Archive for September, 1994

TELEVISION STARTS

‘Congratulations to Mr R A Mengi and the IPP Group’ said a prominent full-page advertisement in the ‘Daily News’ on June 11th ‘on this auspicious occasion of the opening of ITV (Independent Television Limited)’. But the celebrations were short lived. For, at the same time as this ‘professional’ TV station opened, another one, CTN (Coastal Television Network), described in the Daily News as a ‘more makeshift outfit’, also commenced operations. And the World Cup was about to commence.

AND THEN TURMOIL
In no time the two stations were at the High Court suing each other and Radio Tanzania for infringing their rights to televise the cup matches. Then things became very much more serious. They ignored advice in an editorial in the ‘Express’ which had applauded the two stations for their ‘courage and commitment to an enterprise which could hardly show meaningful profits for the next five years’. The Express suggested that they should cooperate in their mutual interest.

Viewers were astonished to hear next that 14 persons including the Director of a third licensed TV station, Dar es Salaam Television, and the principal competitor of ITV, Mr A1 Munir Karim, Director of CTN, had been arrested for threatening to kill IPP Chairman Reginald Mengi and blow up his ITV television station. The defendants were granted bail and the case was postponed to September 9th to give the police more time to collect evidence. The defendants were instructed not to go near any IPP company or Mr Mengi’s house. Some elements of the press in Dar es Salaam began to fan racial flames on this and other recent developments by pointing out that Mr Mengi was a successful indigenous Tanzanian (he recently strengthened his IPP company by joining the well-known international conglomerate Colgate-Palmolive) but the defendants in the case were Asian or ‘non-indigenous’.

PRESIDENT INTERVENES
An earlier event related to the Mengi saga was the action of the Principal Secretary in the Ministry of Home Affairs, Mr Silvano Adel, who had, on the night of June 23rd, consulted several senior police officials to facilitate the release of one of the suspects in the case, Mr Shabir Dewji, who was being held at the Central Police Station. Mr Dewji was released. It had apparently been alleged that Mr Dewji’s car had earlier chased Mr Mengi’s vehicle.

On July 12th it was announced that President Mwinyi had retired with immediate effect the Principal Secretary. A statement from the Minister of Home Affairs stated that the release (at 1.30am) of Mr Dewji had caused ripples among members of the public who felt that favouritism was being shown. This had tarnished the government’s image. Any public servant bringing the government’s reputation into question would not be tolerated.

PROGRAMME SCHEDULE
The ITV station is broadcasting from 5 pm to about 11 pm each day and its programmes include local music, a children’s programme, ‘Neighbours’, local and foreign drama/films and, while it was on, massive coverage of the World Cup – Daily News and other sources.

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PARLIAMENTARY MATTERS

As is usual, the recent sitting of parliament brought forth from ministers, while defending their budget estimates against increasingly critical questions and comments from MP’s, many items of news. Brief extracts follow.

THE INCOME GAP among civil servants had been reduced drastically since independence from 1:17 (least paid: highest paid) to 1:5 now; the minimum wage was now TShs 10,000 and the maximum TShs 45,000 – Minister of State in the President’s Office.

There were no specific policy guidelines on FOREIGN FIRMS WHOSE ASSETS HAD BEEN NATIONALISED in 1967 – Deputy Minister of Finance.

NATIONAL SERVICE has not been scrapped. There had been postponement of recruitment for an interim period – Deputy Minister for Defence and National Service.

In spite of MPS’ reservations, the government intended to trim down THE SIZE OF THE ARMY; Camps which would be closed down were those hurriedly established in 1978/79 during the war with Idi Amin in Uganda. Camps at border posts would be retained – Minister of State for Defence and National Service.

There were now three WOMEN PILOTS and two women locomotive drivers in Tanzania but as yet no women ship captains – Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communications.

He would not resign because he had not committed any crime … allegations by MP’s that there had been ABUSE OF TOURIST HUNTING LICENSES were not true and were mere hearsay … a number of people from the United Arab Emirates had been in Arusha recently for hunting but they had been escorted throughout by a senior official from the Wildlife Division who had directed them on where to hunt and which animals to hunt…it was true that he had relatives working in the hunting business but business was open to all Tanzanians – Minister for Tourism, Natural Resources and the Environment.

The government had received more than TShs 200 million in hospital fees under the COST-SHARING SCHEME it had introduced last July; regional health committees should ensure that the money was spent in strengthening local health services – Minister of Health.

Efforts to expedite the DEVELOPMENT OF THE NOMADIC MAASAI AND BARABAIG COMMUNITIES had been frustrated by the attitude of the target groups … Ngorongoro residents had immense wealth in livestock numbering 650,693 which they should use to better their lives – Deputy Minister in the Office of the First Vice- President.

The government planned to set up a FACULTY OF EDUCATION at the Sokoine University of Agriculture in the 1995/96 financial year to alleviate the shortage of graduate teachers…it would be too expensive to upgrade to university level the existing Mkwawa, Chang’ombe and Marangu teacher training colleges … a Bill allowing private universities to be established would be introduced to parliament shortly – Minister for Science, Higher Education and Technology.

Councils in Mara Region were at liberty to alter THE VALUE OF A COW to bring it up-to date; the TShs 200 (30 pence) price tag which prevailed at present in Mara was laid down by law in the 1960’s to help men pay the bride price when they were unable to provide cattle; TShs 200 was agreed upon as a substitute for one head of cattle – Minister for Justice and Constitutional Affairs.

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BUSINESS NEWS

Exchange Rates (August 12 1994)
US$1 = TShs 512 – 530
£ Sterling 1 = TShs 760 – 820
The unofficial ‘black’ market in currency, which came to an end last year with the introduction of Bureaux de Changes has reappeared with the dollar rate at TShs 600 – Express.

MINIMUM WAGES RISE.
The minimum wage in Zanzibar has been raised to TShs 6,000 per month – an increase of 2.5% but education, medical and water services are to remain free – Daily News. The minimum salary for civil servants on the mainland has been raised to TShs 10,000 ($20) from TShs 5,000 per month – Express

COFFEE PRICE RISE
The price of coffee in the World market has increased by 40% over the last six months to some $2.40 (TShs 1,200) per kilo as a result of frost in Brazil. As the increase in likely to be only temporary, Tanzania may not obtain substantial benefit as much of its coffee is sold on the futures market. Coffee production has been falling – from 65,000 tons in 1986/87 to 45,000 tons in 1990/91. Kagera is the main region with 38% of total output followed by Kilimanjaro (23%), Mbeya and Ruvuma 13% each – Business Times.

THIRD PRIVATE BANK.
The International Finance Corporation (part of the World Bank Group) has announced that it has approved an equity investment up to US$ 0.8 million and a loan of US$ 5.0 million to help finance the creation of a third private bank in Tanzania – Eurafrican Bank Ltd. The bank is being sponsored by Banque Belgolaise in Belgium – Express.

INCREASE IN INTEREST RATES.
The National Bank of Commerce (NBC) ‘in an apparent attempt to stay alive’ has suspended overdrafts and raised its interest rates on lending from 30% to 39%. Overdrafts are being suspended except for export production and crop financing. The Managing Director Donald Kamori said that the Bank’s liquidity was satisfactory and deposits had increased by 20% between June 1983 and June this year but that the Bank of Tanzania had been pursuing a very tight monetary policy. The NBC was also still the Bank of the non-performing parastatals – Business Times.

The other banks also increased their lending rates. Standard Chartered Bank stated that it had done business to the tune of TShs 30 million since opening in November last year – Business Times.

RELAXATION OF BORDER CONTROLS.
Following a meeting in April between the Governors of the East African Central Banks, the Bank of Tanzania has announced that, to facilitate border trade between Tanzania and contiguous countries, transactions can now be settled in either shillings or the currency of the neighbouring country and there is no longer any limit on the amount in Tanzania Shillings or the other currencies used in border trade. Exports and imports other than those in border areas continue to be governed by existing regulations – Daily News

ANOTHER NEW BANK.
The first private indigenous bank to be licensed in Tanzania – the First Adili bank – is to open shortly and will emphasise merchant and investment banking according to Chief Executive Godfrey Chamungwana. The National Provident Fund is investing TShs 300 million in the new bank.

DONOR AUDITS.
Foreign aid donors are planning to join with the
Tanzanian Controller and Auditor General to conduct audits of donor funds rather than conduct separate audits. USAID has already signed an agreement on these lines and other donors are expected to follow – Business Times.

GRADE ONE COTTON PRICES 1994/95: TShs 125 at ginneries (compared with TShs 85 last year) and TShs 120 at marketing centres (TShs 80).

ZANZIBAR’S GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT grew at a rate of 3.3% last year compared with 3.04% in the previous year. The agricultural sector contributed between 42% and 46% of the GDP while construction, trade and hotels contributed 25-28% Population now totals 742,500, but is increasing. Trade between Zanzibar and the mainland has flopped. Exports to the mainland comprised only coconut oil, fruits and re-exported goods worth TShs 4,831.1 million last year – Daily News.

DODOMA. Individuals and institutions have invested about TShs 60 billion under the government’s plan to transfer the capital to Dodoma. The Minister of Works, Communications and Transport has said that the state would continue to improve the social infrastructure there to speed up the transfer. During this financial year emphasis would be put on roads in industrial areas and on sanitation. Some of the institutions with big investments in Dodoma were the National Provident Fund and the National Insurance Corporation.

ZANZIBAR POWER. The African Development Bank and the British Government have given TShs 2.4 billion to the Zanzibar government to finance rehabilitation of thermal power stations and the electricity distribution system in Zanzibar and Pemba.

SMALL BUSINESS. A small enterprise promotion programme named FAIDA (Finance and Advice in Development Assistance) has been inaugurated in Arusha. It aims at establishing a regional framework to support small enterprises and to contribute to methodologies and support mechanisms that are cost effective and can be applied elsewhere in Tanzania.

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OBITUARIES

JOSEPH NYERERE, younger brother of Mwalimu Nyerere, described in the Daily News as ‘an outstanding nationalist’. He resigned from his post as Secretary-General of the TANU Youth League in 1970 to become the first national leader to opt for life in an Ujamaa village.

I K PATEL, banker and philanthropist, held various posts in Barclays Bank including director of banking operations at Dar es Salaam in the sixties before moving to Britain.

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REVIEWS

ADJUSTMENT IN AFRICA. LESSONS FROM COUNTRY CASE STUDIES. Eds: Ishrat Husain and R Faruqee. World Bank. 1994. 436 pages.

It is difficult not to feel sympathy with Tanzania on the sheer amount of economic experimentation the country has been subjected to since independence. This second World Bank volume on structural adjustment (the first was reviewed in Bulletin No 48) in its Chapter 8 – ‘Tanzania – Resolute Action’, although some might question the appropriateness of the title, is comprehensive in outlining the economic history of Tanzania during the last thirty years. First there was the socialist period when left-leaning academics from around the world came to Tanzania to add their ideas to Julius Nyerere’s determined efforts to create a model socialist state. Then there are the last ten years when advocates of ‘structural adjustment’ tried out their ideas and learnt a lot of lessons.

The socialist period and the lessons to be learnt from its economic failure have been thoroughly thrashed out in many earlier issues of the Bulletin and are described succinctly in this book.

When the book goes on about the ‘economic recovery’ and ‘structural adjustment’ period there is much more detail. The authors write about the tentative steps taken from 1982 to 1985 – ‘but the background, orientation, hardened attitudes and ingrained habits of those entrusted with implementing the reforms clearly meant that the reform process would be difficult and slow8. And that is how it has been. The World Bank persisted in its efforts to persuade an often reluctant government to push ahead with more radical structural adjustment policies. Many would say, after the economic collapse of the early eighties, that there was no alternative.

Now, eight years later, we have two kinds of verdict. A group of increasingly militant NGO’s are launching an international campaign against World Bank structural adjustment policies. Early indications are that this opposition will need to marshal its facts and figures better than it has done so far, if it is to be successful. This book might be used as a model of the way in which it might be done. The Bank claims only modest success in Tanzania. Ghana is the success story. Tanzania is praised for rapidly turning round its economic performance and moving towards a more liberal, market-based economy. The evidence that this process was, in part at least, experimental, comes from the very extensive list of lessons which the Bank has learnt from what happened. The book reiterates that ‘greater attention should have been paid to …..’ ‘the reform programme should have been more strongly focused on. …..’ and so on. Table 8A summarises the picture in nine sections including fiscal policy, financial sector reforms, exchange rate management, wage policy reform, social sector policies and, in each case, compares the original situation with an assessment of the progress made in reform.

The book is essential reading for all interested in Tanzania’s economic affairs – DRB

THE NEW LOCAL LEVEL POLITICS IN EAST AFRICA. RESEARCH REPORT NO. 95. Ed: Peter Gibbon. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet Uppsala, Sweden. 1994. 119 pages.

The Tanzanian third of this book (it also covers Kenya and Uganda) written by Andrew S Z Kiondo, contains insights into a relatively new phenomenon in Tanzania – the rapid growth of formally organised community development activity (CDA) and non-governmental organisations (NGO’s). In 1993 there were 224 NGO1s registered compared with only 163 in 1990 – roughly two thirds of the latter had been formed since 1980.

During the era leading up to independence there had been a brief flourishing of independent trade unions, parents’ associations and youth organisations but, as the author puts it, ‘Independence saw a suppression of voluntary organisations and activities of all kinds as the state systematically penetrated/dissolved civil society and remoulded it in the image of the state itself1. The author goes on to describe the delicate relations now existing between local NGO’s – varying from the self-reliant to the ‘GONGO1s’ (Government organised) to those which are foreign supported – and the government. Taking into account recent political changes and the rise in racial and religious tensions, the author points out the lack of information on NGO1s and CDA1s. He tries to remedy this, in the most revealing part of the paper by a detailed study in a number of districts of Tanzania. For example:
– Ilala, Dar es Salaam – Muslim education/private health provision/religious based NGO1s/ Women CDA’s…. .
– Hai – day-care centres/religious and foreign NGO1s/the Hai Education Trust Fund/animal production NGO’s… .
– Pemba South – upsurge of economic CDA groups/an NGO run by OAU Secretary General Salim Ahmed Salim. ….

The author concludes by indicating how the Hai trust funds have all but displaced the local state and wonders whether this means privatisation of local government; he discusses in some depth the extent to which these new organisations are accountable – DRB

PEASANT SUPPLY RESPONSE AND MACROECONOMIC POLICIES: COTTON IN TANZANIA. Stefan Dercon. Journal of African Economies. Vol. 2 No. 2 October 1993. 38 pages.

Cotton is the second most important export crop in Tanzania (after coffee). It is mainly grown in the West – Mwanza and Shinyanga regions in particular. Production increased from about 25,000 tonnes of raw cotton in 1950 to a peak of 243 tonnes in 1966/67. It reached a low of 108,000 tonnes in 1985/86, the lowest level since 1961.

The main purpose of this article is to provide empirical evidence of the importance of various government policies on cotton production since the 1950,s. It undertakes an econometric analysis of the cotton supply function which includes such variables as cotton pricing, marketing policies, exchange rates, export taxation policies, prices for competing crops (maize and rice), inflation, taxation and availability indexes. The reasons why certain agricultural variables (such as input prices for seed or fertilizers) and climatic variables (such as rainfall) are excluded from the analysis are explained.

The main conclusions reached by the author are:
(1) That cotton producer prices have been adversely affected by government policies towards marketing, export taxation and the exchange rate. These prices have in turn affected cotton production through a significant supply response. The response to prices is a relative one: the relative cotton and food prices are the relevant variables; this implies that all increases in cotton production as a result of price changes will be at the cost of food production.
(2) Pricing policy resulted in a reduction in cotton production in the 1070’s and early 1980’s.
(3) The macroeconomic breakdown in Tanzania in the early 1980’s also had important consequences for cotton production. The effect of rationing was a large reduction of production and consequently of foreign exchange earnings from cotton.
(4) There was a striking difference of experience between the 1960’s and the 1970’s and 1980’s with a large trend increase in production stopping around the end of the 1960’s. These production increases were mainly caused by large yield increases, suggesting changes in technology used. This would suggest that the change in the policy environment after the Arusha Declaration in 1967 (including discouragement of cash crop production and villagisation) may well have had other effects than those working through pricing policy, but these were just as (if not even more) costly for peasant crop production and export earnings.

This is an interesting paper and the author has obviously put in a lot of work on the analysis and interpretation of results. I can’t however get over the impression that this was essentially a ‘desk study’ and that the author has little experience of either cotton or Tanzania.

There is not a mention of ginneries; the pivotal role they play in the cotton industry and how their nationalisation was disruptive. And I cannot agree with the statement that ‘while cotton cultivation was probably not forced upon farmers, extension officers often received premiums when large amounts of cotton were produced, therefore putting pressure on individual farmers’ (Page 167).

But my main bone of contention with this paper is that I don’t know how anyone can adequately write ‘Explaining Cotton Production in Western Tanzania’ (pages 165-69) over the years without reference to the multi-disciplinary research work carried out from 1934 to 1974 at the Ukiriguru Research Station, near Mwanza, by the Empire Cotton Growing Corporation (later the Cotton Growing Corporation). The Corporation was responsible in the 1940’s for the release of jassid resistant varieties without which cotton would never have become a major crop in Tanzania. The subsequent inclusion of bacterial blight and Fusarim wilt resistance added to the prosperity of the cotton industry. The continuous issue of new varieties from Ukiriguru, together with improved farming practices, is without doubt the underlying reason for yield increases up to the 1970’s.
A K Auckland

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

THE CONTINUING TRIAL OF DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS: POLICIES, PRICES AND OUTPUT IN TANZANIAN AGRICULTURE. Jan Kees van Donge. Journal of International Development. Vol. 6, No 2.
1994. 27 pages. This article sets out, through a review of literature and with the help of an analysis of output patterns in Tanzanian agriculture, to challenge traditional views on the influence of national economic and political factors on agricultural production. The effects of government intervention are said to be much more ambiguous than usually assumed and many ‘erratic ‘ patterns are quoted. Does the author give enough importance to climate in causing such patterns? Stress is placed on regional differences and especially on social changes – migration, labour shortage, the changing status of women, the struggle between the old and the young or, as the author puts it, the shift from government policy to the politics of the household.

CEREAL MARKETING LIBERALIZATION IN TANZANIA. Jonathan Coulter and Peter Golob. Food Policy. Dec. 1992. 10 pages. This paper points out the success which has attended Tanzania’s cereal market liberalization.

TRADING RESPONSES TO FOOD MARKET LIBERALIZATION IN TANZANIA. Anita Santorum and Anna Tibaijuka. Food Policy. Dec. 1992. 11 pages. This paper examines market places and storage, credit and transport costs.

HYDROPOWER IN TANZANIA. K Dodman. International Power Generation. Jan. 1994. 3 pages. Tanzania has an installed electric generating capacity of 410 Megawatts of which 330 MW is hydropower. This informative short article brings us up to date on the £125 million 66 MW hydropower plant at Pangani Falls which is scheduled for completion in January 1995. Four of the five hydropower plants constructed there in 1934 are still operating (providing 15 MW) and further upstream there are plants at Hale (21 MW), Nyumba ya Mungu (8 MW) and Kikuletwa (1.2 MW). The article also explains the importance of water management to avoid the situation in 1992 when the reservoirs were so low that load shedding of up to 130 MW had to be imposed.

THE COST OF DIFFERENTIAL GENDER ROLES IN AFRICAN AGRICULTURE: A CASE STUDY OF SMALLHOLDER BANANA-COFFEE FARMS IN THE KAGERA REGION, TANZANIA. Anna Tibaijuka. Journal of Agricultural Economics Vol. 45 No 1. 1994. 12 pages. In 1982/83, due either to economic pressure or profit motivation, 30% of the men in a random sample of 200 smallholder banana coffee farms in the Kagera Region had adopted a more liberalised division of labour, and engaged in operations and horticultural farm enterprises that traditionally are the responsibility of women. Using a linear programming model, the author states that, by liberalising sex roles, cash incomes could increase by up to 10% while the productivity of labour and capital would improve by 15% and 44% respectively. The author measured 56 activities in crop production, 4 in animal production, 5 in farm processing, 9 intermediate activities like seed production, 20 consumption activities, 18 selling activities and 22 buying activities.

TANZANIA’S GROWTH CENTRE POLICY AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT. M B K Dar Koh. Pub: Peter Lang, Frankfurt. 1944 Price: 89 DM. In 1979 a Growth Centre Strategy was initiated by government aimed at limiting the industrial growth of Dar es Salaam and spreading development to other regions. This book analyses the lessons to be learnt from the failure of the policy.

LIBERALIZATION AND PRIVATIZATION IN TANZANIA AND ZAMBIA. J M Due. World Development Vol. 21 No 12. 1993. 7 pages. This paper reviews early experience with, the short-run effects of and the way in which these governments are initiating post structural adjustment policies being advocated by the World Bank, IMF and donors.

CLEANER PRODUCTION IN TANZANIA. M Yhdego. UNEP Industry and Environment. Vol. 16 No 3. Sept. 1993. 2 pages. The author calls for legislation to bring about waste prevention and cleaner production instead of the more common ‘end-of-pipe1 pollution controls in Tanzanian industry. He gives the example of a study of a textile factory which recommended the installation of automatic shut-off valves on hoses, optimising rinse water usage, substituting certain chemicals and increasing the fixation rate of textile dyes.

ESTIMATING WOODY BIOMASS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA. A C Millington and three others. World Bank 1994. 191 pages. This volume describes itself as a first attempt to map the vegetation and assess the stock and sustainable yield of wood resources. A 12-page section on East Africa describes the main land cover classes and the summary table on Tanzania estimates that the country has a sustainable yield of 111.7 million tons per year.

AFRICA: GROWTH RENEWED, HOPE REKINDLED. A Report on the Performance of the Development Fund for Africa 1988-92. USAID. 1994. 68 pages. This uncritical evaluation report has little to say on Tanzania but what it does say is significant. Writing about the US$ 40 million Agricultural Transport Assistance Programme (ATAP) it reports on a dramatic shift from using ‘moribund government capacity to reliance on private contractors’ – the increase was from nil in 1998 to 80% in 1992 of contractors engaged in road rehabilitation in the ATAP regions. There had been in Shinyanga a decline in vehicle operating costs of 37% and a decline in passenger fares of 18%

USING SITUATION ANALYSIS DATA TO ASSESS THE FUNCTIONING OF FAMILY PLANNING CLINICS IN NIGERIA, TANZANIA AND ZIMBABWE. Barbara Mensch and others. Studies in Family Planning Vol. 25 No 1. January/February 1994. 13 pages.

THE FISCAL IMPACT OF TRADE REFORMS IN TANZANIA IN THE 1980rS. W Lyakurwa. World Economy Vol. 16. No. 5. September 1993. 17 pages

PORTFOLIO MODELS AND PLANNING FOR EXPORT DIVERSIFICATION: MALAWI, TANZANIA AND ZIMBABWE. J Alwang and P B Siegel. Journal of Development Studies Vol. 30 (2). 1944. 17 pages.

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LETTERS

THE NAME OF A MOUNTAIN
Re the article in Bulletin No 48 about the mountain, I thought you might wish to know that between 1943 and 1961 I was able to gaze from four different houses over Morogoro and the Wami plains and the three northern outcrops of the Uluguru mountains: Mindu, Igala and Nguru ya Ndege. The last was the name given to the most northerly of the three by the local people and by the 1:50,000 Ordanance Survey map; not Mguru as in Maxwell Cooper’s fascinating letter.

‘Nguru’ could have slipped into use by association with the Nguru mountains, about 60 miles North of Morogoro. Or it could be a Kiluguru form of ‘Nguu’ (Summit in Swahili) which would probably be pronounced ‘Ngulu ya Ndege’. Or again a variant of ‘mguu’ (foot).

I never heard tell of Cooper’s stories but there was, among hill Waluguru and townsfolk alike, a strongly believed tradition that Mindu, the hill nearest to Morogoro and itself well over 3,000 feet, was the home of a large and malignant snake. There was no enthusiasm for an expedition up Mindu, although so near, mainly because by the dry season, when the hill could be more easily tackled, the area was defended by ‘upupu’, the Macuna bean. Those of your readers who have been attacked by this beast will understand the general reluctance. But full marks to Maxwell Cooper for his initiative.
Patrick Duff

Thank you for including my son’s letter ‘The Name of a Mountain’ in the May issue of the Bulletin. However, you omitted the all important word ‘ndege’ (Mguu Ndege) from the name of the mountain. You also gave our Rwandan address and it will not be possible to contact us in Rwanda for some time. Our current address is 8 Sotchel Green, Pewsey, Wilts SN9 5AU. Also please note that the letter was from three persons – Maxwell Cooper, Livio Zill and John E Cooper.
J E Cooper

THE NEED TO KNOW MORE
There were a number of items in the last issue on which I think readers would like to have known more. For example the recall at short notice of Mr Anthony Nyakyi from his post as ambassador to the United Nations. One wonders what the reasons could have been. The fascinating article on John Okello leaves us in midair. What happened to him eventually? On the issue of mines laid by Tanzanian troops in Mozambique you wrote that no maps were left behind when Tanzanian forces left the country. Surely Tanzania was not so irresponsible as to sow land mines in a foreign country without making a record of where they were positioned. In the article on child labour and in other articles earlier I notice your tendency to convert sums given in Tanzanian shillings into US dollars. Would it not be more appropriate, as this is a publication of the Britain-Tanzania Society, to give the equivalents in pounds sterling?
Paul Marchant

Concerning Mr Nyakyi the Tanzanian High Commission tells us that his contract ended in April this year and he returned home at that time. Stories to the contrary in the media were incorrect. Perhaps readers can help on the later career of John Okello. No information is available on the mines. On the matter of currencies, your point is taken but the Bulletin is read in more the 20 countries around the world, in many of which the dollar is the better understood currency – Editor.

FISHING SMACKS

You recently published an article by my son Benjamin on his Rufiji expedition. He is now back in Tanzania researching into the use of sail compared with power for fishing as so many of the fishing boats are unable to be used because of lack of spare parts etc. They are just starting to build their first wooden boat – English fishing smack design…. If you were to know of anyone going to Tanzania who could take things out to them (unusual things connected with the work) I would be most grateful.
Clare Freeth, Woddgate Farm, Borden,
Sittingbourne, Kent ME9 8JX

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