Compiled by Donovan Mc Grath

Shumba evokes cultural revival in Tanzania (Mmegi, Botswana, January 17th, 2011)
This article followed the tour of Botswana traditional musician Shumba Ratshega in Tanzania. A Tanzanian official noted that unlike Tanzanian traditional dances, the dance style known as Makhirikhiri was well promoted even before the group arrived in the country. “This is a testimony that traditional dances, which could earn people a living are still unexploited in the country.” He asked Tanzanians to appreciate their own traditional music saying, “it is sad to see that it is difficult to come across a DVD, CD and audio tapes of Tanzania traditional music . . . To have our traditional groups promoted we must deliberately see that we record them in DVDs, CDs and audio tapes so that they can be accessed internationally,” he said, adding, “Tanzania has more than 120 tribes endowed with rich folk dances, which could make people earn the much-needed foreign exchange.” Ngala challenged traditional dance groups to wake up, saying, “Tanzanians must not wait for foreign music groups to come into the country and remind us about the beauty of our dances as we are doing now with the Makhirikhiri.”

Anne Makinda in control of Tanzania’s Bunge (The East African, December 20-26, 2010)
Extract: ‘Anne Makinda, Tanzania’s new Speaker of parliament is not new to leadership. She was involved in politics as early as in primary school where she was an active member of the youth wing of the Tanganyika African National Union (Tanu) … The 61-year-old Njombe South MP (Chama cha Mapinduzi) garnered 265 votes in the race for House Speaker … defeating the opposition candidate Mabere Marando, who got 53 votes of the 327 ballots … Makinda [is] the first woman Speaker in Tanzania … Makinda has promised to mould the legislature into an inclusive, strong and independent institution. … President Jakaya Kikwete was among the first to congratulate Makinda on her election …’

We want more say in this Union, Zanzibar tells Tanzania govt (The East African, February 14-20, 2011)
Extract: ‘… Zanizibar argues that there are unfair fiscal and monetary agreements that kill its economy. For example, it points out that there is double taxation of goods imported into the Tanzanian Mainland from Zanzibar. Petroleum and natural gas, which are likely to be discovered off the islands, have been included in the list of Union matters. However, gold, diamonds and tanzanite that are found in Tanzania Mainland are not classified as such. … With regard to foreign aid they pointed out that although it is solicited and received in the name of the United Republic, Zanzibar receives little, or nothing in respect of non- Union matters such as agriculture. It is the mainland that decides on behalf of Zanzibar how much it should get. Yet Zanzibar cannot shop for foreign aid for itself. … The bone of contention is that the Union deals with Union and non-Union matters lumped together…’

The sinking of the Konigsberg recalled
Extract: ‘An episode of East African history was recalled in December 2010 when a group of medals awarded to a Royal Navy veteran were sold at a London auction. Robert Calvert … joined the navy as a stoker in 1910. At the outbreak of the 1914-18 War he was serving on HMS Pyramus, a light cruiser of 2000 tons. … In January 1915 it joined the naval force off German East Africa blockading the German battle cruiser Konigsberb in the Rufiji Delta. .. In the citation for his British Empire Medal in 1945, [Calvert] was described as “utterly reliable and ruthlessly efficient.” His medals sold for £330. By coincidence another group of medals at the same sale also related to German East Africa.
They were awarded to Private Sanjani of the First Battalion of the Kings African Rifles … Sanjani’s medals sold for a modest £45.
Thanks to John Sankey for this item (with acknowledgements to Messrs. Dix Noonan Webb auctioneers).

Notes from an Island (BBC Focus On Africa, April-June 2011)
‘Zanzibar’s rich music heritage is evolving but traditional music continues to pulse through people’s veins. Zahra Moloo reports’
Extract: ‘… Crowds of youths from the village of Jambiani in the east of Nguja, Zanzibar’s largest island, have gathered to hear [Bi Kidude] the indisputable queen of two traditional East African music forms known as taarab and unyago… Bi Kidude starts her performance with some Swahili verses of another taarab legend, the late Siti Binti Saad who has been described as a Zanzibari version of Egypt’s Umm Kulthum. . . As the last of the three to survive, Bi Kidude, who is thought to be around 100 years old, has travelled the world to perform … Yet despite its rich cultural history, traditional taarab music appears to be in decline. … Increasingly Zanzibar’s youth is drawn to the globalised culture of hiphop and in particular to bongo flava – Tanzania’s answer to American hip-hop. At the same time Zanzibar has developed its own hip-hop style known as zanj flava. . . But despite the growing popularity of hip-hop, taarab stills remain (sic) in the blood of the people …’

You can now register your firm in 3 days only (The East African, December 20-26, 2010)
Extract: ‘Investors will now register their businesses in Tanzania in three days instead of 90 days… Until recently, one had to travel to Business Registration Licensing Agency (Brela) offices in Dar es Salaam . . . but, now with Corporate and Property Data Profiling systems (CDP and PDP), a software by Mawalla Corporate Services, one can easily register a company online… A total of 80,066 companies have been registered in Tanzania since 1930s, but few pay taxes because there is no official record of their existence. … Brela chief executive Estariano Mahingila [said] “The [CDP and PDP] software can boost Tanzania’s tax base and revenue significantly and additional funds will become available for building infrastructure and taking Tanzanians from a dire poverty to the promised land of prosperity” …’

AfDB injects more funds into small traders’ loan facility (The East African, December 20-26, 2010)
Extract: ‘More than 800,000 people mostly women will benefit from a TShs 44 billion ($30 million) financing grant by the Tanzanian government and the African Development Bank (AfDB).’

Region ready to sing its own song as new anthem is unveiled (The East African, December 27, 2010-January 2, 2011)
Extract: ‘After years of searching for a regional anthem and spending some $60,000, the East African Community can finally dance to its own tune. . . “The final acceptance of the EAC Anthem is a major legacy of my tenure as Secretary General, as it will contribute greatly to the struggle of capturing the imaginations of East Africans about the lofty goals of the EAC; how to galvanise their attitudes and sensibilities around what the EAC stands for, and re-branding the EAC,” said Juma Mwapachu . . .’

You can broadcast this from the rooftops: The Harry Potters are back in charge (The East African, December 27, 2010 – January 2, 2011)
Extract: ‘… The headquarters of [Tanzania Broadcasting Corporation] were for a long time situated on Pugu Road, now Julius Nyerere Road. The offices were rundown, bleak and untidy. But now TBC has acquired new and shiny buildings in the Mikocheni area. … It is here that many of us hoped that this old organisation would gradually metamorphose from a state mouthpiece into a public broadcaster. … This is crucial, especially under the new multiparty dispensation wherein diverse political views must be aired. … So, when some five years ago, the government hired Tido Mhando, a veteran journalist who had cut his radio broadcasting teeth in the old outfit before going on to work for the BBC, hopes for that metamorphosis were given fillip. … In very short order, Mr Mhando showed his mettle: He supervised the modernisation of the studios; he hired new and sharp hands; he devised new and exciting programmes; he insisted on professionalism and discouraged political cronyism; he gave respectable space to opposition politicians; he presented excellent, fairly balanced newscasts. … But Mr Mhando’s political bosses were not impressed, especially when TBC went on to screen pre-election political debates after the ruling party had ordered its candidates not to participate. … Pressure began to mount on Mr Mhando as agents of the government breathed down his neck . … His mistake was that he buckled … he was summoned to the office of a Ministry of Information top honcho and told to go back immediately and hand over his office to an acting director . … With a little modernisation and the hiring of Mr Mhando, some of us thought the Harry Potters had lost out, but the joke is strictly on us…’

Kiswahili’s future lies in borrowing from English (The East African, January 17-23, 2011)
‘The future of the region’s lingua franca lies in avoiding the pitfalls that befell the French language.’
Extract: ‘… Despite the problems faced in the mastery of Kiswahili, the spread of the language in the region is undeniable: more and more people are speaking Kiswahili in Uganda, Rwanda and recently Southern Sudan. Charles Omondi … writes that Southern Sudan could soon be the next major frontier for the expansion of the language … “coming at a time when no official effort has been made by the government to pro- mote the language.” The rise and rise of Tanzanian Bongo flava music in the region has undoubtedly contributed to the spread of Kiswahili, particularly in Uganda, where it had long been considered the language of soldiers, criminals and refugees. The language’s popularity surged after the Ugandan artiste Jose Chameleone recorded his biggest hits to date in Kiswahili – Jamila and Mama Mia. … English easily absorbs foreign words without much fuss – many words are borrowed from European languages such as Latin, German and Spanish; even Hindi (shampoo, monsoon), Japanese (karaoke, tsunami) and Kiswahili itself (safari, mamba). … French, on the other hand, is much more insular than English . … To maintain its relevance and life span, therefore, Kiswahili should borrow a leaf from English and be less jittery about the influence of local slang, and adulterations such as Sheng [street slang spoken in Kenya]…’

Jane: Why the queen of the jungle is a role model for all (The Times Eureka supplement, January 2011)
This is a very interesting article by Jo Harvey, briefly reflecting on how Jane Goodall began her pioneering research on the behaviour of chimpanzees in Tanzania, which serves as an inspiration to new generations of primatologists. Goodall was mentored by the famous palaeontologist Louis Leakey.
Extract: ‘Goodall … recognises that her work has inspired many women. … Goodall’s work and that of two other female pioneers in primatology, Dian Fossey and Biruté Galdikas, was made possible by the example of Leakey. … Leakey was convinced that the answers to the mysteries surrounding the origins of Man lay in the field of primatology, and he was responsible for inspiring and finding sponsorship for the landmark field studies conducted by Goodall, Fossey and Galdikas. Leakey thought that the attributes that made a good field scientist were innate in women … they were patient, they were better able to understand an animal’s desires by observing social non-verbal cues and they were less aggressive than men … Goodall was the first of “Leakey’s angels”… In 1960, after the 26-year-old Goodall had assisted on a fossil dig at Oluvai (sic) Gorge in Tanzania, she was sent by her mentor to study chimpanzees in the wild.’ Charlotte Uhlenbroek is among the next generation of female primatologists who are inspired by Jane Goodall. Uhlenbroek’s interest in primatology came after her father took his family on holiday to Gombe National Park in Tanzania to meet Jane Goodall.

A Road to Somewhere (BBC Focus On Africa, January-March 2011) ‘A scheme in Tanzania is successfully getting children off the streets and into work, and encouraging tourism at the same time…’
Extract: ‘… nestled between the peaks of Mount Meru and Mount Kilimanjaro … Kiboko lodge … has been built, maintained and is now staffed by former street children. … All have been through the Watoto Foundation: a Tanzanian organisation that works with street boys.’ After primary education at the Watoto residential centre, many of the boys go on to gain valuable trade skills in ‘Makumira – a vocational training centre run by the Watoto Foundation, just outside Arusha. … The centre offers mechanics, bicycle repair, welding, carpentry, furniture making, animal husbandry and gardening skills … the end product of which is there for all to see in Kiboko Lodge. … The decision to build a lodge entirely staffed by former street children was entirely practical. Watoto Foundation’s founder, Noud Van Hout, realised there was a gap in the market for budget, quality accommodation for tourists.’

Oil exploration firms now flocking to Tanzania (The East African, January 31 – February 6, 2011)
‘At least 17 companies involved in oil and gas exploration have signed 23 agreements with the government.’
Extract: ‘Multinational Ophir Energy Company has entered into an agreement with Tanzania to commercialise natural gas in Mtwara. The agreement follows the acquisition of 60 per cent of Ophir’s interest in Tanzania by British Gas Group (BGG)…’ The agreements include such companies as: Shell International, Maurel and Prom, Dominion Oil and Gas, Ndovu Resources, Petrodel, Tullow Oil, Beach Petroleum, Tower Resources Plc, Ansco Petroleum (T) Ltd, Statoil, Petrobras Tanzania, Songo Songo Gas Field, Artumas Group Inc, Key Petroleum, Hydrotanz, and Ras Al Khaiman Gas Commision.

Africa’s Gold Standards (BBC Focus On Africa, January – March 2011) ‘The relationship between local communities and large mining multinationals operating in Africa is tenuous at best, writes Zahra Moloo.’ Extract: ‘In May 2009, after a night of heavy rainfall, the Tigithe river in the north of Tanzania, turned a strange shade of red. The river, the water source for thousands of people, had allegedly been contaminated by a leaking storage pond at the nearby North Mara mine, operated by the African subsidiary of one of the world’s largest gold companies, Canada’s Barrick Gold. Testing by the company found water too acidic for fish to survive and well short of Tanzania’s drinking water standards. … Despite numerous appeals by the community to shut down the mine, in July 2010 the Tanzanian government declared the river free of pollution. … [Such] controversies have not deterred the Tanzanian government from continuing to grant concessions to foreign multinationals and expanding the country’s mining sector, including its unexploited uranium deposits…’

Five Star hotel may threaten Zanzibar’s Heritage Site status (The East African, January 24 – 30, 2011)
‘Unesco alarmed by plans to remodel old cultural house on Forodhani seafront – ruining the town’s low-rise skyline and neoclassical architecture.’ Extract: ‘Mambo Msiige, an old cultural building, is to be redeveloped by Kempinski at Stone Town. … Unesco World Heritage Centre has warned that this could see one of the most popular tourist attractions, the Zanzibar Islands, struck off the prestigious list of World Heritage sites. … If de-listed, Zanzibar would become the third site to suffer such a fate since the creation of the World Heritage Sites list in 1972. … Some officials say the loss will damage both Stone Town’s reputation and its tourism revenues…’

Deforestation (The East African, March 21, 2011)
According to this article some 8 million hectares of forest was lost in Tanzania between 1990 and 2010, over 19% of the forest cover. Forest area per person declined from 6.3 hectares per person in 1961 to about 0.8 hectares presently (although this still far exceeds the UK figure of 0.05 hectares per person).
Around 94% of the population rely on biomass fuels (firewood, charcoal and farm residue) as their main source of fuel – mainly for cooking – with only around 4.4% using kerosene and 1.6% electricity. 2,650 tonnes of charcoal are consumed daily, in a business worth $650 million a year. As the cheapest option, biomass is expected to remain as the main energy source due to low income levels for the majority of the people.


Violence in Mto wa Mbu
The was a violent incident in Mto wa Mbu, Monduli, at the end of March during which ten people were injured. It was said to have been sparked from preaching by Pastor Richard Chenge from Dar es Salaam, who is alleged to have incited Muslims in the area. Before the chaos started, some Muslims called in the police complaining about the preaching and the district authority intervened calling on the two parties to sit together and resolve the matter. But before this could happen, Muslims stormed the Pentecostal congregation and fighting erupted.

The Dar es Salaam Guardian wrote a strong editorial. Extracts:

‘We strongly condemn any violence linked to religion because it does not bode well for the attributes of peace, unity and tolerance our nation has been promoting and protecting since birth. We believe that violence is never a means to correct a wrong or achieve religious harmony, where other remedies haven’t been exhausted. We say this bearing in mind the adverse consequences it has caused to millions of innocent people across the world….

Religious communities are meant to live and teach forgiveness, love, peace and tolerance as their holy books command them. Where misunderstandings arise they should engage in interfaith dialogue…. We are witnessing some newspapers and religious radios and tabloids that prompt religious conflicts in the country. The latter, instead of teaching their listeners and readers religious or moral values, have been busy instigating hatred and discontent under the pretext of freedom of expression and opinion.

But what surprises us most is to see that the responsible authorities are just silent even where they should have acted.

We suggest the following:

Religious communities should refrain from insulting believers of other faiths or using their scriptures inappropriately. Doing this does not add any value to their belief system or salvation. It only shows the ignorance or prejudices they have against their counterparts. Responsible authorities should warn politicians and clerics, who manifestly instigate religious hatred or discontent. It should also warn or deregister radios or religious tabloids that spread religious hatred.’

Catholic bishop warns CCM government on divisive propaganda
The Catholic Arch-Bishop of Mwanza, Jude Thaddeus Ruwa’iich has accused the CCM government of conducting a smear campaign by associating the Catholic Church with the opposition party Chadema. The Bishop, who is also the President of the Tanzania Episcopal Conference (TEC), was speaking ahead of an Episcopal consecration service for the new Dodoma Archbishop. He said some CCM cadres had been openly associating the Church with former Chadema presidential candidate, Dr. Wilbroad Slaa. “We don’t promote religious divisions; and we have never done so before,” said Ruwaich. “Our goal has always been the pursuit for truth. We challenge bad decisions and ask questions whenever things aren’t being run well – Mwananchi.

Cardinal Pengo says Chadema poses no threat
Following claims by some CCM leaders that big political rallies being organised around the country by Chadema are a threat to peace, Catholic leader Cardinal Polycarp Pengo said that he sees no such threat. Instead, he advised the government to look into the root cause of people’s complaints over the high cost of living. “The government should not act on comments from individuals who interpreted Chadema’s public rallies as instigating violence. It should carefully examine the situation and come up with amicable solutions,” he said – Mwananchi.

Mufti accuses Chadema of breach of the peace
The Chief Sheikh of Tanzania, Mufti Shaaban bin-Simba, has expressed concern over an emergence of what he referred to as religiously motivated politicians who incite breaches of the peace. The Mufti pointed out that the Chadema rallies are calculated at weakening President Jakaya Kikwete. “We have been quiet for sometime, but we should openly fight against allegations that the current government is illegitimate simply because the president is a Muslim. If some people want to bring about demonstrations that are characterised by violence – like what is happening in some other African countries where there are gunshots everywhere – then such people are very dangerous,” he said.


Lake Natron
President Kikwete has sanctioned plans to mine soda ash at Lake Natron in the Arusha region. He said that environmental concerns would be taken care of. NGO’s and activists opposed to the plans have expressed concern that soda ash mining would alter the area’s ecosystem and disrupt the habitat and breeding grounds for the flamingos which have given Lake Natron worldwide fame – Citizen.

Student Fees
Tanzania is facing the same problem over student tuition costs as Britain but with far fewer financial resources.

Rogers Luhwago, writing in the Sunday Guardian, under the heading ‘Education costs must be shared’, quoted a government official as saying that chaos and class boycotts at institutions of higher learning would not end unless the government reviewed its cost sharing policy. Tanzania was the only country in the world that provided finance for students in all private and public universities; it was unbearable for the government. The burden of financing undergraduate studies in universities would keep growing every year. He noted that Tanzanians were keen to contribute to wedding ceremonies and kitchen parties but when it came to education every one thinks it is the duty of the government.

One MP suggested that the government should think of financing a single student in each family where there are many children. “It’s impossible for the government to finance all of them. Parents should share the costs,” she said.

In the previous week the government had suspended indefinitely all undergraduate students from the University of Dar es Salaam for boycotting studies in protest against what they described as the “low rate” of meal allowance of TSh5000 (£2) per day’ The government later promised to double the amount in the next budget.


Compiled by Hugh Wenban-Smith

That Tanzania might provide a rich field for development research will come as no surprise to readers of Tanzanian Affairs. However, the fruits of this research do not often make the headlines; rather, they tend to appear in academic journals not readily accessible outside university libraries.

This article is the first in what will hopefully become a regular report on development research in Tanzania, culled from journals in the library of the London School of Economics. Reflecting this (and the author’s own interests), the journals covered are mainly economic ones, such as World Development, Journal of Development Studies, Urban Studies, etc but I have included some more general ones, such as African Studies Review and Journal of Modern African Studies (both incidentally prolific reviewers of books about Africa).

In this report, articles published in 2010 are listed. The format is: Journal title; Volume and issue number; Author(s); Article title; Short abstract.

African Studies Review,Vol. 52(2) – Dill, B “Community-based organisations and norms of participation in Tanzania”. [Discusses the contradictions involved with inducing popular participation in the development process.]

African Studies Review,Vol. 52(3) – Sanga, I “Post-colonial cosmopolitan music in Dar es Salaam”. [This article concerns the late Dr Remmy Ongala, a Tanzanian-Congolese musician.]

Development and Change, Vol 46(6) – Beckmann, N & Bujra, J “The politics of the queue”. [This article analyses the political significance of HIV-positive people’s collective action in Tanzania.]

Journal of Development Economics, Vol 92(1) – Bengtsson, N “How responsive is body weight to transitory income changes?”. [We use time-series of rainfall to estimate the response of body weight to transitory changes in household income in rural Tanzania.]

Journal of Development Studies, Vol 46(1) – De Weerdt, J “Moving out of poverty in Tanzania”. [This paper uses qualitative and quantitative data to explore the growth trajectories of matched households in the Kagera region of Tanzania, finding that agriculture and trade provide the main routes out of poverty.]

Journal of International Development, Vol 22(5) – Dill, B “Public-public partnerships in urban water provision: The case of Dar es Salaam”. [This paper draws on original research and secondary data to analyse the strengths and limitations of public-public partnerships (i.e. government-community organisations) with respect to water provision in contemporary Dar es Salaam.]

Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol 48(3) – Bryceson, DF, Jonsson, JB & Sherrington, R “Miners’ magic: Artisanal mining, the albino fetish and murder in Tanzania”. [The murders are connected to gold and diamond miners’ efforts to secure lucky charms for finding minerals and protection against danger while mining.]

Urban Studies, Vol 47(5) – Lyons, M & Msoka, CT “The World Bank and the street”. [The well-documented weaknesses of structural adjustment policies have led to a reconceptualisation of the World Bank’s approach to neo-liberal reforms … It is argued (based on research in Dar es Salaam) that the exclusion of micro-traders from the reforms contributes to their marginalisation in political and policy arenas, increasing their vulnerability.]

World Development, Vol 38(3) – Bryceson, DF & Jonsson, JB “Gold digging careers in rural East Africa”. [Based on a recent survey of small scale mining in Tanzania, this article documents the higher risks, greater potential earnings, more elaborate division of labour and career trajectories of miners.]

Dr Hugh Wenban-Smith was born in Chunya and went to Mbeya School. His career
was as a government economist (mainly in Britain, but with periods in Zambia and
India). He is now an independent researcher, with particular interests in infrastructure,
urbanisation and transport.


The Tanzanian under-23 team in action against Cameroon - Issah Michuzi

The Tanzanian Under-23 football team surprised many when they beat Cameroon on penalties after a thrilling return leg match of the 2012 Olympic Games qualifiers. The “Manyara Stars” now face another difficult task having been drawn against the powerful Nigerian team in the next round.

In the domestic league, Young Africans (Yanga) won the league title by the closest of margins. Yanga and arch rivals Simba started the final day with the same number of points, and both managed to win their final games (against Mwanza and Majimaji), but Yanga emerged victorious due to their overall goal difference of 25 compared to Simba’s 24. Yanga were awarded US$25,000 for winning the title and will represent Tanzania in next year’s Champions League.


The start of the Kili fun-run - photo Issah Michuzi

The 9th Kilimanjaro Marathon was held in Moshi on 27th February and included a marathon (with over 300 entrants), a half marathon and a 5km fun-run (with over 2,000 entrants). Kenyan runners dominated the top spots, with Kipkemboi Kipsand and Anna Kamau winning the mens and womens marathon respectively, though Tanzanians Julius Kilimo and Banuelia Brighton came in second place. The medals were presented by Information, Youth, Culture and Sports Minister Emmanuel Nchimbi, who advised Tanzanian runners to use next year’s Kili Marathon as preparation for the London Marathon and Olympics, saying “We want medals from the London Marathon next so please prepare yourself well and don’t let us down.” The minister also noted that he was aware of complaints from sports fans that football was being given top priority, but insisted that was not the case and that the government appreciated all disciplines.

Crowds were entertained by the African Stars band ‘Twanga Pepeta’ and Bongo Flava artists ‘TMK Wanaume Family’ together with Joseph Payne known as ‘Mzungu wa BSS’ after having finished in 2nd place in the TV programme “Bongo Star Search 2010”.

Tanzania was not represented at April’s London Marathon, but Kenyans again dominated with a 1,2,3 in the men’s race and winning first and third places in the women’s race.


Christine Lawrence - thank you to Mrs Hilary Herbert for this - Editor

CHRISTINE LAWRENCE died on January 7 aged 80.
She played a pivotal role in the early days of the Britain- Tanzania Society when she did an immense amount of work on the administrative and financial side working with Bishop Trevor Huddleston and Roger Carter. She kept closely in touch with very many BTS members and with others connected to Tanzania and proved invaluable in locating and recruiting people to contribute to Tanzanian Affairs. She herself wrote numerous book, film and TV documentary reviews about Tanzania on a wide variety of subjects. She was present at virtually every meeting of the Society and was an active member of the committee. She played a leading role in organising society meetings and plying participants with refreshments.

At her funeral, Society member Keith Lye read out a tribute he had written:

‘Christine Lawrence made a massive contribution to many disadvantaged and impoverished people, particularly in Africa and Britain.

After completing a two-year course to become a child welfare officer, she went to run the Mahiwa Young Farmer’s Training Centre, in southern Tanzania, which had been set up by Bishop Trevor Huddleston, then the Bishop of Masasi. One of Christine’s most remarkable achievements, long before Women’s Lib, was to introduce courses at the centre for girls, the college having previously been exclusively for boys.

On her return to Britain in 1970, she worked for 20 years at Friends House, where she made many friends among the Quaker community. They shared the same ideals, especially in supporting projects to help people in what we then called the ‘Third World’. She made a return visit to Tanzania in 1972 and worked at a farm school on the slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro.

When we were working together, she was a stickler for detail. Like others, I got my knuckles rapped whenever I generalised or was imprecise. Christine was a most able and efficient person. Inspired by her deep Christian faith, she touched the lives of many people and she will be very much missed.

The funeral was held at the small and very attractive Gospel Oak Methodist Church in London. The BTS was represented by the Fennells and David Brewin.

The popular satirist ADAM LUSEKELO, whose columns in various newspapers over the years amused and sometimes shocked readers has died aged 56. The Citizen on Sunday said that he had a way with words and the use of simple and entertaining language. ‘Look at the names of his columns – Light touch (Sunday News), Punch Line (Daily Mail), Eyespy (This Day) – they all smacked of naughtiness. He rebuked the men in power and got away with it… he had no qualms about describing some of the politicians as ‘Bull crap,’ ‘trash comedy’, ‘baloney’, ‘empty talk’. Lusekelo was the BBC correspondent in Dar in the 80s and 90s and he had in recent years established himself as a Radio 4 presenter (for programmes including Africa’s Fourth Estate, 2005; the Living With Aids series, 2006; A Voyage On Livingstone’s Lake, the story of the MV Ilala boat on Lake Malawi, 2009; and Africa at 50: Wind of Change, 2010). He was buried with a chief’s honours, next to his father’s grave in Rungwe.

Emeritus Professor MICHAEL LATHAM OBE was born in Tanzania in 1928 and studied medicine at Trinity College in Dublin. One of his books, Kilimanjaro Tales: The Saga of a Medical Family in Africa, combined his and his mother’s accounts of their early life in Tanzania. From 1955 to 1964 he was a district medical officer and director of the nutrition unit of the Ministry of Health in Tanzania, and was awarded the OBE in 1965 for distinguished service. He joined Cornell University in 1968 after four years at Harvard, and remained there for over 40 years as a highly respected nutrionist. He was a cofounder and co-chair of the advisory group of the World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action and one of the first people to recognise the risks and campaign against the widespread marketing of powdered baby formula milk in developing countries. In 2007, the African Nutrition Graduate Students Network presented its first lifetime achievement award to Dr. Latham for his work to improve nutrition in Africa, and in 2008 he was awarded an order of merit from the United Nations System Standing Committee on Nutrition.

The EARL OF OXFORD AND ASQUITH (94), the grandson of Prime Minister HH Asquith, died on January 16 , 2011. After serving in Libya he was moved to Zanzibar in 1963. He said later that it had been a mistake to grant independence to the country in 1963 as it was clear that it had been suffering from underlying instability due to racial antipathies. He found the Arab politicians unreliable in both judgement and in action – The Times.

The Anglophile German historian and diplomat FRITZ CASPARI (96) died on December 1. After a distinguished career in Germany, Britain, Portugal and America, one of his final jobs was responsibility for German diplomatic relations with the Third World and the UN. In the Obituary in the Times (Thank you John Sankey for this – Editor) reference was made to the death in a plane crash in Tanzania of his eldest son Hans Michael who was serving in the UN. Thank you John also for the note you sent following the death on December 12 2010 of FATHER KIT CUNNINGHAM who spent 10 years at a Rosminion School in Tanzania.

Jonathan Hill, son of the Permanent Secretary for Home Affairs immediately before and after the independence of Tanganyika, has written to us to record the death of his father, DENYS CHALLMERS HILL OBE. He was in the Colonial Service in Tanganyika from 1940 to 1962 and, while holding various positions in the administration, he was involved in the Groundnut Scheme, a road to the (then) new Serengeti National Park, the distribution of famine relief during the war period and surveying the Ruaha Game Reserve.


Edited by John Cooper-Poole

THE WAYS OF THE TRIBE – A CULTURAL JOURNEY ACROSS NORTH-EASTERN TANZANIA, by Gervase Tatah Mlola, published by E & D Vision Publishing, Tanzania, October 2010. www.edvisionpublishing. co.tz. ISBN 978 9987 521 42 5. The book is available at all outlets of Novel Idea Bookshop in Tanzania, Kase Book Stores in Arusha, and the offices of Park East Africa Ltd., and the Tanzania Cultural Tourism Programme. In the UK, the book will shortly be available from www.africanbookscollective.com for £20.95 See www.waysofthetribe.com for more information on the book and some sample pages.

The Ways of the Tribe cover

Tanzania has a rich and diverse cultural landscape. The Ways of the Tribe is a compelling and authoritative reference work that makes a valuable contribution towards documenting the ancient heritage of the various tribes that populate this vast and beautiful land. Mlola’s first book offers readers a fabulous survey of fourteen tribes from the north-east of Tanzania.

Whilst the Maasai may be familiar to readers worldwide, the book also chronicles less familiar peoples like the Barabaig of Hanang District and the Mbugu of the Usambara mountains. This account is the result of a decade of research arising from visits to the present-day tribal communities by the author – a respected travel writer and cultural expert.

The content of this book is arranged by tribe and within each chapter there are sections on origins, history, community life, and customs. The contribution of each tribe to the national life and development of the nation is also included with a range of fascinating stories, such as the heroic story of the Olympic runner John Stephen Akhwari of the Iraqw.

The Ways of the Tribe is a lively and engaging chronicle packed with legends, humour, and colourful insights into everything from the naming of babies to the brewing of sugar cane beer. Each chapter also contains a very useful bibliographical section; the work would benefit further from the inclusion of an index. In addition to many striking images contributed by Colin Hastings (now a director at Majority World Photo Library) and photographer Briony Campbell, there are also illustrations by artists Abdul Gugu and Bosco Mpitivyako. Their work (together with a selection of maps) contributes to the bright and attractive appearance of this publication.

Mlola’s scholarship has resulted in a very accurate historical account, but his work also provides another level of understanding beyond the factual. The author’s first-hand experiences, passion, and dedicated research also offer readers a valuable understanding of the interplay between the beauty of the land and the beauty of the people. In doing so he offers a unique insight into the essence of the identity and vibrancy of these peoples.

In addition, the author provides a description of the present-day circumstances and lifeways of these peoples. In doing so, we are reminded these tribes are real communities whose rich heritage is sadly threatened by a host of issues often faced by indigenous peoples around the globe who strive to retain their identities in a rapidly changing world. The final chapter on the “lost tribe” of Engaruka is a reminder of the fate of indigenous groups who are unable to withstand the social, economic and environmental pressures that may come to threaten their future.

The Ways of the Tribe is a well-presented and important reference work that will have widespread appeal. For students and scholars it is a valuable historical chronicle and present-day commentary on the tribes under discussion. The book should give Tanzanians a greater appreciation of their diverse and lively heritage. Tourists planning a visit to the region that is home to many worldfamous destinations will greatly benefit from understanding the peoples they may encounter on their holidays. And finally for the general reader, this lively reference work is a wonderful way to begin exploring the people, places and cultures of this fascinating part of Africa.
Antony Shaw.

This review first appeared in Tantravel, the official travel magazine of Tanzania Tourist Board, and we are grateful for permission to re-publish it here.

MAJI MAJI. LIFTING THE FOG OF WAR James Giblin and Jamie Monson, eds., Brill, Leiden, pp.xii and 325, 2010, ISBN 978 90 04 18342 1. US$107, Eur 75.

The greatest achievement of the first ‘Dar es Salaam school’ of history in the 1960s was the Maji Maji research project. Over forty years ago there was money available for student research in the vacations and very many were deployed to collect oral testimony in the areas which had been affected by Maji Maji. This research produced what Giblin and Monson call ‘the foundational accounts’ of the rebellion, mainly by John Iliffe and the late Gilbert Gwassa, in collections of ‘records’, articles, and books. These now classic works were very popular and influential both inside and outside Tanzania. For decades it did not seem necessary, or perhaps even possible, to review and revise them.

Forty years later, though, so much new work has been done on central and southern Tanzania that a second Maji Maji research project has become possible and perhaps essential. A ‘multi-year collaborative project … began in 2001’ and has taken longer and cost much more than the original research. This book is the result. Though its contributors present a variety of interpretations of Maji Maji it is in essence a revisionist work. The 1960s account of the rebellion, the editors hold, was unduly ‘statist’. It overestimated the reach and the presence of the colonial state and it overestimated the proto-nationalist intentions of resistance to it. It was also too tidy, making the violence seem more co-ordinated than it really was. It laid too much stress on the spread and effect of the maji medicine but at the same time accepted too uncritically the existence of ‘tribes’. The real situation was much messier and more shaped by local and fragmented realities.

Reading this book reminded me of the famous story of the blind men and the elephant – one feeling its tail and deducing it must be a snake, another embracing a leg and deducing it must be a tree and so forth. The contributors find in Maji Maji what they most hope to find. Thaddeus Sunseri, who has done so much good work on environmental history, says that ‘Maji Maji was a symbolic clash of hunting cultures’ – it was ‘the war of the hunters’. (119) Lorne Larson, who has been working on the Ngindo for decades and who has written on witchcraft eradication movements, finds Maji Maji to be the climax of the politics of medicine. Heike Schmidt, who has an active interest in black female political power, lays stress on the role of Nkomanile, an Ngoni ‘royal woman’. (197) James Giblin, who has ‘domesticated’ rural Tanzanian politics, emphasises an oral tradition that ‘the war occurred here [in Ubena] because of a woman. Mpangire wanted to marry Mwangasama, for the very reason that Mpangire had a great desire for brown women’. (284) Giblin finds this story ‘as plausible and as faithful to our admitedly incomplete knowledge of the events of September 1905 as any account yet devised by historians’. (286) In fact, Maji Maji was all these things and more, just as an elephant has ears and a tusk as well as a tail and legs.

Maji Maji was about the contest over elephants and it was about how to resolve the problem of evil. It was about desire, gender and slavery. It was about the failures of chiefs and elders as well as about the presumptions of German colonial officers. It was a revolt against colonialism but it was something much more profound than that. It was an attempt to resolve the desperate problems of society, economy, belief and enviroment. The brutality of its repression foreclosed any possibility of reaching solutions. As Heike Schmidt writes: ‘Death, starvation, displacement, enslavement, forced labour and humiliation dominated life into the years following the fighting … The deadly silence observed in 1907 still resonates in Ungoni today.’ (218-219).

This collection makes many innovations. There is a terrifying chapter by Michell Moyde on the Askari, which makes great play with John Iliffe’s work on honour. Heike Schmidt’s historian’s chapter on Ungoni is balanced by a chapter on the archaeology of Maji Maji in the district by Bertram Mapunda. Very effective use is made of German missionary records, both Catholic and Protestant – though there is little on the role of African Christians. The book is beautifully produced and illustrated. It is a pity that it is too expensive to be bought by the average reader. It is possible that even if many Tanzanians read it they would not be as excited as a preceding generation was by the ‘statist’ accounts of forty years ago. Complexity is hard to digest or to teach. But anyone interested in Tanzanian history should obtain and read this book.
Terence Ranger

CHECHE: REMINISCENCES OF A RADICAL MAGAZINE edited by Karim Hirji, Mkuki na Nyota 2010. ISBN 978 9987 08 098 4.

THE COURAGE FOR CHANGE: RE-ENGINEERING THE UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM by Matthew Luhanga, Dar es Salaam University Press 2009. ISBN 978 9976 60 479 5. £22.95. Both books available from African Books Collective, P.O. Box 721, Oxford OX1 9EN www. africanbookscollective.com

Two recent books, one edited by Karim Hirji, the other by former Vice Chancellor Matthew Luhanga, contribute to the historiography of the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM), an institution which has seen significant and rapid changes in its relatively short history.

Karim Hirji opens his chapter, entitled “The Spark is Kindled,” with a vivid description of a Friday evening at UDSM in 1969. “Only a handful of staff offices are lit. Walter Rodney types out page after page of How Europe Underdeveloped Africa…” (p. 18). He goes on to describe an animated meeting of the University Students African Revolutionary Front (USARF), the radical socialist student group that founded Cheche, a short-lived but fiery student magazine published from 1969 to 1970. At this meeting a young radical named Yoweri Musevani speaks to the crowd; Issa Shivji and others who will become prominent Tanzanian intellectuals are there. In his description Hirji captures the spirit and enthusiasm of these activist students and provides a rich picture of UDSM’s vibrant intellectual atmosphere in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Likewise, Matthew Luhanga’s recounting of his time as UDSM’s Vice-Chancellor in The Courage for Change includes vivid, and often humorous, descriptions of significant events that took place during his tenure from 1991-2006. Indeed, the core contribution of both of these works is the detailed personal narratives and recollections of two significant, yet very different time periods in the history of UDSM.

Cheche recounts an intellectually vibrant period of UDSM’s history, the late 1960s and early 1970s, just after the Arusha Declaration, when students and scholars were engaged in building a university relevant to the socialist development of Tanzania. The volume, edited by Hirji, one of the founders of USARF and Cheche, can be divided into two parts. First, the core of the book gives Hirji’s account of the rapid rise and fall of the radical socialist student group and it’s associated publication. It includes reminiscences of other USARF members, such as Henry Mapolu, Zakia Meghji, George Hajivayanis, and Christopher Liunda about their work with Cheche and its successor publication, Maji Maji. Hirji has even included an article by a young Yoweri Musevani that appeared in a 1970 issue of the magazine. This section ends with a selection of poems, some republished from Cheche, that express the socialist ideals of USARF and its members. The second section bookends this core narrative of personal recollections. In the first and last three chapters, Hirji provides his socio-historic analysis of the wider national and global context in which the authors of the book were steeped. Utilizing personal observations and drawing on the work of a wide range of scholars, Hirji offers an analysis of why socialism failed in Tanzania (or was never truly enacted) and his critique of the capitalist imperialist system. The final chapter contains his reflections on the contributions and the deficiencies of USARF and Cheche. He ends the book with a call to the next generation to take up the cause of African liberation. While Hirji’s call to arms is inspiring and his socialist historical analysis is detailed, albeit unapologetically agenda-driven, it is the rich and detailed story that he and others tell of their personal experiences with USARF, Cheche, and the socialist era at UDSM that make a solid contribution to the historiography of the University of Dar es Salaam and Tanzanian intellectuals.

Luhanga’s Courage for Change focuses on another key time in the history of the university. In 1991, when Luhanga began his tenure as Vice Chancellor, the university was reeling from extreme economic hardship of the 1980s. Luhanga tells the story of his implementation of the Institutional Transformation Programme and UDSM’s subsequent slow emergence from a period of significant decline. Throughout the text Luhanga provides numerous facts and figures, supporting his contribution to UDSM’s recovery. These are also available in his previous publications (Strategic Planning and Higher Education Management in Africa, 2003 and Higher Education Reforms in Africa, 2003). While these tables, bullet points and statistics give some context, they are repeated from other sources and give a rather flat picture of UDSM’s recent history. It is the stories that Luhanga weaves amongst these facts of his hasty appointment, student protests, a “kidnapping”, economic hardships, and conflicts between the Hill (UDSM) and the Tanzanian government that are of interest. Of course, Luhanga’s account comes from the political perspective of the highest level of university administration, contrasting sharply with Hirji et al.’s narrative from radical students’ perspectives. Both are necessary, however, to gain a fuller picture of the rich history of the University of Dar es Salaam.
Amy Jamison

FROM BONGOLAND TO DAR ES SALAAM; URBAN MUTATIONS IN TANZANIA, co-ordinated by Bernard Calas, originally published in French by Karthala of Paris around 2006, now translated by Naomi Morgan, and published in English by Mkuki wa Nyoka Publishers Ltd in association with the French Institute for Research in Africa, pp 417, ISBN 978-9987-08-094-6. Available from African Books Collective, P.O. Box 721, Oxford OX1 9EN. www.africanbookscollective.com. £34.95.

This book brings together in English a dozen papers by a group of French academics in the fields of geography, economics, political science, sociology and history, Their research, done between 1996 and 2002, covers Dar es Salaam’s foundation and exponential growth, the harbour, trade and commerce, local government (and its shameful neglect in the 1970s), land and planning controls, slum life, public and private transport, primary education, and water supply. There are also chapters on the impact of various ethnic groups and the colonisers on the metropolis’ culture and society; and finally a dissertation on the city’s relations with Zanzibar.

On all these matters, this volume offers useful data and informed judgements (on, for example, the problems of Ujamaa and the subsequent Structural adjustment Programme). It also provides numerous insights into the life of the city’s inhabitants over the years. As such, it will be a useful quarry for future students of urban development in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as of the story of Dar es Salaam.

The book has severe limitations however. There is no index; and because few of the writers knew Swahili, their work lacks the immediacy of oral testimony, while the bibliography is inevitably mostly of works in French. Moreover, the chapters vary in quality; some are clear and direct, others are prolix and complex. Some are a pleasure to read; others very heavy. The translator tackled her job gallantly but appears to have had fearful difficulty at times in turning academic French into straightforward English. My review copy had not been proof-read, and contained frequent irritating howlers – like “Babamoyo” on page 12 – as well as the omission of illustrations and repetition of sentences in several places.

Unless a clean and much tidier edition is published, this is a poor example of the work of the publishers, Mkuki wa Nyoka. Despite all these drawbacks however, we may be grateful to the authors, coordinator and translator for contributing another useful building block in Tanzania’s recent history.
Dick Eberlie

SPEAK SWAHILI, DAMMIT! by James Penhaligon. Authorhouse U.K. Ltd. 500 Avebury Boulevard, Central Milton Keynes, MK9 2BE. www.authorhouse. co.uk. ISBN 978 1 4490 2373 7. Speak swahili Dammit, is available via the author’s book website, www.SpeakSwahiliDammit.com at “just over £10”.

For those Wazungu who lived in East Africa from the Fifties onwards, this book will bring back many fond memories. It was good to hear a tale from someone who was brought up in what was then Tanganyika later to become Tanzania, as to my knowledge there are few other similar accounts.

James Penhaligon was raised in the bush in a remote area near Mwanza next to Lake Victoria at the Geita gold mine and after the premature death of his father, his mother and sister carried on living in the area with his mother working to make ends meet. The young “Jimu” soon comes under the spell of Africa and one can see the enthusiasm he has for the country, people and especially the language.

Apart from Jimu’s adventures, the book also gives the reader a little history about Tanzania when he meets an old soldier from Von Lettow Vorbeck’s Deutsch Ost Africa Corps and about the campaigns of the First World War which I remembered being spoken about when a pupil at Lushoto in the Sixties. Jimu’s story continues with his education at Arusha and Nairobi, and I can identify with the black and blue bruises that he describes! The Swahili interspersed throughout the book was interesting to a Swahili speaker although there was quite a lot of repetition of phrases that sometimes detracted from what is a really a cracking tale that has tragedy, adventure and humour in jembefuls (spadefuls).The book was also a little long but overall an enjoyable read and brought back wonderful memories of Tanzania.
David Holton

Dick Eberlie was District Officer in Dar es Salaam, Kisarawe and Morogoro and subsequently worked for the Tanzania Tea Grower’s Association. He was Secretary of the Tanzania Society for the Blind and a member of the Editorial Board of the Tanzania Notes and Records. Author of “The German Achievement in East Africa”, he is now an adviser on industrial organisation and business representation with the British Executive Service Overseas (BESO).

David Holton was educated at Lushoto Prep School before returning to school in England. He has been manager of Bookland in Chester and a regular book reviewer for BBC local radio.

Amy Jamison holds a PhD in Educational Policy from Michigan State University, and conducted her doctoral research on the history of the University of Dar es Salaam. She is currently the Assistant Director of the Center for Gender in Global Context and continues to pursue research focused on African higher education.

Terence Ranger was the first Professor of History at University College, DSM, 1963-1969. He is currently Emeritus Professor at the University of Oxford and has been a member of the Britain-Tanzania Society for thirty years.

Anthony Shaw is Managing Director of Creo Communications, a Tanzania-based company offering communication consultancy and English language support services to individuals, organisations and businesses.