THE BUSINESS GUIDE TO TANZANIA, 1992-1993. 120 pages. Available from IMI Ltd, 56 Upper Berkeley St., London W1H 7PP, f12.00

IMI, Initiative Marketing International, and members of the Tanzania-UK Business Group have prepared this Guide with the Tanzania Trade Centre in London, the Board of External Trade and other government ministries and departments. It is aimed at easing the path for British businessmen into Tanzania in rapidly changing circumstances. Basic economic facts are given to show the scale of Tanzanian trading opportunities, including free market exchange rates to May 1992. The population charts show projected increase according to Regions (although the column giving the percentage increase is not clearly described).

The core of the Guide is an account of the Government’s reform of the national economy, starting in 1985 and leading to the work of the 1992 Commission for Parastatal Reform. The extent of privatisation proposals, from Air Tanzania, Arusha and Kilimanjaro coffee cooperatives to the great Tanzania Tourist Corporation hotels, must shake those who knew Tanzania and its pattern of institutions in the sixties and the seventies. Is nothing sacred? The Guide further lists some hundred investment opportunities, from construction of a brewery in Mwanza, to a mini cement plant in Shinyanga or a language teaching institute.

Agents in the UK offering to supply goods from Tanzania are listed, The variety of wares they specialise in ranges from beeswax, cashewnuts and cloves to sapphires and sisal. Among them are a number who specialise in ‘handicrafts’, ‘giftware’ and ‘tourist curios’. This is an area of trade yet to be fully realised. ‘Airport art’, the outcome of a commercial debasement of Tanzanian traditions and expertise, is the usual stock in trade of these agencies. It may be in the future that Tanzania will, following the current examples of Zimbabwe and Kenya, treat these products as a significant element in overseas trade and how they will become an object of serious promotion by the Board of External Trade.

The visiting businessmen may wish to enjoy Tanzania beyond the industrial estate and the Ministry anterooms, and the Guide devotes pages to the major and the lesser national parks, although there is little detail on the costs that the visitor who is not on package tour might meet. From its nature, the Guide does not warn of all pitfalls, but it does provide an outline of visa and immigration rules and some of the hurdles of registration that are required jumps for the visiting businessman or anyone hoping to carry on work under the 1972 Business Licensing Act.

Advertisers in the Guide are not only well-known multinationals but also leading Tanzanian companies, manufacturing, banking, including the British High Commission in Dar es Salaam reminding us that ‘British is still best’ and a substantial notice encouraging membership of the Britain- Tanzania Society. The Guide presents an encouraging picture of the nation in change.
Warren Shaw

THE TRADITIONAL MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS OF TANZANIA. Compiled by G W Lewis and E G Makala. Edited by J C Bangsund. Published by The Music Conservatoire of Tanzania. 1990.

The main section of this book comprises 68 pages, and lists the various musical instruments found in Tanzania, giving brief descriptions of them and their mode of manufacture, the manner in which they are played, and their uses in the context of the social life of the people. The introduction is excellent, and has much to say about the all important aspect of the place of music in society and the part that the instruments play in social occasions. Mention is also made of the various different cultures involved, including Arabic, “Modern African”, and Western, although the influences of these are not discussed in great detail, the purpose of the book being to concentrate on the ‘traditional’ music and its instruments. In Tanzania, music and dance is still very much a part of people’s lives, in spite of outside influences.

The instruments are classified according to the Hornbostel- Sachs system, which places them in four main groups;
1. Idiophones (“self-sounding” instruments), sounds being produced by, for instance, shaking, as with maracas, or striking, as with xylophones,
2. Membranophones, such as drums using a stretched skin.
3. Aerophones, which comprise (a) horns and trumpets, (b) flutes, and (c) reed instruments.
4. Chordophones: stringed instruments, whether plucked or bowed, with or without resonators.

The book covers an extremely wide range of instruments from most of Tanzania’s ethnic groups. In view of this, I wish that the authors/compilers had envisaged a much larger volume than that produced; there would then have been scope for more detailed descriptions of the instruments and the ways in which they are played. It is difficult to describe accurately the intricacies of playing some of the more complex stringed instruments; for example in the case of the ndono, a musical bow, there is little hope of giving an adequate account of how it is played in the short space allotted.

Another criticism I have concerns the layout; it is not at first obvious exactly where an account of a particular instrument actually begins. It might have been better if each new instrument (or group of instruments) had begun on a fresh page, or had been headed by the name of the instrument in bold type, rather than (in most cases) by the illustration.

The drawings, by J Masanja, are most beautifully done. There are one or two instances where an extra drawing of somebody playing the instrument would be useful, especially in the section on Chordophones, but the instruments themselves are very clearly drawn.

The book also contains two very useful appendices, the first of which lists the various ethnic groups, their locations, and the instruments used, The second acts as an alphabetical index, containing over 100 names of instruments referred to in the text.

I strongly recommend this hook as an introduction to those interested in pursuing the subject further, and hope that the Music Conservatoire will, in due course, publish a much more detailed survey of traditional music and instruments in Tanzania,
John Brearley

ORTHINOLOGICAL WINTER SURVEYS ON THE COAST OF TANZANIA 1988-89, T . Bregnballe et al. International Council for Bird Preservation Study Report No. 43. 1990.

The Tanzanian and Danish Sections of the International Council for Bird Preservation jointly carried out this bird survey covering approximately 10% of the Tanzanian coastline, which lies on the major migration routes for waders. Birds were counted from the end of January to the beginning of March 1988189 along a 200 km stretch of coast centering on the Rufiji Delta and in Zanzibar and the Lindi Region with the aims of :
1. describing the occurrence and distribution of birds, especially waders, along the coast during the northern winter;
2. evaluating the importance of possible threats to the coastal ecosystem;
3 , including Tanzanian students and Game Officers in practical field ornithology.

The report is clearly laid out with maps showing migration routes, counting sites and types of coastal morphology (e.g. barren sandflats, mangrove, flats of fossil coral), followed by tables giving exact locations of counting sites each with a brief description of the habitat, state of the tide and time spent and method adopted for counting. Then follow the tables of actual counts including density per kilometre in chosen areas.

There is a physical description of the regions visited and a discussion on the accuracy and interpretation of counts, the importance of sites, threats and impacts and recommendations for future research.

The most numerous groups of birds counted were waders, terns and egrets, but the coast of Tanzania constitutes an important cover for populations of several species. Ornithologically speaking, it has not been comprehensively described – the team discovered a previously unknown wintering area for the Lesser Black-beaked Gull, Herring Gull and Caspian Tern. As the report makes clear, only if counts are made regularly and widely will the importance of areas for wintering, breeding and stopovers become apparent, so telling us more about which areas have priority for conservation and how they contribute to the annual world migration pattern.

At the time of the report, the team say ‘…the present extent of exploitation of resources as well as the extent of disturbance had few and only small-scale negative effects on waterbirds nesting and foraging’. They describe the effects of mangrove reduction on habitats and disturbance to birds by humans and rats; the effect of fishing on bird food supply is unknown, but presumably minimal in these parts.
However, the effect of illegal dynamite fishing is inimical to the marine ecosystem and inevitably can be effectively controlled only by the Tanzanian authorities: the report points to the lack of resources and destruction of local fisheries.

The birdwatcher in Tanzania can use the report (with allowances for shifting sandbars etc.) to visit the sites covered by the report. Note that the team fulfilled their aims without problems – visas causing lost time in 1988 and a sunk yacht in 1989, but birdwatchers do not lack perseverance and time waiting is usually put to watching,..
Cherridah Coppard

Morace Campbell and Howard Stein, eds. Westview Press. Colorado. 1992. 211pp.

Since the late 1970s the economic crisis has thrown Tanzania into turmoil. Severe balance of payments problem, rising inflation, falling production and living standards meant that the country could not continue on this path and something had to be done. Adjustment of the economy was inevitable, but what kind of adjustment and with what consequences, and at what cost to the population? This book 4s one of the first comprehensive attempts to address these questions.

The most important contribution of the book is that the authors take a historical approach to the economic and social problems of Tanzania and try to locate the debate on adjustment po1icj.e~ in the dynamics of social change in Tanzania. With regard to the latter point the book goes beyond the usual analysis that puts all the blame for the adoption and impact of the adjustment on the IMF and the World Bank, The book is divided into nine chapters dealing with the political and social implications of economic liberalization in Tanzania.

Kiondo (ch. 2) argues that the nature of economic reforms in Tanzania is shaped by external as well as internal forces in the private sector – commercial interests and the ‘nouveau riches’ of the smuggling cum export/impost business – who support the full reform programme and those – mainly in the productive sectors of agriculture and industry – who want a limited and controlled reform. The latter group has some measure of support from those within the sector whose interests are threatened by the reform project, While the battle is fought between these groups over the shape and timing of the restructuring programme the masses of the Tanzanian people are kept out of the discussions. The ‘demobilizing’ character of the political structure in Tanzania (Campbell, ch. 5) which had brought all forms of political and trade union activities under the umbrella of the one party rule with its one class populist ideology had meant that the opposition to the restructuring of the Tanzanian economy remained fragmented.

The theme of struggle between different fractions of the ruling class and the changing political alliances is repeated throughout the book. In the final chapter Samoff argues that over time the governing class (as opposed to the ruling class) has tilted towards its external allies. As the “free market’ ideology takes root in the wake of the structural adjustment programmes, creation and nurturing of a ‘modernizing middle class’ (which in my view is already there) will lead to the formation of the other alliances between the governing class and the emerging class interests.

The ending of the populist nationalist ideology also means the restructuring of its social and economic policies that for three decades emphasized the meeting of the basic needs of the people, The commitment to this objective came out of the struggle for independence and had remarkable results. But these gains are in jeopardy now because of the cuts in social expenditure.

As far as education is concerned, Roy-Campbell (ch. 8) points out that the return of school fees is undermining the universal primary education (primary school enrolment dropped by 10 percent between 1984 and 1988). This has come on top of poor working conditions and very low salaries, over-crowded classes and limited access to secondary schools that has in turn led to the mushrooming of private tuition classes and schools. Roy-Campbell also draws our attention to the broader issue of the relationship between knowledge, language and state legitimation. In her view the 1987-91 project (funded by British aid of £1.46 million) to improve the teaching of English in secondary schools was yet another manifestation of a fundamental shift in an educational policy that for three decades promoted Africanisation of the curricula and the use of Kiswahili as the medium of instruction.

The crisis in the social services is not confined to education. The inevitable outcome of the free market approach to the provision of social services is the emergence of a two tier system with all its inequitable consequences. It is easy to blame the economic crisis on the egalitarian policies of the past. But it is important to note that, as this book successfully demonstrates, the ideological shift followed the gradual shift of power away from peasants, workers, students and radical sections of the ruling party, and towards the business interests.

As for the impact of adjustment on women Vourela (ch. 6) argues that economic crisis has led to a crisis of reproduction (of human labour within the family and in the society at large). Reduction of funds for the health sector, and cutting of food subsidies has increased the pressure on women who have to spend more effort on their traditional caring activities, and, at the same time, engage in petty trade and other cash earning activities to supplement family

H.Stein (ch. 4) provides a good summary of the economic conditions under the IMP supported adjustment package. He shows that a number of policy measures (credit restrictions and increased prices of agricultural inputs) have in fact reduced production despite the stated objectives of adjustment. Devaluation has also reduced the final prices (producer prices adjusted for the cost of processing agricultural products for export) paid to farmers. He goes on to argue that liberalization has not led to a socio-economic shift, and ‘it has simply been a device for perpetuating state hegemony in the crisis at the expense of most of the population. (80) In his view the bureaucratic class has been able to strengthen its position, whatever the outcome of the adjustment programme.

I find the concept of a bureaucratic class problematic, as it presumes a degree of common interest which is hard to find within the bureaucracy as a whole, especially in single-party political structures in which the party has an eclectic and populist ideology. Moreover, I cannot see how we can talk of a strengthening state when the state functions cannot be performed because of lack of finance and facilities and because of the low morale of civil servants, who have to divide their time between state duties and other income earning activities.

The book is quite up-to-date with regard to statistics and issues that are currently of concern to Tanzanians. There is also much in the book that is of relevance to other countries. We need more such books if we are going to have a better understanding of the process and dynamics of the social impact of orthodox adjustment policies in developing countries.
Mahmood Messkoub

TIMING AND SEQUENCING IN AGRICULTURAL POLICY REFORM: TANZANIA. David Booth. Development Policy Review. Vol.9 no.4. Dec, 1991.

David Booth uses a field study of the Iringa area to examine the effects of timing and sequencing on the success of reforms. He looks not just at the effects of reforms, but also at unachieved potential, in a clearly explained and well integrated article.

The case study is set against a background of more general work on sequencing, particularly the usual requirement that IMF reforms of pricing structures precede World Bank measures to increase supply. Thus the much vaunted reactions to higher prices for agricultural goods are impossible or severely muted, increasing hardship for those having to pay such prices.

Booth’s study of Iringa is fascinating both to those familiar with Tanzania and as a case study. Me traces the history of liberalization from 1984, and shows that its partial nature produced disappointing results, The arguments for reform are based on the importance of pricing signals, particularly in supply, where years of inadequate returns have depressed output, especially in the agricultural sector, But if prices rise without the infrastructure necessary to produce reaction (increased output, switched demand) the price rises will merely cause hardship to consumers, including producers who must pay more for agricultural inputs. Booth argues that while reforms have brought some benefits these are less than they might have been and are still heavily dependent on overseas aid.

One encouraging result emerges from the analysis of ethnic distribution of benefits from reforms. These have been distributed across racial groups, and have accrued to new African enterprises, as well as Arab and Asian owned businesses. Booth notes the greater discretion surrounding the African businesses, but it is clear that they have benefited none the less. The Africanisation is particularly significant in a region that he describes as ‘largely European’ at independence, and the centre of a number of earlier European agricultural experiments.

On a number of fronts Booth finds that the partial nature of reforms has frustrated the full realisation of their advantages. He pinpoints remaining bureaucracies and transport as two areas which still block the full response to exchange rates and price changes. In the context of earlier aid debates (particularly given the U.K. involvement in road construction in Tanzania) it is interesting to see these needs highlighted in the wake of fiscal and market reforms. It demonstrates, as does the entire article, the interdependence of the economic system and the very importance of sequencing suggested in the article.
Most of the analysis is economic but David Booth is a sociologist, and ends by examining the social strains that this patchy reform engenders, As noted above this is not primarily ethnic in Iringa, but resentment is generated against a mixed race class of beneficiaries, including Africans. However Booth is concerned that these tensions might take on an ethnic dimension in the country as a whole, and is concerned about this. It is not entirely clear that better sequencing would necessarily imply more even benefits, since unfortunately efficiency and equity do not necessarily go together. But David Booth’s article provides a clear analysis and vivid picture of the present reforms – their success, missed potential and possible dangers.
Catherine Price

PUBLIC SECTOR PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT IN THREE AFRICAN COUNTRIES: CURRENT PROBLEMS AND POSSIBILITIES. Harry Taylor. University of Manchester. Public Administration and Development. Vo1.12 pp 193-207. Oct. 1992.

Following a brief visit to three developing countries in sub Saharan Africa (Tanzania, Kenya and Zimbabwe) to study public sector personnel systems, the author reviews personnel practices in civil service and parastatal organisations. Harry Taylor argues that Personnel Management in LDC.s (as exemplified by his study) tends to be reactive and concentrates on house-keeping functions including maintaining of records, administering conditions of service, monitoring manpower levels etc. This is in contrast to the situation obtaining in developed countries where, he argues, the personnel management function transcends basic house-keeping activities and includes making a contribution to organisational strategic planning.

I have a number of difficulties with: (a) the author’s findings on the state of public personnel management in the countries studied and the generalisations emanating from those findings; (b) his assumptions on the state of public personnel management in developed countries; and (c) the agenda for reform proposed by the author.

The author ought to be informed that in the three countries, and one could generalise for most English speaking Africa, strategic tasks in relation to the personnel function in government/parastataIs would not be taking place at the individual ministry/firm level. In the civil service these are performed centrally by the Directorate of Personnel Management in the case of Kenya, the Civil Service Department of the President’s office in Tanzania, and by the Ministry of Public Service in Zimbabwe. Moreover, the Civil/Public Service Commissions of the three countries perform some essential strategic arrangement functions for their civil services. Since strategic direction tasks are performed centrally, the personnel function at a level of the ministry tends, of necessity, to concentrate on house-keeping functions. These central personnel agencies have been especially involved in strategic type of functions since structural adjustment reforms in the three countries began three years ago. As part of that reform process for example, the Tanzania Civil Service has undertaken a review of the size and cost of the civil service; is reviewing measures for strengthening management of personnel records as well as the upgrading of skill levels of senior and middle level civil service personnel.

With regard to the parastatals, most parastatal firms operate under the direction of holding companies and, in these circumstances, organisational strategic planning including for the personnel function, would tend to performed at the parent/holding company level. At the individual firm level, therefore, personnel managers concentrate on house-keeping tasks.

A more valid criticism of the state of personnel management in these countries would have focused on the extent to which the house-keeping functions including recruitment, administering the conditions of service, staff welfare administration etc. are not performed properly. The factors which the author cites to explain why personnel management has not bothered to address strategic issues including political interference, absence of a critical mass of personnel management experts, and the historical legacy – personnel management is a residual activity in public administration, do explain even better why house-keeping personnel management functions are performed badly.

There is evidence to demonstrate that political interference has on many occasions made it difficult to recruit public service personnel on merit; and evidence to show how political interference has made it difficult for personnel management departments to focus on strategic issues. We do not want to go into an argument with the author with regard to his important point, ie: his claim that in developed countries the personnel management function tends to focus more on strategic than on house-keeping issues. As he himself admits, even in these countries the focus on strategic issues is a recent phenomenon in public service organisations. Within the British Civil Service, for example, it can only have come to the fore since the setting up of Executive Agencies. Until recently, strategic personnel management functions were performed, if at all, in the Treasury and the Civil Service Department, for the entire civil service. At the Department level, personnel management concentrated on house-keeping functions. Some improvements have been made and there is now greater involvement by personnel managers in organisational strategic activities.

There have also been, improvements, however, in the way house-keeping personnel management functions are carried out in these countries and the positive developments have been due, in part, to reduced incidence of political interference, and the presence of a critical mass of personnel management experts which, in turn, made it possible for the development of personnel management as a profession. In the light of the foregoing observations concerning the state of personnel management, our prescription on improving the personnel function in Sub-Saharan Africa’s public sector would be somewhat different from the author’s and would include the following:

1. Upgrade the status of personnel management in government departments and at firm level in parastatals. This will involve making the function a more discrete activity than is presently the case.

2. Noting that the size of the civil services and personnel parastatal sectors are such that they may not always call for the establishment of capacity for strategic personnel management at the department or single firm level, there is need to strengthen the working of the personnel agencies in government and parent parastatal levels which are already in existence.

3. There is need to reform the entire machinery of public administration in these countries. It is only in that way that many of the problems which afflict personnel management in these countries can be addressed. If there is no overall strategic planning in the governmental machinery, why should one expect to have strategic planning for the personnel function?

4. The need for enhanced professionalism in personnel management is an imperative in these countries and leadership in this direction can come from the private sector.
Gelase Mutahaba

CRATER OF THE RAIN GOD (Channel 4 Wildlife Programme).
December 21 1992.

On 21st December Channel 4 showed an outstanding film based on the wildlife of the Ngorongoro Crater. It was indeed, as the narrator said, a ‘story without parallel’. The narrative was brilliant; the pictures of the animals and the scenery of the crater, and even more, the musical background, all contributed to a film deserving of much credit. A clear vision of what the Ngorongoro crater is all about was given. Basically, the crater (stretching for ten miles across) is a vast home that displays nearly all the species of wildlife found in the dark continent. There are over twenty thousand animals. But Ngorongoro is not just renowned for its animals; the place is full of forests, lakes, and even volcanoes can be seen.

Something worth knowing is why in that tiny land can the glory and majesty of Africa be magnified. It is said that the main secret is the fresh water which spurts from the mountains and the walls of the crater, enabling the existence of the animals all year round – they don’t even need to hibernate, The Ngorongoro is called ‘the milk and honey for the animals’. In November each year the East winds of the Indian Ocean known to be accompanied by the ‘Black God’, bring even more water to the crater.

The history of Ngorongoro goes back more than two million years. It is said to have been a home for many nomadic tribes in years past, and more recently the Maasai, who have now settled on the highlands surrounding and overlooking the crater, The ashes that gush from the volcano are later distributed on the Ngorongoro soils where they deposit abundant amounts of nutrients that fertilise the soil, thus encouraging the growth of the savannah grasses.

The animal life at Ngorongoro comprises the hunters and the hunted. Lions and spotted hyenas are believed to be the most invincible predators. It was also noted that more lions and hyenas exist in this place than in any other comparable place in Africa, Among the herbivores the dominant group are the wildebeests which account for over a third of the whole animal population found in the crater.
Perhaps the Ngorongoro is one of the greatest marvels left in Africa. What can be missed? Elephants, black rhino, buffalos, baboons, zebras, vultures and many other birds and animals can be seen.
Philip Fakudze

. J . K . Shija. Dar es Salaam University
Press, 1991. 56 pages.

This is a historical survey from 1877 when Tanzania was first introduced to western type scientific medicine by the Church Missionary Society Hospital at Mamboya near Mpwapwa; the arrival of five German military ‘surgeons’ in 1838 at medical headquarters in Bagamoyo; the opening of the Sewa Hadji Hospital in Dar es Salaam in 1883 (following donation of 12 400 rupees by a wealthy Indian merchant of the same name); the first qualified Tanzanian medical practitioner (Joseph R. Mutahangarwa in 1940); and, Tanzania’s own Medical School in 1963.

But the most useful part of the book is the 27 tables arising from a 1982 questionnaire sent to the six main institutions undertaking major surgery including an analysis of surgical admissions, surgical beds, staff problems etc. Among current problems mentioned are the Pcinderella9ubjects anaesthesiology and pathology in medical education. Several recommendations are made for improvements so as to ensure ‘surgery for all by the year 2000′.



Ole Elgstrom. Avebury, Ashgate Publishing Ltd. 1992. 179

This book or case study endeavours to treat foreign aid negotiations in a scientific way through four approaches, contextual, organisational, cybernetic – cognitive and power approaches. The author refers to what he describes as the schizophrenic nature of Swedish Aid bargaining behaviour – from basically persuasive strategies to very tough demands.

CONSERVATION AND BIODIVERSITY OF LAKE TANGANYIKA, F. C. Roest . Bulletin of the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation. Wageningen, The Netherlands, 1990. A 3-page summary of an international symposium.

NUTRITION STATUS AND THE RISK OF MORTALITY IN CHILDREN 6-36 MONTHS OLD IN TANZANIA, Olivia Yambi of Cornell University. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vo1.13, no.4. 1991.

HANGING BY A THREAD. AN ACTIVE LEARNING PACK. Leeds Development Education Centre. 1992. This learning pack is designed for use in schools by 13-19 year olds. It focuses on issues of international trade and debt using cotton production in Tanzania as a case study.

URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION IN TANZANIA. Michael Yhdego of the Technical University of Denmark. Environment and Urbanization, Vol. 3,No. 1. 1991. 6 pages. This fact and figure filled paper is a litany of environmental problems in Dar es Salaam – especially in the Msimbazi river – which makes depressing reading.

FISHING OUT THE GENE POOL. Brian O’Riordan. Appropriate Technology Vol.18 No.4. 1992. 4 pages. This paper mentions the damage caused in Lake Victoria by the disappearance of the small nutritious fish species belonging to the genus Haplochromis of which 200 species used to be found in the Lake.

MANUFACUTRING MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE TANZANIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY. N.A.J. Hastings and K.A.B. Msimangira of the Monash University, Australia. International Journal of Public Sector Management, Vo1.5 No.2. 1992. 8 pages.

TNE PAYOFF OF DEVELOPING A SMALL-SCALE PHOSPHATE MIME AND BENEFICIATING OPERATION IN THE MBEYA REGION OF TANZANIA. W. van Vuuren and J . G . Hamilton of the University of Guelph, Canada. World Development, Vol.20, No.6. 1992. 12 pages.


University of Oslo. Health Policy and Planning; 7 ( 2 ) . 1992.


A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYZING FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF THE TRANSPORT SECTOR (World Bank Working Paper WPS 356). Ian G. Heggie and Michael Quick. World Bank. 1990. 32 pages.

NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA. Scott Tiffin &.al. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 1992. 212 pages including examples (from the extractive industries) from Angola, Zimbabwe and Tanzania.

MATERNAL WORK, CHILD FEEDING AND NUTRITION IN RURAL TANZANIA. Margereta Wandel and Gerd Holmboe-Ottesen. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. Vol-14, No-1. Pages 49-54. 1992.

NON-PRIMARY EXPORTS OF AFRICAN LDC’S: HAVE TRADE PREFERENCES HELPED? D B and L J Truett. Journal of Developing Areas. July 1992. Pages 457-474. Examines the impact of the United States’ generalised system of preferences on four African economies including Tanzania.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. Biswas and S B C Agarwala. Butterworth-Heinemann. 1992. 249 pages. This has examples from four countries including Tanzania


IMPACT OF THE STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT PROGRAMS ON AFRICAN WOMEN FARMERS AND FEMALE-HEADED HOUSEHOLDS. Jean M Due and G N Gladwin. American Journal of Agricultural Economics. 1991, 30 pages. Covers Malawi, Zambia and Tanzania.

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