by Ben Taylor

New education policy to start imminently, but gradually
The government has announced that it will begin implementing the new Education and Training Policy (2023 edition) in January 2024. The policy, which has been in the making for nearly four years, will intro­duce some major changes in the country’s education sector. Developed after extensive consultations with stakeholders, it restructures the school system and emphasises 21st-century skills such as communica­tion, collaboration, creativity and critical thinking.

The new policy includes a stronger emphasis on practical education, including technical and vocational training, starting with form one. It also aims to harmonize higher education with national priorities and labour market demands.

According to Educational Circular No 5 of 2023, issued late in the year, the initial phase will start with immediate implementation of the new policy for pre-primary, grade one, and grade three in primary schools, right after the opening of the school year in January 2024. The imple­mentation of the vocational training option for Form One students in select secondary schools that meet the necessary requirements will also commence in January.

Curriculum changes for upper secondary schools (forms five and six) are scheduled to begin in July 2024, the circular further indicates. “Students [already] in primary and secondary schools this year [2023] will complete their studies using the current curriculum. However, those joining Form One in 2024 will experience a dual curriculum sce­nario, with practical students following the improved curriculum while general education students continue with the existing one,” the circular noted.

One of the most significant changes is a new education structure, denoted as 1+6+4+2/3+3+. In this system, pre-primary education spans one year and primary education takes six years. Lower secondary education (forms one to four) extends for four years. Upper second­ary school takes two years for students undertaking general education subjects and three years for students in the vocational training stream. Higher education remains at three years or more, according to the type of course.

Enrolment age adjustments accompany the structural changes, with the pre-primary class admitting five-year-olds and the standard-one class admitting six-year-olds. Primary and lower secondary education, total­ling ten years, will be compulsory and free.

The lower secondary education phase introduces two streams: general education and vocational or practical education. At the end of the sixth grade in primary schools – typically around age 12-13 – students will take a national test and decide between general and practical secondary education when entering form one.

General education students will cover six compulsory subjects, while vocational stream students will study one business field and four com­pulsory subjects. Graduates from the vocational option will be awarded certificates from both the National Council for Technical and Vocational Education and Training (NACTVET) and the National Examinations Council of Tanzania (NECTA).

The improved curriculum introduces new subjects aligned with cur­rent needs, according to the circular. Tanzanian history, morals and ethics subjects will be taught in Kiswahili, “so as to foster patriotic and responsible citizens”.

Religion subjects have been given prominence and are to be taught based on age and national values. Additional primary education sub­jects include geography and environment, arts and sports, and science. For lower secondary education, computer science and business stud­ies have been introduced, with business becoming compulsory for all streams. Higher secondary education sees the inclusion of academic communication in Forms V and VI to enhance graduates’ academic communication skills.

Two new studies point to problems in primary schooling, and offer solutions
Two recently published studies by the KiuFunza initiative [full disclo­sure: the TA editor works for the same organisation, Twaweza, that runs KiuFunza, albeit in a different department] have laid bare some of the challenges facing primary education in Tanzania, as well as identifying a potential solution.

First, in a 2023 survey of 285 schools in ten regions found that only four out of ten pupils aged 10-14 years could read and understand a simple sentence written in Swahili, and that more than half could not yet read individual words. Further, the survey found that teachers do not rec­ognise these deficits: on average, teachers in grade 2 estimate that 53% of their students can read at grade 2 level, against a pass rate of 20% percent on the independent assessment. And the same study found that one third of primary school classrooms observed by researchers had pupils present but no teacher.

In the second study, conducted between 2015 and 2021, the KiuFunza team found that providing small financial incentives (up to 3.5% of the average teacher’s annual salary) to teachers was a cost-effective way to improve performance. The result was an increase in pupils’ learn­ing equivalent to an extra four months of schooling. They also found evidence that fewer pupils were dropping out and that teachers were demonstrating more frequent positive behaviours towards pupils, and that there was no negative effect on performance either in subjects that lacked teacher incentives and or on the performance of either high- or low-performing pupils who were not closely to the test-score threshold and therefore unlikely to impact on the incentive.

Based on results from 2015-16, the Tanzanian Ministry for Local Government asked Twaweza to test a performance pay programme that can work at larger scale. This follow-up programme focused on practi­cal innovations to reduce unit costs while maintaining quality and trust, and was implemented in 2019-2021. The KiuFunza team found that the learning impact in this version was higher and had lower implementa­tion costs, such that the cost-effectiveness of the incentive program had increased substantially.

Maths and English highlighted as problem subjects in primary schools
Primary school examination results released in November showed that only 34% percent of candidates achieved grade C or higher in the English exam, while 49% achieved a similar grade in mathematics. In contrast, the pass rate for Kiswahili was 88% and the overall pass rate across all subjects was 81%.

“The shortage of competent English teachers is so acute that teach­ers with limited proficiency are being compelled to teach the subject, especially in public schools. This not only adversely affects the quality of education, but also hinders pupils’ ability to learn and master the language,” Tanzania Education Network (TEN) national coordinator Ochola Wayoga said.
Deputy Minister of Education, Science and Technology, Omary Kipanga, admitted that there was a “deficiency”, which was posing a significant challenge as far as English language skills among pupils were con­cerned.

“The ability to communicate effectively in English is a valuable skill that opens up opportunities in higher education, employment and interna­tional relations,” he said.
He noted, however, that the Education ministry was committed to addressing the issue by implementing strategies meant to attract and retain qualified and competent English teachers. “This includes invest­ing in teacher training programmes, providing professional develop­ment opportunities and offering competitive salaries and benefits to incentivise educators with the right skills and competencies to take up and stay in the teaching profession,” he said.

When it comes to maths, Dr Amos Chacha from the Saint Augustine University of Tanzania said a multiplicity of factors was behind the consistently high levels of failure.
“Pupils, teachers, the learning environment, curriculum and schools are all factors in this long-standing issue,” he said, while noting that the trend raises questions as to whether the existing education system can supply graduates who possess the essential skills to enable them to cope with the ever-evolving technological society.

An education stakeholder, Mr Mwakumba Mwemezi, said the major reason behind poor performance in mathematics is the poor teaching methods that teachers use.
“Teachers teach like they are teaching university pupils, they don’t teach children based on their age. That makes the children miss the foundations for learning mathematics and makes them get bad results in their exams,” he said.

“We should not expect a quick change in the performance of pupils in that subject. We need enough and very smart teachers to change the trend,” he added.
Mr Mwemezi hoped, however, that forthcoming curricular changes – see earlier article in this section – will also help in improving the teach­ing environment for teachers and learning for students.


by Ben Taylor

Government outlines five priorities for education sector in 2023/24
The minister for education, science and technology, Prof Adolf Mkenda, has outlined five priority areas for the education sector in the coming year. He was speaking in Parliament, presenting his ministry’s TSh 1.67 trillion (around £540 million) annual budget.

“The government will complete the review of the 2014 Education and Training Policy and the Education Curriculum and begin its implementation with the aim of strengthening knowledge and skills for graduates of all levels of education,” said Prof Mkenda.

The budget also aims to increase the opportunities and quality of technical training in secondary education and mid-level technical colleges, as this is seen as playing an important role job creation for young people. As part of this effort, the minister noted that the government will facilitate the renovation of technical secondary schools and provide them with learning and teaching equipment. The government will also expand training of vocational education teachers, establish 130 new vocational colleges and expand access to vocational education from 380,000 students each year to 680,000 students.

Thirdly, the government will develop the concept of industrial training (teaching factory), similar to apprenticeships. The idea is that this will enable students at every level to gain skills through practical experience that will be useful to them for either future formal employment or self-employment, explained the minister.

A fourth priority is to strengthen the country’s capacity in research, the use of science and technology and innovation to stimulate the growth of an industrial economy. In strengthening research, Prof Mkenda said, among other things, the government will conduct research in 177 areas, including education, science and technology, language, agriculture, business, fishing, livestock, medicine, human rights, people’s development, and communication. “The government will do this to increase knowledge and solve various challenges in society,” he explained.

Last but not least, the government also aims to increase the opportunities and quality of primary and secondary education as well as higher education.

Facing a combination of rapid population growth and high levels of unemployment, the ministry of education, science and technology has a vital but challenging role to play in taking the country forward. Critics have highlighted that between 2015 and 2023 the government has allocated, on average, 14% of the national budget to education, well below the 20% recommended standard for developing countries.

If the government were to meet this target, “it is clear that many challenges could be solved and the quality of education in the country could be raised,” said Dr John Kalage, executive director of HakiElimu, an education-focussed NGO.

Others pointed to a lack of joined-up thinking in the ministry. According to Ms Husna Sekiboko (Special Seats – CCM), employment was offered to around 29,000 new teachers this year, while more than 300,000 qualified teachers remained unemployed. (The Citizen)

Government to act “against immorality”
The government has said that it will take strict action against all those who are proven to encourage and engage in acts that violate the Tanzanian society’s moral code. Speaking in Parliament, the Prime Minister, Kassim Majaliwa stressed that the issue should not rest on the government’s shoulders alone but requires cooperation across the whole of society.

He was speaking in reference to the moral decay that has been discussed since The Citizen newspaper published an investigation into students’ behaviour in schools earlier this year. The paper’s investigation, focussed on two secondary schools in deprived neighbourhoods of Dar es Salaam, concluded that the causes of poor exam results were indiscipline and moral decay among students. In the report, students under the age of 18 were identified as engaging in prostitution and others in homosexuality.

“We have to protect our future generations against foreign cultures that endanger the well-being and development of the Tanzanian society,” said Mr Majaliwa. He added that the government has directed all schools to continue providing education to students from pre-primary to form six about the consequences of engaging in immoral behaviours.

“I strongly urge my fellow Tanzanians to work together to raise our voices so that we can put an end to immorality that has a big impact on our current and future generations,” he said.

He noted also that the law review commission has already reviewed some aspects of legislation, gathering opinions from various stakeholders to work on them, with the aim of identifying areas of weakness that contributed or provided loopholes for the spread of such practices. He said the government was involving all important stakeholders from the Mainland and the Zanzibar Islands.

Draft new education policy released
The Ministry of Education, Science and Technology has released the first draft of the proposed new edition of the education and training policy and curricular, which takes a competence- and skills-based approach.

The proposed new draft of the Education and Training policy describes the “formula” of education as “1+6+4+2/3+3+”. This stands for one year of pre-primary education, six years of primary education, four years of ordinary secondary education, two years of advanced secondary or three years of technical education and three years (or more) of tertiary or higher learning education.

The Minister for Education, Science and Technology, Professor Adolf Mkenda, said that the completion of these documents follows the promise of President Samia Suluhu Hassan she made in Parliament in 2021, saying that the government will review the education and training policy of 2014 and all curricula.

Minister Mkenda assured that the new draft matches with economic trends, including the 21st century technological needs in the world.

The draft, which was released on the ministry’s website, aims to establish a “vibrant, diverse and result-oriented policy and curricular”, and thus to increase the skills and competences of graduates in various fields in order to meet the demands of national and global jobs markets.

Moreover, the public will have a wide choice of enrolment options to ensure that the education offered provides life skills, vocational skills and creativity to match market demands.

The move according to the document, will give graduates a power of critical thinking, innovation, leadership and communication and information technology know-how, so that they can cope with challenges in the community and forge ahead.

The proposed new edition of the Education and Training policy will repeal the current education system of 2+7+4+2+3+, where a student graduates from higher learning after 18 years of learning. The new system has 16 years of learning up to graduate level, in line with countries like South Africa, Mauritius, Malaysia and Finland. (The UK generally has 17 years.)

With the proposed policy, the students will start primary education at six years, ideally after one year of pre-primary education that is intended to prepare the pupil to for formal schooling. The proposed system also provides room for those out of the education system to be enrolled in formal education according to set criteria, so that they can benefit from the opportunities in the formal sector. The government will have in place a national equivalent criteria and respective award for all levels of education. The draft policy also proposes that those in the compulsory education (primary and secondary) will keep on enjoying fee-free education.

In terms of curriculum, some of the proposed changes are to focus on competences in each subject.

For Standard One and Two pupils, the proposal of the curricular is to undertake the key subjects of reading, writing, basic English, mathematics, traditions upholding, arts and sports, environment and health.

Subjects for higher levels of primary schooling are Kiswahili, English, French, Chinese, Arabic, mathematics, history of Tanzania and ethical values, divinity, arts and sports, science, geography and the environment.

For the ordinary secondary education the subject list in the proposal are history of Tanzania and ethical values, history, geography, English, Literature in English, Kiswahili, Arabic, Chinese, French, sports, physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, agriculture, additional mathematics, computer science and bookkeeping.

Others are business studies, textiles, fine art, music, theatre arts, home management, food and nutrition, bible knowledge, Islamic and Kiswahili literature.

The main fields for O-level vocational education include electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, automotive engineering, transport and logistics, clothing and textile, agriculture and food processing. Others are hospitality and tourism, commercial and business support services, printing, extraction and processing of minerals, cosmetology, creative arts, ICT and electronics and sports.

Minister Mkenda said the draft had been made available for the public to present their views before the final procedure to make the document official. (Daily News)

Call for improved menstrual hygiene facilities in schools
One in ten schoolgirls in Africa miss classes or drop out completely due to their period and substitute pads or tampons for less safe and less absorbent materials such as rags, newspaper or bark. This is according to a UNICEF report, cited by a Tanzanian NGO Urithi wangu (My Legacy) seeking solutions to the problem.

Running a three-day workshop to teachers from different parts of Dar es Salaam, who would in turn train their pupils on how to keep safe with washable pads, Urithi Wangu Programme Officer, Amina Ally said such skills being will help teachers to gain an understanding of the issues of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) including checking how the content can be incorporated into classroom teaching.

The UNICEF report points to three ways that girls and women are disadvantaged by challenges relating to menstrual hygiene. First, the lack of affordable sanitary products and facilities for girls and women keeps them at a disadvantage in terms of education when they are young and prevents their mobility and productivity as women.

Second, the lack of clean and healthy sanitation such as toilets and running water means that girls often do not have anywhere to change or dispose of pads safely and in privacy at school.

Third, the taboo nature of menstruation prevents girls and their communities from talking about and addressing the problem; raising awareness and education to eliminate the stigma of menstruation is a large part of the battle.

Urithi Wangu conducted a preliminary study to understand the actual situation of WASH services in Tanzanian schools. The results showed the importance of having a sustainable sanitation policy in schools that not only focuses on handling WASH services, but also barriers to access to safe menstrual equipment for adolescent girls. This includes findings that 29% of respondents said that pads and tampons are available at school, 59% reported that the toilets were not friendly and did not meet the needs of young girls and those with special needs, 50% said that their schools have special sections/rooms for girls to cover up during menstruation, and 75% said they did not have a safe disposal method for used pads. (Daily News)


by Laela Adamson

School children sit at their desks, singing and clapping at a primary school in
Dar Es Salaam, Credit | AFP

Tanzanian students who struggle with English feel bullied – a major barrier to learning

In many postcolonial contexts, early learning is conducted, and assessed, in a language that is unfamiliar to learners. About 40% of the world’s population cannot access schooling in a language that they understand and that is regularly used in their communities. This figure may be as high as 80% in sub-Saharan Africa.

Language policies in some countries preserve a role for mother tongue or other familiar local languages in the first years of schooling. This is the case for example in Kenya, Botswana and Ethiopia. In Tanzania, the national language – Kiswahili – is the language of instruction in primary schooling. The use of Kiswahili at this level was seen as integral to forging a new national Tanzanian identity after independence. But nearly all countries switch to English, French or Portuguese by the start of secondary schooling.

School children sit at their desks, singing and clapping at a primary school in Dar Es Salaam, Credit | AFP

Tanzania is no exception. Although there was a shift in the wording of the language policy in 2015, there was strong opposition to change. Young people continue to experience an abrupt transition to English when they enter Form 1 of secondary school from 14 years old.

There is clear evidence that the compulsory use of English makes learning more difficult and contributes to poor outcomes. Research has also found, however, that many students and teachers wanted to retain English as the language of instruction.

To try to unpick this perplexing confusion, I sought to explore students’ experiences of language in school, alongside their broader attitudes and aspirations relating to education and language. My study confirmed previous findings that compulsory use of English limits learner comprehension and participation. More significantly, I found that underlying student fear of poor expression in a new language – and being laughed at or mocked by teachers and fellow students – was a prevalent barrier to learning and participation.

The findings from this study are a clear pointer that any new approaches must include changes to classroom management. Laughter and humiliation should not be allowed as responses to mistakes.

The study
This study was conducted over eight months in two secondary schools in the Morogoro region of central Tanzania. The urban school had more than 1,500 students and included both lower and advanced secondary level, forms 1-6. The rural school was a newer, community school, with 600 students in forms 1-4. This study was designed for depth of understanding, so it focused on only two schools. There may be differences in learners’ experiences in different schools and regions across the country, but the challenges found in these two schools were similar to those reported in the wider literature.

The research approach was ethnographic – through observation in and out of class as well as formal and informal interviews with students and teachers. During this research, young people were free to speak Kiswahili, English or a mix of these two. Although there were other local languages used in the communities, they were not widely used in school. This is perhaps different in other regions of the country where there is a more dominant local language.

I trained and worked with a group of pupil researchers from the two schools. They conducted their own interviews, co-facilitated workshops and helped to interpret the findings and explain their meaning in the Tanzanian context. I wanted to recognise the importance of their accounts and explanations.

What we found
The vast majority of pupils in this study had not used English as a language of instruction before starting secondary school at age 14 or above. They also had limited exposure to English outside school. Only a small number of pupils at the urban school had attended private, English-medium primary schools.

To enable learners to understand, most teachers translated lesson content into Kiswahili. This happens elsewhere too, but it is much less common for teachers to allow students to answer questions in a familiar language. In this study I observed learners asking to speak in Kiswahili and being told that this was not permitted. Students had to translate their knowledge into English to respond.

Many students explained that they preferred to remain silent. This is because if they tried to answer and failed to express themselves, they risked being laughed at and perceived as unintelligent by their teachers and classmates. A female Form 2 student in the urban school said:

You will be laughed at, which means we are afraid of the shame … fear, again.

Students’ fears were not unfounded. I recorded many instances of laughter punctuating student responses in class. These include some which were led by teachers who seemed to be using humiliation and fear of failure as strategies to motivate learners to work harder. In some cases, threats of physical punishment were also used against students who were unable to complete a task.

This study found that girls were particularly worried about cruel comments from other girls that they termed “gossiping”. Learners’ experiences of negative emotions may differ based on gender but this was not the focus of my study.

Requiring young students to use an unfamiliar language to participate in learning works against the global aspirations for inclusive and equitable quality education. In Tanzania and other sub-Saharan African countries, some important work is being done with local teachers and teacher educators to develop multilingual, translingual and language supportive approaches to teaching.

The key feature is the use of a familiar language for exploratory discussion and to support learning of both subject content and the target language. Currently on a small scale, it is happening in a several countries, including Tanzania, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. Research is also under way to explore opportunities for expanding to a larger scale.
Students must feel safe to talk and experiment with language and ideas without fear of shame.

Laela Adamson is a Lecturer at the University of Strathclyde. She has received funding from the Education Development Trust (Tim Morris Award) and the UKRI Economic and Social Research Council, grant number: ES/W005484/1.

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license.


by Ben Taylor

Viral video prompts debate on corporal punishment in schools
Video footage of a teacher in Kagera Region striking pupils on their feet for allegedly failing to complete an assignment, has prompted much public debate, including among MPs in parliament. The video had been widely circulated on social media.

“This kind of punishment is creating unnecessary public panic,” said Edward Kisau, MP (CCM, Kiteto), and called on the government draft a law to completely end corporal punishment in schools. “Alternatively, it could be reduced to one stick,” he added as other MPs applauded.

“There are countries which have completely banned corporal punishment,” said Mr Abdallah Chikota (CCM, Nanyamba). “Considering the fact that we are currently reviewing the education policy, can we completely stop whipping in schools and find an alternative?” he asked.

In his response, Prime Minister Kassim Majaliwa explained that the teacher had been suspended pending a proper investigation of the case. “The government will not tolerate such kinds of punishment which violate the laid down procedures,” he added.

Guidelines require that caning should only be carried out by the head teacher or other person authorised by the school head and should be documented in writing. The punishment should not also exceed four strokes for each student.

Opposition MP Conchesta Rwamlaza (Chadema, Special Seats) challenged the Prime Minister who had warned those who recorded the video. “Sharing the video exposed the incident and helped the government to take action against people who would have been otherwise protected by officials,” she said. She added that the Prime Minister’s approach would only lead to people covering up the violence.

In response, Mr Majaliwa said his intention was to avoid unnecessary panic to the public and creating negative image against all teachers. “The teacher who recorded the video should have shared it with education officials for action,” he said.

Mr Saashisha Mafuwe (CCM, Hai) asked the government to regulate the way punishment was administered even in homes. “Such kind of punishment does not only occur in schools,” he said, “but also in homes. What’s the government comment on that?”

However, the Speaker, Tulia Ackson, did not allow the Premier to respond, explaining that it was out of the context.

Corporal punishment is very common in Tanzanian schools. After a similar video was circulated in 2019, Human Rights Watch commented that “corporal punishment is child abuse. It is brutal, widespread, and state-sanctioned in Tanzania. In recent years, Human Rights Watch has spoken to many children who are caned, punched, or slapped by teachers.”

At that time, President Magufuli expressed his support for the individual who was filmed caning the children, arguing that it was an effective form of discipline that had been used for many years.

There is evidence that this view has widespread public support. In a 2016 survey, 79% of Tanzanians said it was either always (8%) or sometimes (71%) acceptable for a teacher to beat a pupil.

“Immoral” Wimpy Kid books banned
The Minister for Education, Science and Technology, Prof Adolf Mkenda, has banned 16 books from use in schools and other education institutions, citing immoral content that violates the country’s cultural norms, morals and good practices in raising children. Speaking to reporters in February, Prof Mkenda warned schools with the stray books in their shelves, saying failure to remove them will attract disciplinary measures including risking the institution’s deregistration.

The list includes thirteen books by the author and cartoonist Jeff Kinney – the popular series titled Diary of a Wimpy Kid – as well as Sex Education: a Guide to Life. It appears that the other two titles listed by the Minister – T is for Transgender, and L is for LGBTQI – are not actually books, but are instead two lines of text from within a single book – An ABC of Equality.

The Minister did not give details as to what content in the various books had caused offence, though the ban followed a public outcry around reported “rampant” homosexuality in Tanzania’s universities. One MP, Frank Haule (CCM) made this claim, and shortly afterwards President Samia Suluhu Hassan publicly called on university students to resist “imported cultures” that go against Tanzanian norms.

It was therefore widely understood that the book ban stemmed from the same concern. This would make sense given the “titles” of the two non-existent books that were banned. However, there are no LGBT storylines or characters in the Wimpy Kid series.

The first book in the Wimpy Kid series was published in 2007 and since then 275 million copies have been sold worldwide in 69 languages, according to the website. There have also been several film adaptations.

Dissertations for sale
University students in Tanzania are increasingly hiring individuals and bureaus to write research reports and dissertations on their behalf in exchange for money, according to an investigation in The Citizen newspaper.

The investigation discovered a rising number of bureaus and individuals who survive by writing dissertations and research reports for postgraduates and undergraduates. People running the bureaus have established offices around university campuses and have employed agents to target potential customers in colleges. Operators of the bureaus are lecturers, former lecturers, academicians, and other academically gifted individuals who have quit employment at universities to join the highly-paying work.

According to the article, the students prepare their research proposal and then contract the “academic writers” to do the rest of the work for an agreed fee. The report found the practice is particularly common among post-graduate students.

“You should first send me the title of your proposal that has been approved by your supervisor, then we can talk about the terms of my service; think of raising up to TSh1.5 million,” said a Morogoro-based dissertation writer (name withheld). Oblivious to the fact he was communicating with a journalist, the writer explained that he had been engaging in the business for the past ten years.

“What I want to assure you is that the dissertation that I’m going to prepare for you will sail. I have never had a case where a dissertation prepared by me was rejected; I know the standards and what exactly your supervisors want,” said the writer.

Another academic based in Dar es Salaam has admitted he has been making a living by writing dissertations for the past four years. He doesn’t feel guilty for the work, saying what he does is to help students achieve their full potential and realise their dreams. “What I do is help students fulfil their dreams. They give me concept notes or proposals, and I do the rest of the work. I collect data for them upon negotiations. At the end of the day, they must read the work and defend it. Now what’s the problem?” asks the writer.

One student – a postgraduate who had recently submitted her master’s thesis at a Dar es Salaam-based university – admitted to using these services. “Mine was prepared by a Kenyan for TSh1.3 million; she’s very, very good! Talk to her about yours and you will see for yourself,” she said.

A lecturer at an Iringa-based university who asked for anonymity admitted the problem was serious but was quick to defend those who engage in the activity. “Lecturers are receiving meagre salaries; they can’t maintain their families, so what they do is just one way of supplementing insufficient salaries,” he said.

“It is true that there are people in town sitting down and writing dissertations for students. I am the associate dean of the School of Education; we once discovered a trend, but I don’t have evidence that my students are engaged in this kind of cheating,” says University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM) Vice Chancellor, Prof. William Anangisye.

The Tanzania Commission for Universities (TCU) says it has established standards and guidelines for the purpose of regulating the quality and conduct of postgraduate training, research, and innovation. It says the quality assurance standards and guidelines it has set to check academic fraud and ensure ownership of work by students are being respected.

“Our work as TCU is to set minimum guidelines that must be adhered to by universities to ensure quality of education. The standards were set to ensure ownership,” says Prof. Kihampa.


by Angela Ilomo

Stakeholders propose sweeping changes in the education policy
For a long time now, graduates from universities have been under the microscope due to their lack of capacity to undertake self-employment and demonstration of poor working skills, a cry that prompted President Hassan to issue directives to the ministry to review the Education policy. The President’s goal is to ensure that at whatever level a young person achieves in education, he or she will be able to have skills that will enable him or her to either get employed or go for self-employment. (The Citizen)

New report pokes holes in TZ curricula, expert speak out
The new research reveals that although civic education and civics are part of school curriculum, there has been lack of adequate research and empirical evidence on how the content, quality of teaching and learning materials may empower youth with knowledge and skills to engage in democratic processes as required. A lead researcher, Dr Perpetua Kalimasi said that democratisation process calls for an in-depth review of the civic education curriculum starting from the primary level of education. (The Citizen)

Standard 7 results reopens the language debate
Tanzania’s education system has been under scrutiny due to a number of challenges, with the confusion over the language of instruction from primary to university level taking toll. Kiswahili has been used as a language of instruction at the primary school level with the argument being to make students understand better and more easily. When it comes to secondary school, however, it switches to English, a language of instruction used mainly up to university level. In this regard, it leads to poor performance in the subject by students who head to secondary school where the English language is the medium of instruction. (The Citizen)

Free education policy goes to test as Std VII pupils sit exam
Exam candidates from public schools involve the first batch of beneficiaries of the free education policy that came into effect in 2016 after it was endorsed in 2014.
“Removing the burden of school fees paved the way for me to focus on buying additional books for my children. This relief will definitely be reflected in the children’s examination results,” says Mr. Juma Nzali a parent whose child will sit for the exam to The Citizen over the phone. (The Citizen)

Over 1 million pupils pass Std 7 exam
The National Examination Council of Tanzania (NECTA) on Thursday released the 2022 Primary School Leaving Examinations (PSLE) results indicating that the number of candidates who passed the exams has increased by 18.24 in comparison to last year. Acting Executive Secretary, Mr. Athumani Amasi explained that 558,825 of those who passed were girls, while the remaining 514,577 were boys. (The Daily News)

How Gender-based violence impacts negatively on girls’ education
The Minister for Community Development, Gender, Women and Special Groups, Dr Dorothy Gwajima, said that based on studies conducted in the country it shows that 60 per cent of acts of violence against children occur at home and the remaining percentage takes place in other areas. Many girls face various challenges based on gender and protection matters including Mwanahawa Mohamed (16), a student at Kikanda Secondary School located in Kilwa District of Lindi region. Despite having a dream of becoming a doctor in the future, her educational journey is not easy, since she encountered many challenges that would have forced other students to give up or fail, but she has not. (The Daily News)

Education Policy under review
The process of reviewing the policy and curricula follows directives issued by President Samia during her maiden speech in Parliament last year. With education stakeholders insisting that ETP of 2014 was outdated, this was among reasons that prompted President Samia to direct a review of the education policy and curricula to strengthen the quality of education in the country. (The Daily News)


by Angela Ilomo

How World Bank Fund will improve education
The Government, through funding from the World Bank, has launched a programme to enhance teaching and learning in pre-primary and primary schools (BOOST) worth more than one trillion shillings. The Minister for Education, Science and Technology, Prof Adolf Mkenda, said the five-year programme aimed to improve the learning and teaching environment, skills and quality of teachers in teaching and enhance access to resources that facilitate service delivery at Municipal Council levels.

The World Bank Country Director, Mara Warwick, said the intention was to see pre-primary and primary education become better, safer and more inclusive for all children required to attend school. (The Citizen)

Tanzania outlines plans to overhaul education
The Government, while disclosing areas that need to be looked at in the planned reforms to improve education sector in the country, had concerns about the lack of necessary skills amongst local graduates. Skills that are necessary for creating their own jobs through entrepreneurship and the mismatch between school knowledge and job market demands in the private sector. The government has now started collecting views from different stakeholders as it seeks to overhaul the education sector to produce competent graduates.

Education minister Prof Adolf Mkenda said stakeholders should continue airing their views on the education policy review, legal framework, change in the curricula, demand and quality of teachers, trainers and lecturers. He also spoke about their plans to sponsor best performers in science. (The Citizen)

Free education now to include Form 5 and Form 6
The government is recommending the introduction of fee education policy which will remove all forms of fees and contribution for Form Five and Six students in government schools. “Currently, form five and six students are 90,825 and 56,880 respectively with financial needs amounting to TSh 10. 3 billion, as directed by President Samia Suluhu Hassan, I recommend fee education for form five and six students,” said the Finance and Planning Minister to Parliament while presenting the national budget for financial year 2022/23. (The Citizen)

Samia’s recommendations on transforming education in Zanzibar
President Samia Suluhu Hassan yesterday issued four key recommendations to stem the tide of disappointments brought by students scoring Division Four and Zero in the Form Four examination results. Suluhu spoke during the launch of a Zanzibar’s based nonprofit organisation-the Mwanamke Initiative Foundation (MIF) which among other things focuses at promoting the standard of education in the Isles.

The first suggestion is to change the curriculum to align with the one working in Tanzania Mainland, while the second is for education authority in Zanzibar to evaluate the standard of school appraisers and provide them with proper and quality equipment. The third idea is to assess the qualities of teachers and the fourth is changing social beliefs on matters such as early marriage and gender discrimination. (The Citizen)

Government schools dominate Top 10 slots in Form Six exams
Government schools have continued to dominate the top 10 slots nationally in the Advanced Certificate of Secondary Education Examination (ACSEE) results which were as announced on Tuesday, July 5, in Zanzibar. Announcing the results of the teachers’ and Form Six examinations, the council’s acting executive secretary, Athuman Amas, said this year’s performance showed a 0.25 percent increase compared to last year (2021). He said that 93,136 candidates, equivalent to 99% passed the tests. (The Citizen)

Over 900 students returned to school by February
A total of 909 dropout students have been re-admitted this year following the decision to allow teenage mothers and other students who dropped out for various reasons. The Deputy Minister also said that the integrated programme for out of school enrolment is meant to give learning opportunity for them and that parents, guardians and the community now need to be engaged to support the registration of dropouts.

The United Kingdom’s Minister for Africa, Latin America and The Caribbean, Vicky Ford has commended the government’s decision to allow dropouts to get back to school.

This happened during the launching event of a multibillion programme called ‘Shule Bora’ funded by UK Aid which will be implemented in 9 regions. The aim of the programme is to deliver quality, inclusion and safety education for all children in public schools. (The Daily News)


by Angela Ilomo

More than 5000 girls dropout of school every year
Several stakeholders have called for more efforts to close the gap between girls’ and boys’ access to education regardless of many government efforts. This was during the one-day symposium that brought together high school students as a continuation of the Women’s Day celebrations. The event was organized by Tai Tanzania, an NGO, in collaboration with the Girl Effect and The Youth of United Nations Association of Tanzania (YUNA Tanzania).

Director and co-founder of Tai Tanzania Mr Ian Tarimo said the World Bank’s figures show 5,500 girls drop out of school each year because of early pregnancies, indicating that there is a need to step up efforts by the community and not only the government to bridge the gap created between girls and boys.

The Director of Girl Effect Ms Rahma Bajun said that part of the reasons also include cultural practices and lack of support infrastructure. She said that they are looking forward to seeing a more equitable society. (The Citizen)

Over 1,000 out of school girls in Tanzania enroll for adult learning
At least 1,200 of the 3,000 girls targeted for enrollment in this year’s academic calendar through the Secondary Education Quality Improvement Programme (Sequip) have already been enrolled with the Institute of Adult Education.

Institute of Adult Education director Michael Ng’umbi said the Sequip-AEP project aimed at reaching girls between the ages of 13 and 21 who dropped out of secondary education for various reasons including poor living conditions, early marriage and getting pregnant.

He noted that the project aims to reach 12,000 students across the country over a five-year period (2021-2026) of project life under the same institute. (The Citizen)

Leadership academy inaugurated, supported by Communist Party of China
All is set for upcoming political leaders from countries in southern Africa to start sharpening their skills from March this year, thanks to the inauguration of a newly-constructed Mwalimu Julius Nyerere Leadership School located at Kibaha. The ceremony was graced by President Samia Suluhu Hassan.

The idea was based on the Harare Resolution that involved six political parties from different countries on June 8, 2012, to serve southern Africa in honour of Tanzania’s founding President, Mwalimu Julius Nyerere.

The TSh 100 billion institution was funded by the Communist Party of China (CPC). The involved liberation parties in attendance were ANC (South Africa), Swapo (Namibia), MPLA (Angola), Zanu-PF (Zimbabwe) and Frelimo (Mozambique).

“Establishment of the school is a strategic one that will address a number of issues, including strengthening our youth and our people who will work in our political parties and governments,” said President Hassan. She also said the presence of the academy would also train young people with a modern view of developing their countries from within their liberation parties.

Xi Jinping, the President of China and General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee, sent a congratulatory letter for the inauguration ceremony. He said the school will provide an important platform for the six parties to enhance their governance capacity and better lead their respective countries to achieve development and benefit their people.

He added that the school is an opportunity to strengthen the exchange of state governance experience with parties in Africa, support each other in pursuing development paths that suit their own national conditions, deepen pragmatic cooperation across the board, promote the building of a high-level community with a shared future between China and Africa, and contribute more to the building of a better world.(The Citizen; China News Service)

Tanzania, World Bank sign TSh 1.5 trillion credit pacts for education and land
The government and the World Bank have signed two concessional loan agreements worth $650 million (about TSh 1.501 trillion) for the improvement of education and land administration systems. The loans agreements will boost the existing World Bank’s portfolio for national Projects in Tanzania to $6.15 billion.

$500 million will be spent on the ‘Boost Primary Student Learning Project,’ while the remaining amount will go to the Land Tenure Improvement Project (LTIP), according to permanent secretary in the Ministry of Finance and Planning, Mr Emmanuel Tutuba.

World Bank country director Mara Warwick said that the Boost Project would help to directly address constraints in the education sector by making Tanzania primary schools safer, more inclusive and child-friendly.

Over 12 million children in mainland Tanzania were expected to benefit from it. On the other hand, she said, the LTIP would increase tenure security for at least two million land holders, users, and their families.(The Citizen)

New Curricula for nursery, primary, secondary in offing
New curricula for nursery, primary, secondary and teacher education will start being used from January 2025, the Tanzania Institute of Education (TIE) has affirmed.

TIE Director-General, Dr Aneth Komba stated this yesterday in Dodoma when he made a presentation on the envisaged new curricula while receiving views from stakeholders during an annual meeting of the heads of education institutions under the Christian Social Services Commission (CSSC).

“We can’t say that the current curricula is inappropriate, but we should look at issues which could be added so that the documents can become relevant to the current 21st century and be beneficial to young people for the next 50 years by making them employable and be able to create their own jobs,” she stated.

Dr Komba said the process to improve the current curricula is expected to take at least three years, where they are now at a stage of collecting views and needs from stakeholders to incorporate in the new document.

Several teachers contributed their views including, English language subject to be taught right from the first year of Primary School, vocational education for Standard Seven leavers, social studies to be taught in secondary schools and increase of pass marks for teachers in joining teacher education. (Daily News)

National Educational system dialogue kicks off
Preparations for a national dialogue on reviewing the curricula and education system that will meet the current needs has kicked off, said Minster for Education Science and Technology Prof Adolf Mkenda during the visit of President Samia Suluhu Hassan at the Benjamin Mkapa Secondary school.

This decision was made after the recent suggestion from Religious leaders for the need for a national dialogue on education system which was aired during their meeting with President Hassan at the Dar es Salaam State House last week. The clerics noted that that education system should be reviewed for the sake of producing graduates who will be able to venture on self- employment without waiting for employment from the formal sector. (Daily News)


by Angela Ilomo
Angela Ilomo is the Acting Director of RLabs Tanzania, a lawyer by profession, and is dedicated to transforming opportunities for young women and men through leading RLabs’ entrepreneurship programme. She takes over the Education portfolio in Tanzanian Affairs from Naomi Rouse. I offer my sincere thanks to both – The Editor.

Tanzania lifts ban on pregnant school girls
The law which was originally passed in 2002 was reinforced by late President John Magufuli in 2017 barring pregnant girls from attending regular school.

Speaking in Dodoma on Wednesday November 24, Prof. Ndalichako said the government will now allow all students who dropped out of school due to various reasons including pregnancy to return to school in a formal system after giving birth. “Later today, I will issue a statement explaining how the students who dropped out of school due to pregnancy and other reasons will go back to school,” she said.

US Ambassador Dr Donald Wright said his country was pleased by the Tanzanian move. “This proclamation indicates a more inclusive approach to education in Tanzania and a positive step forward for Tanzanians,” he said. (The Citizen, The Daily News)

Issues that are still pending in Tanzania’s education system
One of the major pending issues is the ‘dualism’ in primary education in Tanzania. This dualism plays out negatively and has, unfortunately, been accepted as a fait accompli. This has led to better performance of children studying in private school during final standard seven examination.

A major driving force in this dualism the difference in the medium of instruction: English and Kiswahili. Pupils learning in an English environment, from nursery school to Standard Seven acquire English proficiency that those schooled in the Kiswahili system can only dream of. If Tanzania’s secondary schooling and university education was not conducted entirely in English this would not have been such a problem.

Prof Herme Mosha cautioned 10 years ago, while giving an assessment of 50 years of independence, that the differences in performance in examinations between pupils in public and private schools might produce the ruling class from those studying in private schools and the ruled class from those studying in poorly equipped public schools.

When public schools become much better equipped and well-staffed with teachers with high morale, with healthy pupil-to-teacher ratio, then more parents will send their children to public schools, which might lead to the natural death of many of the many private schools. (The Citizen)

Over 900,000 set to start secondary education in 2022
This year, 2021, has been one for the goodwill of the government and the education sector as a whole. More than 900,000 pupils who passed the 2021 Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE) will for the first time join Form One within the first selection window, thanks in part to funds from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in October of $576 million that have facilitated construction of over 10,000 classrooms across the country.

For five consecutive years there have been challenges in selecting a pile of primary school leavers who sought slots in public secondary schools due to shortage of classrooms vis-à-vis demand for accommodation.

The Minister of State in the President’s Office – Regional Administration and Local Government, Ms Ummy Mwalimu, said that no selected pupil will have to sit on the floor in the constructed classrooms as the fund will also be used to support the making of 462,795 desks. (The Citizen)

Government commits to work with Camfed
The government has committed to work together with the Campaign for Female Education (Camfed) to explore the potential for scaling the Learner Guide Program across the government school system by ensuring children access relevant life and work skills in their education. Camfed, since its inception in 2005, made it possible for 8,000 marginalized boys and girls to attend primary school and 55,000 girls to attend secondary school.

The Learner Guide Program sees that young women who have experienced first-hand barriers to education receive support to return to their local schools as mentors and role models. Now they are working to keep more girls in their communities in school.

In view of this, the Deputy Permanent Secretary in the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Prof Caroline Nombo, said the programme should not only focus on girls and forget boys who also face challenges and need quick interventions that will encourage them to remain in school.

She noted that the initiative supports government key priorities including equitable access to education and providing education with relevant life and works skills that will provide youth with employment. (The Citizen)

Fresh concern over lecturer shortage in Tanzanian universities
Tanzania Commission for Universities (TCU) figures show that the number of university academic staff increased from 6,238 in 2019 to 7,187 in 2020. At the same time, student enrolment has increased by an average of 4.7% annually from 177,963 students in the 2017/18 academic year to 206,305 in 2020/21. In Education, Law, Medical and Health Sciences, Humanities and Arts as well as Business programmes, there are unsatisfactory ratios of students to lecturers.

Education stakeholders are of the view that if these factors are not looked into and dealt with accordingly, the quality of education in the country runs the risk of experiencing a calamitous drop. The reasons TCU banned 19 institutions of higher learning from admitting new students in the 2017/18 academic year, was due to the lack of relevant human resources. “Producing a PhD holder takes much time, and is very expensive as well. It can even take up to ten or twelve years to get one,” said Dr. Jabir, an education consultant.

It is suggested by experts that the government should create conducive environment for universities to develop relevant human resources. (The Citizen)


by Ben Taylor

World Bank support for Higher Education
In May, the World Bank approved a combined financing of $875 million (about TSh 2 trillion) for three development projects, including $425 million on the Higher Education for Economic Transformation (HEET) project.

The finance from the International Development Association (IDA) also aims to help improve rural road access and employment opportunities and increased access to high quality broadband internet services.

“Approval of the three projects reflects the World Bank’s strong support to Tanzania,” said Mr Hafez Ghanem, the Regional Vice President for the World Bank.
“The experiences of successfully transitioning economies have shown that strong human capital is fundamental for long-term growth and the development of an economically secure middle class,” said Mara Warwick, World Bank country director. “These projects prioritize such investments, which will enable households at all income levels in Tanzania to benefit from growth.”

The HEET project aims to strengthen the learning environment, ensure greater alignment of priority degree programs to labour market needs, and improve the management of the higher education system.

This will be achieved by strengthening and building the capacity of 14 public higher education institutions in both Mainland and Zanzibar to become high quality centres of learning, focusing on areas with the greatest potential for growth over the coming decade; and enhancing the management of the higher education system through the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, and subsidiary agencies. Among the key results, participating universities will add or modernize over 260 academic programs within priority areas, with over 100,000 students benefiting from direct interventions to enhance learning.

Higher education loan charges cut
Students celebrated in May when the Minister of Education, Science and Technology, Joyce Ndalichako confirmed in parliament that the government was implementing President Samia’s Suluhu Hassan’s directive to remove so-called nuisance charges on higher education loans.

Starting July 1, 2021, she said, the 6% charge in value retention to higher education loans beneficiaries will be scrapped, and the government is instructing the Higher Education Students Loans Board (HESLB) board of directors to scrap the 10% penalty charged on loan beneficiaries for delayed loan servicing.

The government, Prof Ndalichako said, was allocating TSh 500 billion during the coming financial year to finance university education of a total of 148,581 students. Of the beneficiaries, 50,250 will be first-years and 98,331 will be continuing students.

Students who spoke to The Citizen expressed support for the move. “I’m happy that the government seems to be creating an environment that will encourage one to repay the HESLB loan,” said Mr Samwel Ngulinzira, who is a beneficiary of the loans.

Luka Mkonongwa, a lecturer in the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM) College of Education, commented that the government was now valuing children from poor families. “In the past, students ran away from loans and found it better to fund studies on their own because it charged interests like those charged by commercial banks,” he said.

Education reforms
In the same speech to parliament, Prof Ndalichako announced that the government will review the 2014 Education and Training Policy as well as the country’s Education Act of 1978 in order to ensure they meet the current demands.

“The government will also put emphasis in teaching technical education by strengthening practical skills in secondary and technical schools,” she said, adding that the government will also strengthen teaching of skills developing subjects in primary and secondary schools including agriculture, technical subjects, sports, art works and business.

She also stated that the government will conduct a comprehensive evaluation of curricula in order to ensure teaching and learning is delivered according to the qualities and conditions required, including the presence of teachers, textbooks and improved learning environment.

“The government will start reviewing curricula at all levels of education in order to ensure education and training are given the focus of building skills in relation to the present circumstances,” she said.

A-level results – no change in sky-high pass rate
The A-level pass rate has remained stable in 2020 and 2021, with government schools dominating in the top 10 list of best performing schools. The results of the exams, conducted in May this year and released by the National Examinations Council (Necta) in July in Zanzibar, show that the overall pass rate for school candidates was 99.62%, a slight increase from 99.51% in 2020.

The number of candidates who scored Divisions I, II, and III has increased by 0.19 percent from 97.74% in 2020 to 97.93% in 2021.

Only two of the top ten schools in 2021 were private schools (Kemebos and Feza Boys’). The other schools in the top 10 were Kisimiri (Arusha), Dareda (Manyara), Tabora Girls’ (Tabora), Tabora Boys’ (Tabora), Mwandeti (Arusha), Zakia Meghji (Geita), Kilosa (Morogoro) and Mzumbe (Morogoro).

Of the 89,802 candidates registered to take the exam, 88,273 candidates (98.30%) took the exam and 1,529 candidates (1.70%) did not, for various reasons including illness and absenteeism, said Necta’s executive Secretary, Charles Msonde.


by Naomi Rouse

Introduction of country’s history as a subject in schools significant
The Ministry of Education is to introduce history as a compulsory subject from pre-school up to secondary school. The Tanzanian Institute for Education has been preparing text books for distribution for the new curriculum.

A 21-year old science student interviewed for the article, said that most of what he knows from history at secondary school is about how colonial warriors came to Africa.

Dr Charles Kitima, a researcher and former vice chancellor of St Augustine University said that teaching history should also build patriotism and an appreciation of Tanzania’s cultural and social heritage. (The Citizen)

Police report shows fires broke out in 31 schools in 2020
Fires broke out in 20 privately-owned and religious schools and 11 government schools in 2020. In general fires were on the rise compared with accidents and killings, according to police reports. Fires were caused by “electrical faults, negligence and conflicts”.

Remembering Magufuli’s effect on the education sector
Education stakeholders have commemorated President Magufuli’s significant influence on the education sector, including the introduction of free education for which many families were grateful.

52-year old Mwinjuma Ali said that his two children dropped out of school in 2015, due to lack of school fees and other contributions, but were able to return in 2016 and study without difficult thanks to the new policy. “I believe God brought John Magufuli for my family because I could not afford to pay for the education of my four children,” explained Ali. “When I heard him promise of free education in his campaigns in 2015, I knew he was a liberator.”

The Minister of State in the President’s Office, Regional Administration and Local Government (PO-RALG) Suleiman Jafo, said that implementing incomplete education plans would be a way to remember Magufuli’s outstanding leadership. “He has left us with a big task to build 1,000 schools in all the country’s 716 wards. I approved the budget for this in the recent parliamentary committee and so we are going to start construction soon,” said Jafo.

In his first term as President, Dr Magufuli implemented his pledge of waiving school fees and other contributions for both primary and secondary education. His government released TSh18 billion every month for all schools. Implementation of this policy led to increased primary and secondary school enrolment. In February 2020, Magufuli said the government had already spent a cumulative total of TSh 1.01 trillion in implementing the fee-free education policy. He said with the implementation of the policy, the enrolment of standard one pupils increased from an average of one million in 2015 to 1.6 million in 2020.

The number of secondary schools increased to 5,330 by 2020 from 4,708 recorded in 2015 making an increase of 622 schools, a move that experts believe has precipitated access to education for Tanzania’s children.

This also led to an increase in the number of form one – form four students to 2,185,037 in 2020 from 1,648,359 as recorded in 2015.

The late Magufuli said that the government took efforts to build 905 new primary schools, with the number of learning facilities increasing from 16,899 in 2015 to 17,804 in 2020, and an additional 5 million desks, from 2015 to 2020.

However, despite the policy, some costs remained as many schools continued to collect fees from children and their families. This angered the late President, who in 2018 ordered the practice to stop immediately.

“It makes no sense for the government to waive school fees and yet teachers introduce contributions that poor parents can’t afford to pay for their children. I don’t want to hear that a pupil or student is dismissed over failure to contribute…,” he added.

Students were grateful that school closures due to COVID-19 were relatively brief so that they were not forced to re-take a year.

Tanzania government to employ 6000 teachers immediately
In April, President Samia Suluhu Hassan instructed the relevant ministries to fill the vacancies left by more than 6,000 teachers. She said she realised that there were around 6,000 or more teachers who had resigned or retired and others had died along with various other causes but their vacancies are yet to be filled, which is affecting learning in schools.

Speaking at the swearing in of the newly appointed Permanent Secretaries and heads of public institutions at the State House in Dar es Salaam, President Hassan also directed that the management of girls’ secondary schools be further strengthened.

The president also said the government was hoping to build 26 girls’ schools by 2025 and urged stakeholders to take action so that the plans are implemented.