pages.

MOSQUES, MERCHANTS AND LANDOWNERS IN ZANZIBAR STONE TOWN.
Abdul Sheriff. Azania. Vol 27. 1992. 20 pages.

DECENTRALISATION, PARTICIPATION AND SPATIAL EQUITY IN RURAL
TANZANIA: A COMMENT by Joseph Semboja and Ole Therkildsen. World Development. Vol 22. No 5. 1994. 4 pages.

THE SOUTHERN AFRCIAN ENVIRONMENT: PROFILES OF THE SADC
COUNTRIES. P O’Keefe and others. Earthscan Publications. 1993. 354 pages. Environmental problems faced by nine countries including Tanzania.

CHANGES IN BLOOD TRANSFUSION PRACTICES AFTER THE INTRODUCTION
OF CONCENSUS GUIDLINES IN MWANZA REGION. J Vos and others. AIDS Vol 8 No 8. August 1994. 6 pages.

A COMMUNITY MODEL OF AFRICAN POLITICS: ILLUSTRATIONS FROM
NIGERIA AND TANZANIA. G Hyden and D C Williams. Comparative
Studies in Society and History. 36. (1). January 1994. 28
pages.

EAST AFRICA: A TRAVEL SURVIVAL KIT. G Crowther. Lonely Planet.
1994. 32 pages.

COMMUNITY NUTRITION FOR EASTERN AFRICA. Ann Burgess and
others. African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF). 286
pages. 1994. f 4.65 + p&p from TALC, P 0 Box 49, St Albans,
Herts AL1 4AX. A short up-to-date low-cost practical nutrition
manual for community-based workers.

THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF LAND REFORM IN ZANZIBAR. I F Shao.
Dar es Salaam University Press. 1992. 106 pages. £6.50.

AIDS EDUCATION FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN TANZANIA: AN
EVALUATION STUDY. Knut-Inge Klepp. AIDS 9 (8) August 1994. 6
pages.

INDIGENOUS FARMER-MANAGED IRRIGATION IN SONJO, TANZANIA.
Geographical Journal. 160 (1). March 1994. 15 pages.
COST-EFECTIVENESS OF CHEMOTHERAPY FOR SPUTUM SMEAR-POSITIVE

PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS IN MALAWI, MOZAMBIQUE AND TANZANIA.
Eric de Jonge and others. International Journal of
Health Planning and Management. 9 (2). April-June 1994. 30 ps.

(Tanzanian Affairs has information about many more recent publications but due to pressure on space these will be listed in the next issue – Editor)

Comments

REVIEWS

ADJUSTMENT IN AFRICA. LESSONS FROM COUNTRY CASE STUDIES. Eds: Ishrat Husain and R Faruqee. World Bank. 1994. 436 pages.

It is difficult not to feel sympathy with Tanzania on the sheer amount of economic experimentation the country has been subjected to since independence. This second World Bank volume on structural adjustment (the first was reviewed in Bulletin No 48) in its Chapter 8 – ‘Tanzania – Resolute Action’, although some might question the appropriateness of the title, is comprehensive in outlining the economic history of Tanzania during the last thirty years. First there was the socialist period when left-leaning academics from around the world came to Tanzania to add their ideas to Julius Nyerere’s determined efforts to create a model socialist state. Then there are the last ten years when advocates of ‘structural adjustment’ tried out their ideas and learnt a lot of lessons.

The socialist period and the lessons to be learnt from its economic failure have been thoroughly thrashed out in many earlier issues of the Bulletin and are described succinctly in this book.

When the book goes on about the ‘economic recovery’ and ‘structural adjustment’ period there is much more detail. The authors write about the tentative steps taken from 1982 to 1985 – ‘but the background, orientation, hardened attitudes and ingrained habits of those entrusted with implementing the reforms clearly meant that the reform process would be difficult and slow8. And that is how it has been. The World Bank persisted in its efforts to persuade an often reluctant government to push ahead with more radical structural adjustment policies. Many would say, after the economic collapse of the early eighties, that there was no alternative.

Now, eight years later, we have two kinds of verdict. A group of increasingly militant NGO’s are launching an international campaign against World Bank structural adjustment policies. Early indications are that this opposition will need to marshal its facts and figures better than it has done so far, if it is to be successful. This book might be used as a model of the way in which it might be done. The Bank claims only modest success in Tanzania. Ghana is the success story. Tanzania is praised for rapidly turning round its economic performance and moving towards a more liberal, market-based economy. The evidence that this process was, in part at least, experimental, comes from the very extensive list of lessons which the Bank has learnt from what happened. The book reiterates that ‘greater attention should have been paid to …..’ ‘the reform programme should have been more strongly focused on. …..’ and so on. Table 8A summarises the picture in nine sections including fiscal policy, financial sector reforms, exchange rate management, wage policy reform, social sector policies and, in each case, compares the original situation with an assessment of the progress made in reform.

The book is essential reading for all interested in Tanzania’s economic affairs – DRB

THE NEW LOCAL LEVEL POLITICS IN EAST AFRICA. RESEARCH REPORT NO. 95. Ed: Peter Gibbon. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet Uppsala, Sweden. 1994. 119 pages.

The Tanzanian third of this book (it also covers Kenya and Uganda) written by Andrew S Z Kiondo, contains insights into a relatively new phenomenon in Tanzania – the rapid growth of formally organised community development activity (CDA) and non-governmental organisations (NGO’s). In 1993 there were 224 NGO1s registered compared with only 163 in 1990 – roughly two thirds of the latter had been formed since 1980.

During the era leading up to independence there had been a brief flourishing of independent trade unions, parents’ associations and youth organisations but, as the author puts it, ‘Independence saw a suppression of voluntary organisations and activities of all kinds as the state systematically penetrated/dissolved civil society and remoulded it in the image of the state itself1. The author goes on to describe the delicate relations now existing between local NGO’s – varying from the self-reliant to the ‘GONGO1s’ (Government organised) to those which are foreign supported – and the government. Taking into account recent political changes and the rise in racial and religious tensions, the author points out the lack of information on NGO1s and CDA1s. He tries to remedy this, in the most revealing part of the paper by a detailed study in a number of districts of Tanzania. For example:
– Ilala, Dar es Salaam – Muslim education/private health provision/religious based NGO1s/ Women CDA’s…. .
– Hai – day-care centres/religious and foreign NGO1s/the Hai Education Trust Fund/animal production NGO’s… .
– Pemba South – upsurge of economic CDA groups/an NGO run by OAU Secretary General Salim Ahmed Salim. ….

The author concludes by indicating how the Hai trust funds have all but displaced the local state and wonders whether this means privatisation of local government; he discusses in some depth the extent to which these new organisations are accountable – DRB

PEASANT SUPPLY RESPONSE AND MACROECONOMIC POLICIES: COTTON IN TANZANIA. Stefan Dercon. Journal of African Economies. Vol. 2 No. 2 October 1993. 38 pages.

Cotton is the second most important export crop in Tanzania (after coffee). It is mainly grown in the West – Mwanza and Shinyanga regions in particular. Production increased from about 25,000 tonnes of raw cotton in 1950 to a peak of 243 tonnes in 1966/67. It reached a low of 108,000 tonnes in 1985/86, the lowest level since 1961.

The main purpose of this article is to provide empirical evidence of the importance of various government policies on cotton production since the 1950,s. It undertakes an econometric analysis of the cotton supply function which includes such variables as cotton pricing, marketing policies, exchange rates, export taxation policies, prices for competing crops (maize and rice), inflation, taxation and availability indexes. The reasons why certain agricultural variables (such as input prices for seed or fertilizers) and climatic variables (such as rainfall) are excluded from the analysis are explained.

The main conclusions reached by the author are:
(1) That cotton producer prices have been adversely affected by government policies towards marketing, export taxation and the exchange rate. These prices have in turn affected cotton production through a significant supply response. The response to prices is a relative one: the relative cotton and food prices are the relevant variables; this implies that all increases in cotton production as a result of price changes will be at the cost of food production.
(2) Pricing policy resulted in a reduction in cotton production in the 1070’s and early 1980’s.
(3) The macroeconomic breakdown in Tanzania in the early 1980’s also had important consequences for cotton production. The effect of rationing was a large reduction of production and consequently of foreign exchange earnings from cotton.
(4) There was a striking difference of experience between the 1960’s and the 1970’s and 1980’s with a large trend increase in production stopping around the end of the 1960’s. These production increases were mainly caused by large yield increases, suggesting changes in technology used. This would suggest that the change in the policy environment after the Arusha Declaration in 1967 (including discouragement of cash crop production and villagisation) may well have had other effects than those working through pricing policy, but these were just as (if not even more) costly for peasant crop production and export earnings.

This is an interesting paper and the author has obviously put in a lot of work on the analysis and interpretation of results. I can’t however get over the impression that this was essentially a ‘desk study’ and that the author has little experience of either cotton or Tanzania.

There is not a mention of ginneries; the pivotal role they play in the cotton industry and how their nationalisation was disruptive. And I cannot agree with the statement that ‘while cotton cultivation was probably not forced upon farmers, extension officers often received premiums when large amounts of cotton were produced, therefore putting pressure on individual farmers’ (Page 167).

But my main bone of contention with this paper is that I don’t know how anyone can adequately write ‘Explaining Cotton Production in Western Tanzania’ (pages 165-69) over the years without reference to the multi-disciplinary research work carried out from 1934 to 1974 at the Ukiriguru Research Station, near Mwanza, by the Empire Cotton Growing Corporation (later the Cotton Growing Corporation). The Corporation was responsible in the 1940’s for the release of jassid resistant varieties without which cotton would never have become a major crop in Tanzania. The subsequent inclusion of bacterial blight and Fusarim wilt resistance added to the prosperity of the cotton industry. The continuous issue of new varieties from Ukiriguru, together with improved farming practices, is without doubt the underlying reason for yield increases up to the 1970’s.
A K Auckland

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

THE CONTINUING TRIAL OF DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS: POLICIES, PRICES AND OUTPUT IN TANZANIAN AGRICULTURE. Jan Kees van Donge. Journal of International Development. Vol. 6, No 2.
1994. 27 pages. This article sets out, through a review of literature and with the help of an analysis of output patterns in Tanzanian agriculture, to challenge traditional views on the influence of national economic and political factors on agricultural production. The effects of government intervention are said to be much more ambiguous than usually assumed and many ‘erratic ‘ patterns are quoted. Does the author give enough importance to climate in causing such patterns? Stress is placed on regional differences and especially on social changes – migration, labour shortage, the changing status of women, the struggle between the old and the young or, as the author puts it, the shift from government policy to the politics of the household.

CEREAL MARKETING LIBERALIZATION IN TANZANIA. Jonathan Coulter and Peter Golob. Food Policy. Dec. 1992. 10 pages. This paper points out the success which has attended Tanzania’s cereal market liberalization.

TRADING RESPONSES TO FOOD MARKET LIBERALIZATION IN TANZANIA. Anita Santorum and Anna Tibaijuka. Food Policy. Dec. 1992. 11 pages. This paper examines market places and storage, credit and transport costs.

HYDROPOWER IN TANZANIA. K Dodman. International Power Generation. Jan. 1994. 3 pages. Tanzania has an installed electric generating capacity of 410 Megawatts of which 330 MW is hydropower. This informative short article brings us up to date on the £125 million 66 MW hydropower plant at Pangani Falls which is scheduled for completion in January 1995. Four of the five hydropower plants constructed there in 1934 are still operating (providing 15 MW) and further upstream there are plants at Hale (21 MW), Nyumba ya Mungu (8 MW) and Kikuletwa (1.2 MW). The article also explains the importance of water management to avoid the situation in 1992 when the reservoirs were so low that load shedding of up to 130 MW had to be imposed.

THE COST OF DIFFERENTIAL GENDER ROLES IN AFRICAN AGRICULTURE: A CASE STUDY OF SMALLHOLDER BANANA-COFFEE FARMS IN THE KAGERA REGION, TANZANIA. Anna Tibaijuka. Journal of Agricultural Economics Vol. 45 No 1. 1994. 12 pages. In 1982/83, due either to economic pressure or profit motivation, 30% of the men in a random sample of 200 smallholder banana coffee farms in the Kagera Region had adopted a more liberalised division of labour, and engaged in operations and horticultural farm enterprises that traditionally are the responsibility of women. Using a linear programming model, the author states that, by liberalising sex roles, cash incomes could increase by up to 10% while the productivity of labour and capital would improve by 15% and 44% respectively. The author measured 56 activities in crop production, 4 in animal production, 5 in farm processing, 9 intermediate activities like seed production, 20 consumption activities, 18 selling activities and 22 buying activities.

TANZANIA’S GROWTH CENTRE POLICY AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT. M B K Dar Koh. Pub: Peter Lang, Frankfurt. 1944 Price: 89 DM. In 1979 a Growth Centre Strategy was initiated by government aimed at limiting the industrial growth of Dar es Salaam and spreading development to other regions. This book analyses the lessons to be learnt from the failure of the policy.

LIBERALIZATION AND PRIVATIZATION IN TANZANIA AND ZAMBIA. J M Due. World Development Vol. 21 No 12. 1993. 7 pages. This paper reviews early experience with, the short-run effects of and the way in which these governments are initiating post structural adjustment policies being advocated by the World Bank, IMF and donors.

CLEANER PRODUCTION IN TANZANIA. M Yhdego. UNEP Industry and Environment. Vol. 16 No 3. Sept. 1993. 2 pages. The author calls for legislation to bring about waste prevention and cleaner production instead of the more common ‘end-of-pipe1 pollution controls in Tanzanian industry. He gives the example of a study of a textile factory which recommended the installation of automatic shut-off valves on hoses, optimising rinse water usage, substituting certain chemicals and increasing the fixation rate of textile dyes.

ESTIMATING WOODY BIOMASS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA. A C Millington and three others. World Bank 1994. 191 pages. This volume describes itself as a first attempt to map the vegetation and assess the stock and sustainable yield of wood resources. A 12-page section on East Africa describes the main land cover classes and the summary table on Tanzania estimates that the country has a sustainable yield of 111.7 million tons per year.

AFRICA: GROWTH RENEWED, HOPE REKINDLED. A Report on the Performance of the Development Fund for Africa 1988-92. USAID. 1994. 68 pages. This uncritical evaluation report has little to say on Tanzania but what it does say is significant. Writing about the US$ 40 million Agricultural Transport Assistance Programme (ATAP) it reports on a dramatic shift from using ‘moribund government capacity to reliance on private contractors’ – the increase was from nil in 1998 to 80% in 1992 of contractors engaged in road rehabilitation in the ATAP regions. There had been in Shinyanga a decline in vehicle operating costs of 37% and a decline in passenger fares of 18%

USING SITUATION ANALYSIS DATA TO ASSESS THE FUNCTIONING OF FAMILY PLANNING CLINICS IN NIGERIA, TANZANIA AND ZIMBABWE. Barbara Mensch and others. Studies in Family Planning Vol. 25 No 1. January/February 1994. 13 pages.

THE FISCAL IMPACT OF TRADE REFORMS IN TANZANIA IN THE 1980rS. W Lyakurwa. World Economy Vol. 16. No. 5. September 1993. 17 pages

PORTFOLIO MODELS AND PLANNING FOR EXPORT DIVERSIFICATION: MALAWI, TANZANIA AND ZIMBABWE. J Alwang and P B Siegel. Journal of Development Studies Vol. 30 (2). 1944. 17 pages.

Comments

BOOK REVIEWS

ADJUSTMENT IN AFRICA: REFORMS, RESULTS AND THE ROAD AHEAD.
Part of a Series of World Bank Research Reports. Oxford University Press. 1994

This recently published report has put Tanzania among the best performing adjusting economies in sub-Saharan Africa. Of the 26 countries which the study ranked by macroeconomic policy performance, Tanzania was among the six which had shown a significant improvement in policies. The others are Ghana, the Gambia, Burkina Faso, Nigeria and Zimbabwe. These countries also had the largest improvement in per capita GDP growth. The study points out that countries which suffered a deterioration in macroeconomic policies also had the poorest growth record.

The report, which is designed to lead to a better understanding of the relationship between policies and growth in Africa, found that the extent of policy reform varied widely. On the whole, countries did better in improving macroeconomic than financial sector reform or the reform of public enterprises. Almost two-thirds of countries managed to improve their macroeconomic policies between the beginning and end of the 1980’s. The economies that have liberalised their pricing and marketing of agriculture and, in general reduced taxation and discrimination against agriculture (Tanzania is one of these) have experienced a resurgence in domestic production of both food and export crops. The adoption of more realistic exchange rates has also helped to provide incentives for domestic activities and discouraged excessive dependence on imported goods. The study also demonstrates that devaluation does not necessarily result in higher rates of inflation where correct measures accompany such devaluation. The countries which followed devaluation with complementing policies of wage, fiscal and monetary restraint did not experience inflationary pressures. Tanzania, for example, has managed to reduce its inflation from over 40% in the mid- 1980’s to just over 20% currently. This is a significant achievement but is still far below what is expected of those economies which are performing well.

The study shows that where policies have improved, renewed economic growth has taken place. In particular, improvements in exchange rate policies were strongly associated with faster growth. It points cut that 14 countries have shown improvement in macroeconomic policies and a positive change in per capita income growth rates. The six countries that improved their policies the most (Tanzania included) had the biggest improvements in the rate of GDP growth per capita – an increase of about two percentage points per annum in the period 1081-86 and 1987-91. During the same period, countries which did not improve their policies experienced falls in per capita growth rates of over two percentage points per annum.

One of the main conclusions of the study is the responsiveness of exports to policy reform; despite declining terms of trade, the study indicates that there has been a substantial increase in export volumes in most adjusting economies that have combined exchange rate and agriculture price and marketing liberalisation policies.

Although the study paints the picture that sub-Saharan Africa’s economic decline may have been arrested, and in most cases modestly reversed, the performance of the many adjusting economies still poses cause for concern. Apart from the fragile social and political environment which is likely to adversely affect the sustainability of the adjustment process in the long term, current growth rates among the best performers are ‘still too low to reduce poverty much in the next two to three decades1. Also, although inflation rates have generally declined, they are still by far too high compared with the best performing economies in other regions of the world. There is an urgent need to implement policies that consistently bear down on inflation and to bring it to single figures, if sustainable growth is to be maintained.

The report indicates that, with today’s policies it will take 40 years before sub-Saharan Africa returns to its income per capita in the mid-1970’s. This is a very bleak scenario indeed.

For Tanzania, which embarked on the adjustment process in 1986, after the failure of the socialist policies enshrined in the Arusha Declaration, the task which lies ahead is formidable. Many low-income earners have suffered from the escalating prices which have accompanied the price and exchange liberalisation. For long-term benefits to be derived, it will be necessary for the government to press ahead with the policy reforms and, in particular, keep on board the IMF and the World Bank. Recent slippage in policy reform and the criticisms that have been expressed by the IMF and some donors, is a matter of serious concern for the future sustainabilty of Tanzania’s reform programme.
E J Kisanga

THE UKIMWI ROAD: FROM KENYA TO ZIMBABWE. Dervla Murphy. John Murray Publishers. 1993. 265 pages. £16.99.

Imagine pedalling 3,000 miles on a bicycle, alone up and down the hills and across the savannah from Kenya through Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Add that you are a sixty-year-old Irish woman who never visited the area before. Then enjoy the fresh, perceptive and sensitive impressions of travel writer Dervla Murphy, and her vivid descriptions of the countryside – lush, barren or drenched with torrential rains. Query her judgements.

Murphy intersperses her travel tales with vignettes of history and conversations with local residents at village hotels and bars where she ends the day. In Bukoba, for example, the costly Tanzanian war with Uganda comes to life as the author ponders relationships between socialism, selfreliance, personal reserve and ‘economic disaster’.

The narrative returns time and again to ‘ukimwi’ the slim disease – AIDS. The author faithfully reports a diversity of beliefs about its causes – Europeans, women, witchcraft? She admires people like Janet, whom she met in Mbeya, as the source of hope: ,Those exceptional African women whose response to AIDS is imaginative and courageous, who know that their feminist hour has comer.

Criticism is apportioned equitably. At one moment the blame for conditions of poverty is put on colonialists, at another on the independent government and yet another on the International Monetary Fund. ‘Malfunctioning western imports’ such as phones that don’t work, banks that have no currency left, schools without textbooks and hospitals without medicines are despised, as are ‘hundreds of vehicles carrying one or two expatriates’ that ‘zoom around rural areas’ (197). She hears educated Tanzanians questioning the appropriateness of a current western import: multi-party democracy. African governments fail to put priority on food production over the cash crops grown by western consortia, she says, because they ‘seem befuddled by the miasma rising from the swamp of IMF and World Bank calculations and arguments (175). Yet, ‘parallel to this world of pretence, the ordinary people survive somehow (183).

Murphy’s conclusion is devastating: that the west ought to ‘quit Africa’ (263). She partly explains that abrupt proposal by saying ‘we still treat Africa as our forebears did in the 1890rs, operating behind a different screen with the same (or worse) greed’. The donors1 approach, she says, ‘denies African civilisation its own dignity and integrity’.

In that scenario of abandonment by the West, MS Murphy, what shall Africa do about an international debt that in 1992 equalled 93% of its GDP – a debt that was accrued by leaders, many now displaced or dead? Do you really think it possible –
or desirable – today to insulate Africa and the West from one another environmentally or economically? Might another scenario be envisioned, with justice and respect on both sides?
Margaret Snyder

GUIDE TO ZANZIBAR AND PEMBA. D Else. Bradt Publications, 1993
164 pages. £8.95.

The Daily Telegraph (February 19th 1994) wrote about this book ‘The publication coincides with a more welcoming approach to visitors to this island off the coast of Tanzania’. It is, of course, more than one island – the book mentions the two largest, Unguja and Pemba and several smaller ones. The Telegraph goes on to write that ‘the Pemba Channel offers perhaps the finest deep-sea fishing along the whole East African coast’. As in the case of the parallel book ‘A Guide to Tanzania’ by the same publishers, which was reviewed in Bulletin No 47, this is an eminently practical, up-to date, ‘how-to’ guide which is surely essential reading for visitors to what it describes as this ‘unspoilt’ place. Zanzibar is described as a good example of tourism as it should be – low-key, not too obtrusive and providing some benefits for the local people without destroying their culture or environment. Visitors are advised to see the island as a community and not as a theme park – DRB.

NEWS FROM MASASI. J Russell and N C Pollock.
Veroffentlichungen der Institute fur Afrikanistik und Agyptologie der Universitat, Vienna. 1993. l60 pages. A few copies are available from Joan Russell, 18 West Bank, York Y02 4ES at £10.20 (including p&p).

At first sight the proposition in the title of this book may appear to be misplaced but the reader soon realises that it has been chosen deliberately. The preface tells us that the motivation for writing it came from twenty-one letters written at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries by an African woman living near Masasi. ‘They are one of the earliest surviving bodies of prose texts written in Swahili, in the roman script, by a woman’. Extracts from them (with English translations) are quoted extensively and illustrate how ordinary people in that part of Africa reacted to some of the outside influences affecting them at the turn of the century.

Ajanjeuli was born into a pagan family in 1883 and baptised Agnes in 1897. She was an intelligent and observant girl who came in contact with Anglican missionaries and through them with the congregation of St. Agnes’ Church, Kensington Park. London, who were the recipients of her letters. The correspondence continued over several years: the earliest one quoted is dated October 1898 and the latest September 1912. Fortunately they have been preserved in the archives of the United Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, and fortunately too they came to the notice of Russell and Pollock. Agnes grew up to be one of the first teachers in what would now be called a village primary school. She married another teacher, Francis Sapuli, who later became an Anglican priest and a highly respected canon of Masasi cathedral. Agnes died shortly before the end of World War I in 1918.
The book has not been written for specialists in any particular branch of learning, although the authors do express the hope that it will interest students of the Swahili language. They might remember that for Agnes too Swahili was a second language and they will gain encouragement from comparing the Swahili of her letter of February 1905, which appears as a frontispiece to ‘News from Masasi’ with that of her later letters and discerns a noticeable progress. Mention of some of the subjects discussed must include: life in East Africa under the German occupation; trading in slaves and ivory which was rampant in the second half of the nineteenth century; witchcraft; frequent droughts and food shortages; the arrival and reception of the early missionaries; the first schools and the use of the Swahili language leading to its adoption as the national language of Tanzania in the 1960’s; the Maji Maji rebellion of 1905. The last chapter is a bonus, being a careful record (with map) of World War I as regards its impact on Southern Tanzania and Mozambique.

The authors acknowledge their debt to earlier writers, with a list of more than fifty titles (German and English) to which they have referred. The great value of ‘News from Masasi’, as one person sees it, is its lucid and very instructive coverage of so much ground in 160 pages. It would be an ideal handbook for students and others who are hoping to work in the Mtwara/Lindi regions. Almost inevitably, they will find themselves impelled to pursue their studies in some of the books listed in the bibliography and former residents will find much to refresh and delight their memories. Copies would surely be useful and welcome gifts to the libraries of local secondary schools
George Briggs


TOWARDS A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF LITERACY IN SOUTHERN AFRICA.
K. Mundy. Comparative Education Review. November 1993. 22 pages.

This is a very valuable review of developments in the field of literacy in three countries of the region: Botswana, Zimbabwe and Tanzania. Mundy makes clear that the evaluation of literacy efforts in sub-Saharan Africa has relied mainly on ,an ideological belief in literacy as an absolute value (a basic human need and right) combined with the faith that literacy is a causal agent in economic expansion and political modernization.’

Mundy suggests, however, a very different framework for evaluation – ‘one that situates literacy in the context of Africa’s unequal and worsening position within the world system and that relates literacy policies and their outcomes to shifting patterns of resistance, reaction, compliance and accommodation…at the national, local and individual level’. His comments on Tanzania are especially instructive and well argued. He emphasizes, of course, that the Tanzanian programme was specially geared to adults, following Nyerere’s highlighting of the importance of adult literacy in the First Five Year Development Plan. One consequence of this was that Tanzania did not try to make great strides in primary education that many other countries of the region attempted.

It is extremely interesting to discover that despite Tanzania’s path of social development, ‘learning continues to be viewed instrumentally by the majority of Tanzanians as preparation for success in a hierarchical and competitive market system’. Recent studies have shown fairly conclusively that in Tanzanian villages, literacy is achieved and maintained in those communities that are economically prosperous. People interviewed from the two most impoverished villages in which research was conducted, could quote the government official line about the great importance of literacy, but when the discussion was opened up on what hopes they had and what problems they faced, it became very clear that their literacy skills were simply not put into practice. In short the people felt that literacy skills in general could do nothing to change their present circumstances.

Mundy concludes that ‘the Tanzanian case in particular illustrates the fact that, when national literacy efforts are viewed in a historical and world system framework, few general rules of a positive linear nature about the impact of literacy or the most efficient ways of achieving it can be deduced. Illiteracy is a fundamental manifestation of the unequal relationships integral to capitalism, and no amount of social engineering can alter this’. I believe Mundy has argued well, has few blinkers on the subject, and his conclusions, though politically unpopular in some quarters, seem to me to be very sound.
Noel K. Thomas

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

THE POLITICS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL IN NORTH-EASTERN TANZANIA 1840-1940. J L Giblin. University of Pennsylvania Press. 1992. 209 pages. USS24.95. £21 hardback. In a critical review in the Journal of the Royal African Society, Jan Kees Van Donge of Chancellor College, Malawi questions one of the main elements in this book which was based on recent oral evidence – a belief in a golden age in agriculture amongst the Wazigua of Handeni District which was subsequently destroyed by colonialism. He writes: ‘This (golden age) is probably factually wrong and may also be harmful as it can lead to scapegoating and diverting attention from pressing contemporary problems like deforestation and soil exhaustion’.

LANDMINES IN MOZAMBIQUE. Human Rights Watch. 104 pages. £5.99 from 90 Borough High Street, London SE 1. This book contains only one paragraph on Tanzania but this paragraph is significant in view of the seriousness of the problem Mozambique is facing at present in clearing landmines left during the liberation war all over the country. The paragraph reads: ‘A force of some 5 – 7,000 Tanzanian soldiers assisted the Mozambican government in the fight against Renamo. They laid defensive minefields around their bases in Zambezia Province. ……… no maps of these minefields were left behind when the Tanzanian forces returned home in December 1988’.

TECHNICAL COOPERATION AS AN INSTRUMENT OF TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER; SOME EVIDENCE FROM TANZANIA. S Rugamamu. European Journal of Development Research. 4 (1) 1992. 15 pages.

PRIVATISATION IN AN AFRICAN CONTEXT: THE CASE OF THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA. J S Henley and G B Assaf. Industry and Development 32 (1) January 1993. 16 pages.

THE CREATION OF IDENTITY: COLONIAL SOCIETY IN BOLIVIA AND TANZANIA. R H Jackson and G Maddox. Comparative Studies in Society and History 35 (2) April 1993. 21 pages.

FURTHER RESULTS ON THE MACRO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF AIDS; THE DUALISTIC, LABOUR SURPLUS ECONOMY. J T Cuddington. World Bank Economic Review, 7 (3). 14 pages. September 1993. Tanzanian data suggest that the macroeconomic consequences of the epidemic are about the same as those obtained using a singlesector, full-employment model; GDP is 15-25% smaller by 2010 than it would have been without AIDS and per capita GDP is O- 10% smaller.

AVANT LES PAYSANS: AGRICULTURE ET ECOLOGY DANS UNE SOCIETE AGRAIRE: L8EXA?4PLE DES WALUGURU (TANZANIE). J-L Paul. Tiers Monde 34 (134) April-June 1993. 27 pages.

TANZANIA: THE LIMITS OF DEVELOPMENT FROM ABOVE. K J Havnevik. Scandinavian Institute of African Studies 1993.

DISABILITY, LIBERATION AND DEVELOPMENT. P Coleridge. 1993. 160 pages. £6.95. This book makes the case for regarding disabled people as partners in development. It is based on interviews with disabled people in five countries including Zanzibar,

THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN ENVIRONMENT. PROFILES OF THE SADC COUNTRIES. P O’Keefe, M Sill and S Moyo. Earthscan. 416 pages. 1993. £35. This book is drafted by local environmental experts and includes an up-to-date description of Tanzania’s geography, environmental problems, institutional structures and issues.

Comments

BOOK REVIEWS

GUIDE TO TANZANIA. Philip Briggs. Bradt Publications. 304 pages. £9.95.

This new guide is eminently practical. The first part tells how to deal with red tape, which airlines you can use, how to travel by road from all neighbouring countries, what to wear, how to avoid diarrhoea and also casual theft and so on. The constant reference to current costs (with the cheapest solution in each case) is particularly useful but the guide will need to be updated regularly. Tanzania’s history is dealt with perhaps too concisely in 14 pages.

Part two goes into more detail by city, town or region (including 17 pages on Zanzibar) under such headings as ‘Where to stay’, ‘Where to eat’ and ‘What to do’.

Invaluable to anyone visiting the country for the first time and wishing to keep expenses to the minimum – DRB

GUIDE TO ZANZIBAR. H.S.P. Publications (7 Highgate High st. London N6 5JR> £5.95.

The appearance of a guidebook devoted exclusively to Zanzibar is an unusual event. The Director of National Archives (Mr Hamad Omar) and his colleagues of the Zanzibar Task Force are to be congratulated on their achievement. The Guide is attractively produced, with a striking cover photograph of a dhow seen through an Arab archway, and very reasonably priced for a booklet of 114 pages, eight in full colour.

There has never been any doubt about Zanzibar’s potential as a tourist resort, with its pleasant beaches and fascinating history; but visitors have been deterred by difficulty of access, absence of good hotels and lack of practical information. The last official guide book was published as long ago as 1949. Long out of print, some of its useful historical facts have been incorporated in the new publication.

It is good to read once again the story of the gilded ring on the domed roof of the Law Courts, which is traditionally said to be there to enable the Archangel Gabriel to carry the building to heaven on the last day.

A visitor to Zanzibar in the 1990’s will be interested in more mundane matters such as where to stay. Fourteen hotels are listed and some idea of the in facilities can be gauged from the fact that six these opened in the last three years. The Zanzibar Tourist Board might consider the introduction of some form of grading system for the guidance of visitors, with an indication of facilities available e.g. swimming pool or rooms with private bathrooms. It would also be interesting to know how many of the 23 ‘guest houses’ listed are really up to international tourist standards.

The English text is excellent and includes amongst many other things a cheerful advertisement for Holiday Bungalows on the inside front cover; the reader is invited to ‘Come and fall apart in our back yard’ – as in the Jungle Book!.

One particularly welcome feature of the Guide is the Index; this compensates for the fact that the order of the various sections is rather haphazard. However, the two maps, of Zanzibar Island and stone Town, are a disaster. Although based on the excellent maps produced by the British Directorate of Overseas Surveys for the Zanzibar Tourist Bureau in 1983, they are illegible when printed in black and white in small type. Perhaps the publishers, who in other respects have done a good job, could work with DOS to produce better versions for the next addition – or even charge a little more for the Guide and include the DOS map in a pocket at the back.
John Sankey

A GENDER PERSPECTIVE ON ADULT LITERACY PROGRAMMES IN TANZANIA: SOME LESSONS FROM DODOMA REGION. L Buchert. African Adult Education and Literacy (AALAE). Vo1 7. No 1. 17 pages. 1993.

This paper attempts some measurement of the achievement of adult literacy programmes in the Dodoma region. In the late 50’s, with the aid of UNICEF, this was a core area for such programmes; and by 1961 the two regions of the then Central Province had more registered adult literacy learners than all the country’s other nine provinces combined.

From 1967 the Government sought to make education a major component in transforming Tanzania economically, politically and socially. Literacy programmes were linked with political, community and agricultural education. Officially, illiteracy rates nationally are said to have fallen from 90% to 10% during 1961-86. But illiteracy rates may have been increasing again since 1986, as dropouts from primary schools have increased and government has lessened its attention to adult literacy.

In Dodoma, education officials indicate that adult education has deteriorated since 1985, when responsibility for it was transferred to regions and districts. Less money is available, and, at village level, leadership support is patchy. The enthusiasm, efficiency and performance of the 1970’s has markedly declined. The author says that some of the statistics may have been constructed at lower level to ‘look good’.

The conclusion is that if adult education is to act as a ‘tool of transformation’ it must be given higher priority again at national level. For women, in particular, it needs to be tied to their being given control of the income from cash-crop production.
David Semers

STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT AS A POLICY PROCESS: THE CASE OF TANZANIA. Goran Hyden, University of Florida and Bo Karlstrom, Centre for Business and Policy Studies, Stockholm. World Development. Vol 21. No 9. 9 pages.

‘It may well be unique in economic history that an already poor country, without suffering from prolonged drought, war or climatic deterioration, experiences such a dramatic reduction in living standards’ write the authors in this graphic description of the recent economic history of Tanzania. They point out that between 1965 and 1985 Tanzania had an average annual decline in real GDP per capita of 0.5% and that analysis of household surveys suggests that real income might have fallen over the 15 year period to 1985 by as much as 50%.

The paper traces the long conflict between the World Bank and IMF on the one hand and Julius Nyerere on the other. Many missions were sent from Washington to press the case for adjustment of economic policies – adjustment of the exchange rate, adjustment of interest rates, adjustment of agricultural producer prices. But Nyerere resisted – he insisted that the conditions attached to IMF prescriptions were an infringement on Tanzania’s national sovereignty, devaluation would mean political suicide, and that a major devaluation would lead to riots in the streets. The Government called upon academic advisors who were ready to take a position contrary to that of the IMF. The authors state that Reginald Green from Sussex University and Prof. Ajit Singh from Cambridge argued sternly for not giving in to the Fund’s pressures for devaluation and the Scandinavian countries and ILO took Tanzania’s side. For Nyerere, structural adjustment was entirely a question of policy and ideology.

As the debate continued the economic decline worsened and, as the authors point out, those people Nyerere wished to protect from a fall in living standards – the urban population – became the prime victims of his policies.

‘Beginning in 1983 and following the ill-conceived campaign to lock up “economic saboteurs” – literally anybody with above average private capital – opposition to Nyerere emerged first in Zanzibar and later on the mainland’. The paper then goes on to describe how the Economic Recovery Programme began under President Mwinyi and how this brought encouraging results.

The main message of the paper is the importance of grounding structural reform on political reality – ‘the policy context as an explicit and independent variable … the notions of “ambiguity” and “conflict” in policy situations help us better to understand the opportunities and constraints for action on structural adjustment issues’ – DRB.

SIGNAL ON THE MOUNTAIN. Elizabeth Knox. Obtainable from M E Punt, 11 Wolsey Court, London Road, Bromley I Kent BRl 3ST. £8.50. 276 pages.

In this book the author records the courage and devotion of missionaries and Tanzanians who first took Christianity to the Uplands of Central Tanzania. She covers in meticulous detail the forty years from 1876 to the outbreak of the First World War, obtaining her material from careful research in England and Africa. She shows how the church took root in spite of limited missionary personnel and limited finance, situations which often meant that the early Christians themselves became evangelists. She has given us a valuable history of the roots of the church in central Tanzania and insight into the methods and people used by God to plant this church which even today continues to grow vigorously.
Mary E Punt


OTHER PUBLICATIONS

INNOVATION IN ADULT EDUCATION: THE CHANGING PERSPECTIVES OF POST-LITERACY CURRICULUM IN TANZANIA. Philemon A K Mushi.
AALAE Vol 7 No 1. 1993. 4 pages. This paper describes the efforts made to develop a post-literacy curriculum designed to empower people and to create the conditions for life-long education. The author criticises the ‘top-down’ approach used.

A FANFARE OF TRUMPETS. John Lewis-Barned. Obtainable from The Rectory Farmhouse, Church Hanborough, Wi tney ,Oxon OX8 8AB. 1993. 120 pages. This is another in the increasing flow of memoirs of administrative officers who served in Tanganyika in the 1950’s and 60’s. It has been described as ‘full of people and all about people’.

A MEDIUM TERM FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSING THE REAL EXCHANGE RATE, WITH APPLICATIONS TO THE PHILIPPINES AND TANZANIA. Kathie L Krum. The World Bank Economic Review. vol 7 No 2. 36 pages. May 1993. This presents a methodology for estimating the appropriate real rate and helps to work out the extent to which the prevailing rate is misaligned.

INTELLECTUALS AT THE HILL: ESSAYS AND TALKS 1969-1993. Issa Shivji. Dar es Salaam University Press. Professor Shivji describes his ideas during the 25 years from his early days as a student of law. The book covers such areas as economics, education, sociology, politics and history.

FUELLING CHANGE. Clive Sowden. Geographical. September 1993. 3 pages. In this review of energy resources in sub-Saharan Africa using Tanzania as an example the author states that the most striking feature of energy demand in Tanzania is that 90% of the demand is met from biomass – fuelwood and charcoal.
This is above the average figure of 66% for the sub-Saharan Africa region as a whole. The country is fortunate in that 66% is covered by forest and woodland. The author indicates the unsustainablity of consumption in the long term and mentions measures being taken to alleviate the problem.

REFLECTIONS ON DEMOCRACY IN AFRICA. Richard Dowden. African Affairs. Vol 92. No 369. October 1993. 4 pages. In pointing out that in Britain only the Financial Times and the Independent have full-time Africa correspondents for the 40 sub-Saharan countries excluding South Africa the author rightly suggests that academics could produce a much needed guide to the constitutional theory and practice of democracy in Africa. It should describe not what Marx or Lenin, who had never been to Africa, thought about the place but what such people as Mandela and Savimbi think about it. Writing about democracy in Tanzania the author refers to the rogues amongst the leaders of Africa Shaka Zulu, Kabaka Mutesa, Kwame Nkrumah, Hastings Banda, Bokassa, Idi Amin, but notes that Nyerere, one of the serious leaders , argued that Africa could not afford multi-party democracy. It needed unity above all else. But his one-party model failed. The people did not ‘own’ the concept. ‘Nyerere could still summon thousands of cheering people to national day rallies but there is little evidence that the people ever understood Ujamaa or picked up the idea of self-help. The system was imposed from above …. ‘

SHORT-TERM RESOURCE MOBILIZATION FOR RECURRENT FINANCING OF RURAL LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN TANZANIA. Ole Therkildsen and Joseph Semboja. World Development. Vol 20 No 8. August 1992. 12 pages.

MARKET REFORMS AND PARASTATAL RESTRUCTURING IN TANZANIA. M S D Bagachwa and others. 7th National Economic Policy Workshop. University of Dar es Salaam. December 1992.

THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF LITERACY IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY: ACTORS’ VIEWS FROM ONE VILLAGE IN TANZANIA. V Mlekwa. AALAE. Vol 7. No 1. 1993. 16 pages.

THE TANZANIAN ECONOMY. INCOME DISTRIBUTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH. E S Bukuku. univ. of Dar es Salaam. Praeger Publishers. 240 pages. 1992. The author shows how changes in industry, agriculture, income, taxation and education impacted growth and distribution from 1967 to 1990. State policies disrupted markets, destroyed incentives and hurt growth and distribution. Bukuku recommends growth oriented policies favouring small farmers.

TRANSFORMING SOUTHERN AFRICAN AGRICULTURE. Editors: A Seidman, Kamima Wa Chimika, N Simelane and D Weiner. Trenton NJ: Africa World Press. 266 pages. 1992. Highlights structural changes needed and includes a case study from Tanzania.

MODELLING THE MACROECONOMIC EFFECTS OF AIDS, WITH AN APPLICATION TO TANZANIA. John T Cuddington. World Bank Economic Review. Vol 7. No 2. May 1993. 16 pages.

USE BY THE CHAGGA ON KILIMANJARO. Alison Grove. African Affairs. Vol 92. No 368. July 1993. 17 pages. A lot has been written on what the author describes as one of the most impressive systems of water management in Africa. This paper describes the original system and brings us up-to-date on the effects on it of population growth, the arrival of piped water supplies and the continued importance of the furrows especially in the lower regions.

ANGELS IN AFRICA. A MEMOIR OF NURSING WITH THE COLONIAL SERVICE. Bridget M Robertson. Radcliffe Press. £17.95. Describes the life and work of a nursing sister in Queen Elizabeth’s Overseas Nursing Service between 1947 and 1964. Part of the author’s service was in Zanzibar.

BEING MAASAI: ETHNICITY AND IDENTITY IN EAST AFRICA. James Currey. 336 pages. £35 (cloth) and £12.95.

AFRICA MISUNDERSTOOD OR WHATEVER HAPPENED TO THE RURAL-URBAN GAP? V Jamal and J Weeks. Macmillan Series of ILO Studies. 1993. 180 pages. The book looks at ten African countries including Tanzania and asks whether a ‘labour aristocracy’ has ever existed in Africa.

NKRUMAH’S GHANA AND EAST AFRICA. 0 Agyeman. Associated University Presses. 1992. 234 pages. £32.00. This book describes in considerable detail the great influence brought to bear on East African, including Tanzanian, political development by Kwame Nkrumah and his frequent disagreements with Julius Nyerere.

PRIMARY TECHNICAL DICTIONARY ENGLISH-SWAHILI. R Ohly. Institute of Production Innovation, University of Dar es Salaam and GTZ. 246 pages. This unique dictionary contains some 10,000 English technical terms and phrases which translate, because they are based on various technical publications I into some 30,000 Swahili technical terms. The book is particularly useful for scientists, technical personnel and students.

PARTNERS AND COMPETITORS IN THE FIGHT AGAINST CRIME: THE CASE OF SUNGUSUNGU, THE VIGILANTE GROUPS, AMONG THE SUKUMA AND NYAMWEZI OF TANZANIA. Sufian Bukururua. Paper presented at the Symposium on Youth and Authority, SOAS, December 11, 1993. Sungusungu groups came into existence in the early 1980’s at the initiative of male elders and they rely on rituals and divination for the performance of most of their acti vi ties. The rural community gives them credit for the restoration of borderland security. The youths do the work – tracking stolen cattle, arresting cattle rustlers, transmitting messages but they have recently expressed concern over the basis for election to leadership and the safety of the funds collected through fines.

THE POLITICS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL IN NORTHEASTERN TANZANIA, 1840-1940. J L Giblin. 232 pages. 1993.

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BOOK REVIEWS

THE TANZANIAN PEASANTRY: ECONOMY IN CRISIS. Edited by P G Forster and S Maghimbi. Avebury. 1992. 287 pages. £39.95.

This book of sixteen papers is perhaps over-ambitious in endeavouring to cover the whole country through case studies in six regions; included are papers on: the historical dimension of the attempts by pre- and post-independence governments, with their different ideologies, to influence the peasantry; the cooperative movement (three papers); and, the relationship of academic disciplines (social anthropology and economics) to issues of rural development.

In their introduction, the editors ask whether there is an underlying message in the papers and then say yes, there is an underlying message in most, if not all of them. It is to the effect that there has been a general tendency to disregard peasant knowledge. In practice, if not in theory, ‘modernity’ and ‘science’ has been upheld in opposition to peasant ‘ignorance’ and ‘superstition’.

The editors state that this might have been pardonable if the result had been a major success in transforming the peasant economy so that peasants had clearly benefited. Anyone familiar with the country knew that this had not happened. The papers repeat many of the by now well-known causes – faulty advice from ‘experts I, misappropriation of funds, peasants I existing knowledge often treated with contempt, villagisation, failure to consult and so on. One contributor points out how successful ‘Sungusungu’ – a movement which responded directly to problems of social control – had been. Wisely the editors point out that the peasant is not necessarily always right and the expert always wrong. It would have been useful if this issue had been developed further.

For those not familiar with rural development in Tanzania the book is a mine of information. For others it makes a very good read but may add little to existing knowledge – DRB.

EXTERNAL AID: A LEVER FOR SOCIAL PROGRESS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES? A CASE STUDY OF SIDA SUPPORTED EDUCATIONAL PROJECTS IN TANZANIA, 1970-1990’s. A G M Ishumi. International Journal of Educational Development. Vol 12 No 4. 1992

EDUCATION AND SOCIAL CHANGE IN PRE- AND POST-INDEPENDENT TANZANIA: AN ANALYSIS THROUGH CASES. L Buchert. Part of a thesis presented for the award of the degree of PhD in the University of London. 1991.

Both of these articles are concerned with the impact of education in the broadest sense on social development. Ishumi’s article is very informative about the origins and development of SIDA, the Swedish International Development Agency and provides an admirable review of the agency I s work in Tanzania. The range of projects is wide, yet, as Ishumi points out, is based on consistent principle – ‘to strengthen the productivity of poor people in order to raise their standard of living’. Areas of assistance include adult/nonformal education; vocational training; primary education; teacher training; and, support for a girls secondary school.

Folk Development Colleges appear to have proved highly successful initially (1975-80) but by 1990 there were signs of a falling off in enrolment. The establishment of Vocational Training Centres during the 1980’s followed the failure of the attempt to set up successful secondary technical schools in the 1970s, and is justified from the work of Lauglo (1990) who suggests that ‘institutional vocational training works best when it occurs in specialised training institutions’ and that ‘the extension of training into industry does not work well’. These are conclusions that might well give us all pause for thought.

Buchert’s article needs to be read in its context as part of a thesis with wider political concern than education alone. However it is a very well documented and researched piece. In some ways, the focus on pre- and post-independence in the title is misleading. Saba Saba 1961 would seem to be less significant than grass-roots or bottom-up change in society as against expert/imposed or top-down change.

The cases chosen by Buchert are, first, the setting up of the Nyakato Agricultural Training Centre (1933-39) – top-down, encountering resistance/pressure for change and subsequently running out of steam; second, the Singida mass literacy/education campaign (1959-61) – bottom-up, utilising existing social structures and having a SUbstantial impact as evidenced by such things as the increased number of wells and latrines, the growing of new kinds of vegetables and the establishment of more community development groups. It might be significant that the first of these projects was undertaken in what might be called the ‘colonial’ period of British Trust Administration, while the second was just prior to independence when the concept of preparation for selfgovernment informed much of what was happening in Tanzania. This is a perspective which Burchet seems to have missed.

Buchert’s third case study is the Kwamsisi (1971-75) -topdown- and more particularly the Kwalukonge (1975- the present) bottom-up Community Schools. Kwalukonge has for more than ten years won the first prize as the most successful ‘ujamaa’ village in Tanzania; the school is seen as belonging to the villagers. The Kwamsisi school was established under the aegis of MTUU (MNE, 1973-89 and 1978) with the Principal of the Korogwe Teachers Training College in overall charge.

The fourth case study is the Dodoma Rural District Mass Literacy Programme (1975-86) top-down. This functional literacy programme combined pure literacy with practical work. It involved heavy inputs and was dramatically successful, with illiteracy rates falling from around 70% to less than 40%. By 1986 illiteracy was estimated at around 10% of the adult population. What is particularly interesting is the difference in literacy achievement between the more urbanised village and the two ‘rural’ villages. In the former relatively fewer people achieved literacy. It would be interesting to hear speculation on why this might be so.

Buchert concludes that none of the schemes had any deliberate exploitative function – even though many of them were imposed from above. On the contrary, all the schemes studied had a ‘liberating’ effect on at least some of the individuals who participated, though it is doubtful if this included the politicisation which was a strong element in the original community school idea and of the thinking behind adult functional literacy.
C. P. Hill

SECTOR AID AND STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT: THE CASE OF SUGAR IN TANZANIA. Netherlands Development Cooperation. Evaluation Report 1992. 183 pages.

This report provides an assessment of the impact and economic/social value of Netherlands development. assistance to the sugar sector in Tanzania. It also offers a readable and valuable account of the history of the sugar industry. At the time of independence in 1961 the only two sugar mills in Tanzania were at Arusha Chini (TPC) and at Bukoba (Kagera). Shortly thereafter two new estates and mills were developed at Kilombero and Mtibwa. An increase in sugar production from 40,000 to 80,000 tonnes per annum followed in the 1960’s.

In the 1970’s to the mid-1980’s the policies of the Government and its intervention (in the form of NAFCO and then SUDECO) through the fixing of consumer and ex-factory price levels plus the imposition of quotas for the distribution of sugar weakened the commercial drive of the existing estates and deflected foreign interest from further investment in the sugar industry. Nonetheless, in 1990 sugar production reached 110 million tonnes. However, this was less than 50% of the projected production and rated capacity of the four mills. The main causes of the disappointing performance related to the shortage of foreign exchange, the unfavourable internal pricing policy and deficiencies in management.

That the sugar industry progressed at all was largely as a result of the commitment of the Netherlands in supporting it. The total value of this support from the late 1960’s to 1991 was more than US$ 130 million. These funds were utilised for the expansion of production (1970’s), a period of consolidation (1980’s) and then of rehabilitation (1990’s). Support was also provided for the institutional development of the industry and for commodity imports, namely the purchase of machinery, transport, spare parts and agricultural inputs.

The report makes it clear that, over the period reviewed, both the production and financial performance of the sugar estates resulted in significant financial losses. The reasons for this are identified. The difficulties of making economic comparison with the import parity price of sugar are also discussed. In this section more emphasis could have been placed by the authors on the adverse impact of the highly protected and subsidised European beet sugar producers whose governments continue to ‘dump’ their surplus sugar onto the international markets.

In determining the efficiency of Netherlands aid the report focuses on three points – the choice of sector, the choice of technology and the quality of management. The conclusions support the choice of sector and technology but are critical of the focus on expansion in the 1970’s, a policy which was subsequently altered to one of consolidation.

The impact of the aid is also assessed on three policy issues economic self-reliance the aid is seen as successful in increasing Tanzania’s economic self-reliance; poverty alleviation – not stressed at project implementation and was not achieved as the outgrower programme was only fitfully implemented and sugar remains an expensive good in Tanzania; and, sustainability – while the industry is far from being self-reliant, recent changes have enhanced its sustainability.

As for the future the commercialisation of the estates and mills is seen by the authors as the only sensible way forward. The Netherlands’s position is that this can best be achieved by privatisation. At present the Tanzanian Government rejects the idea of privatising the entire sugar industry. Private management arrangements with incentives to reduce costs and raise productivity and the utilisation of existing capacity appears to be an attractive alternative.

The important role of Netherlands aid in successfully supporting the sugar industry has gone largely unrecognised. This report corrects this in a straightforward and undramatic manner. It also, with commendable honesty, identifies both the successes and shortcomings of the Netherlands aid policy in Tanzania a fact which contributes to the value of the document.
Keith Armstrong

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

REPRODUCTIVE KNOWLEDGE AND CONTRACEPTIVE AWARENESS AND PRACTICE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN BAGAMOYO AND DAR ES SALAAM. S Kapiga, D J Hunter and G Nachtigal. Central African Journal of Medicine. Vol 38. No 9. 1992. 5 pages. Some 490 pupils from four schools were interviewed for this study which found that 61% were sexually active, 68% knew of at least one method of contraception (mostly the oral contraceptive pill) and the majority approved the use of contraception. However, only 17% knew the ‘safe period’ within the menstrual cycle and only 15% had ever used a contraceptive method.

WOULD AGROFORESTRY AND AFFORESTATION RISK TSETSE REINVASION ? R 0 Otsyina. Agroforestry Today. 3 pages. This paper explains how, between 1930 and 1970 about 20,000 square kilometres of Shinyanga district were cleared of existing vegetation in order to declare a tsetse fly free area. However, the result had been that Shinyanga, once a dense forest, is now a semidesert. The study found that some 84% of farmers felt however, that tsetse would return if conditions were made more favourable by planting forests. What was needed was agroforestry technologies including boundary planting of trees, windbreaks, woodlots, fodder banks and mixed intercropping.

ACTION-BASED LEARNING TO IMPROVE DISTRICT MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY FROM TANZANIA. Elizabeth Barnett and S Ndeki. International Journal of Health Planning and Management. Vol 7 1992. 9 pages. The paper describes this increasingly fashionable approach to management training as it was applied in the health sector in Same District. The strategy involved a process of problem analysis, action-research, problem solving and review. Among the achievements was the development of good team spirit but, when the methodology was spread to eight other neighbouring districts, although there was enthusiasm for the initial workshops, the follow-up work failed to take place on time and effective monitoring was not done.

THE ADMINISTRATION OF BONDE 1920-60. A STUDY OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INDIRECT RULE IN TANGANYIKA. J willis. African Affairs. Vol 92. No 366. 1993. 14 pages. This paper explains how for a number of years the administration avoided not only the invention of a Chief in Bonde but also any meaningful degree of indirect rule. In the 1940’s and 50’s however, the sisal industry interfered in local politics and, for a time, things changed

THE CONSERVATION OF MOUNT KILIMANJARO. IUCN Switzerland.1991. 148 pages. £10.

PEASANT RESPONSE TO PRICE INCENTIVES IN TANZANIA: A THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL INVESTIGA’I’ION. G Eriksson. Scandinavian Institute of African Studies. 1993. 85 pages.

TANZANIA RESTORES ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SPEEDS STRUCTURAL CHANGE WITH IMF SUPPORT. R Nord and M Saal. IMF Survey. Vol 22. No 4. 4 pages.

OBSTACLES TO DEVELOPING INDIGENOUS SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES: AN EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT. B Levy. World Bank Economic Review. Vol 7. No 1. 1993. 18 pages. Field surveys in Sri Lanka I s leather industry and Tanzania I s furni ture industry.

AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC ENTERPRISES’ PERFORMANCE IN TANZANIA’S MANUFACTURING SECTOR. L Rustayisire. East African Economic Review. Vol 7. No 1. 1991. 17 pages.

PRODUCTION OF EDIBLE OILS FOR THE MASSES AND BY ‘I’HE MASSES: THE IMPACT OF THE RAM PRESS IN TANZANIA. E L Hyman. World Development. Vol 21. No 3. 1993. 14 pages. The ram press is a low-cost, manual technology for extracting edible oil and animal feed from oilseeds.

TRADE AND EMPIRE IN MUSCAT AND ZANZIBAR: THE ROOTS OF THE BRITISH DIMENSION. M R Bhacker. Routledge. 1992. 224pages. £40

DANCING WITH THE DEAD: A JOURNEY TO ZANZIBAR AND MADAGASCAR. Helena Drysdale. Hamish Hamilton. 1991. 273 pages. £16.99.

ZANZIBAR: HISTORY OF THE RUINS AT MBWENI. Flo Liebst. Publisher: CUT of Africa. 63 pages. The author, a Tanzaniaborn British artist, was helped by Anglican church workers in writing this book which traces the history of Mbweni since it was established in 1874 as a village for freed slaves.

STATE AND INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSES TO PARASTATAL GROWTH IN TANZANIA. J W Makoba. Scandinavian Journal of Development Alternatives. Vol 11. Nos 3-4. 1992. 21 pages.

THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE 1976-77 COFFEE BOOM ON THE TANZANIAN ECONOMY: A TEST OF THE DUTCH DISEASE MODEL. F M Musonda and E Luvanda. East Africa Economic Review. 16 pages. This study tests (and finds not proven by the data) the Dutch Diseases Hypothesis that a boom in a single export commodity may affect adversely other export commodities. However, the Government was a major beneficiary from the boom and this was translated into ambitious development. expenditure programmes.

MAINTAINING HANDPUMPED WELLS IN TANZANIA. M Mtunzi and N Lombardy. Waterlines. April 1993. Vol 11. No 4. 3 pages. This paper describes a successful initiative in putting maintenance into the hands of the community.

ALWAYS SERVING. A PORTRAIT OF THECLA GRACE MCHAURU. A Nkya and A Anduru. Publishers Association of Tanzania. 1993. 65 pages. Now in her old age, Thecla Mchauru was the first Tanzanian woman to qualify as a teacher, nurse and social worker and rose to be the first Secretary General of the Tanzanian Womens Organisation (UWT).

YEARBOOK OF COOPERATIVE ENTERPRISES 1993. Plunket Foundation. 130 pages. This book contains a short concise summary of Tanzanian cooperative history.

TANZANIA IMPROVES LIVES
Tanzania has been mentioned as one of the few countries which have done well in translating their incomes into improving peoples’ lives. The UN Human Development Report 1993 has noted that, while Tanzania ranked 172nd in GNP its position in the World Human Development Index was 138.

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