Archive for Obituaries


JOAN WICKEN (79) former Personal Assistant to the late Mwalimu Julius Nyerere, died on December 5th of pneumonia after six weeks in hospital.

Joan WickenJoan Wicken with the Queen and the late President Nyerere

The funeral ceremony at Keighley in Yorkshire was presided over by Maggie Blunt, a Funeral Officiant of the British Humanist Foundation – Ms Wicken did not want a religious ceremony. Mrs Blunt spoke of Joan’s unique character and how she had faced death in a calm and philosophical manner. Her father had been a strong trade unionist. After school she joined the ATS and worked during the Second World War on anti-aircraft radar. At Oxford University she had studied politics, philosophy and economics and later, wisely for her future career, became proficient in secretarial skills. She was a dedicated socialist all her life and spent 30 years as a member of the Labour Party Read the rest of this entry »

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The singer, musician and composer PATRICK BALISIDYA (58) died on August 7 last year. He made his name through the hit Harusi (wedding) which is played at nuptial ceremonies around Tanzania. Like his better-known colleague, the late Hukwe Zawose, he was a member of the Gogo tribe from Dodoma. He began his musical career playing guitar for the Dar es Salaam Jazz Band in 1967. By 1970 he had formed his own group ‘Afro 70’. He shied away from the Congolese soukous sound then dominating East African music, instead drawing inspiration from the thumb piano and vocal melodies of Gogo tradition. At the height of his popularity in 1979 he visited Sweden and collaborated with the progressive rock group ‘Archimedes Badkar’ on their album Bado Kidogo (not yet). As an early example of world music fusion, it was notable mostly for the way the headliners were relegated more or less to the role of backing band on their own recording by their African guests. (Thank you Trevor Jagger for sending this obituary from the Independent – Editor) .

Dr. AUGUSTINE MACHA has died. He was the first Tanzanian to achieve a PhD in Animal Genetics. He resisted the temptation to earn big money working overseas and returned home to seek work. After completing his BVM&S at Edinburgh University he was appointed Regional Veterinary Officer in Kagera Region. There he saw people starving from lack of protein, while he was busy treating sick cats and dogs. His dream was to make the local breeds of cattle better producers using local husbandry methods. The Mpwapwa breed is now an internationally registered and recognised breed and is a living monument to his life’s work. He became Director General of Tanzania’s Livestock Research Organisation and subsequently undertook several international consultancy assignments (Thank you Nancy Macha for sending us these details about your late husband – Editor).

NDALA KASHEBA died in Dar-es-Salaam in October 2004. A veteran of the East African music scene, Kasheba was an important musical force in Tanzania since the 1970’s when he first immigrated to Dar Es Salaam from the Congo. He was known as one of the greatest African guitarists, appointed the title “Maestro” by his fans. Ndala Kasheba’s music bore the stamp of his Congolese roots. With his booming tenor voice and big band ambiance, one inevitably thought of Franco in his prime. But Kasheba had a number of distinguishing qualities in his Swahili rumba sound, most notably his use of an electrified, 12-string acoustic guitar, which he overdubed to create a gorgeous, chiming ambiance. With his own group “Zaita Musica” he wrote songs such as “Dezo dezo” and “Kokolay” which were later massive hits for Tshala Muana. The group toured Europe in 1991 and Kasheba continued to perform as a solo guitarist as well as with his colleagues – Nguza Viking, King Kiki, Kassongo Mpinda Clayton, Kibambe Rhamadhan,
Delphin Mununga, and others on multiple nights a week in various Dar es Salaam clubs. He most recently came to London in 2003 and performed at several events wearing a trademark straw hat.



The RIGHT REVEREND GEORGE BRIGGS (93) was a missionary priest in Tanzania for 36 years. He died on March 15. He had belonged to a company of unmarried Anglo-Catholic clergy and, in the years before the Second World War, felt drawn to sacrificial service in the Universities Mission to Central Africa. From 1969 to 1973 he was Warden of St Cyprian Theological College in Masasi where many future African bishops passed through his hands. In 1960 Father Trevor Huddleston was elected Bishop of Masasi and they worked closely in helping the Church and the nation to prepare for independence two years later. From 1964 to 1969 Briggs was Rector of St Albans, Dar es Salaam. In his will he left £1,000 to the Britain Tanzania Society – from the obituary in the Daily Telegraph – Editor.

SIR HORACE PHILLIPS KCMG (86) died on 19th March. He spent four years in Tanzania as British High Commissioner from 1968.

ROBIN THORNE (86) who died on May 11 was a District Officer in Tanganyika from 1948 to 1958 before moving to a very troubled Aden for nine years where he was badly wounded by a letter bomb. (Thank you John Sankey for sending this information – Editor).

DR. HAROLD WHEATE OBE (86) died on 19th April. He was first in charge of the Makete Leprosarium, near Tukuyu (1954 – 58) and then of the Chazi Leprosarium, near Morogoro (1958 – 72). As Senior Government Leprologist, he developed a nation-wide leprosy control scheme which brought government and missionary medical workers together, an effective co-operation which dramatically improved the rates for early diagnosis and treatment of leprosy around the country. (Thank you Mike Wheate for sending this – Editor).



Former Inspector General of Police HAMZA AZIZ (73), who died after a short illness, fought in the Second World War and was the second indigenous Tanzanian to hold the position of Inspector General since independence in 1961. He served the country in several other capacities locally and abroad. He was buried with full military honours.

When W A (BILL) DODD CMG (81), who died on February 5th, first went out to Tanganyika in 1952, he was posted to the Teacher Training College at Butimba in Mwanza. From there he went as District Education Officer to Bukoba, then Mtwara, Songea, Moshi and Dar es Salaam. He was finally elevated to the post of Senior Education Officer (Training) in the Ministry of Education until he left Tanzania in 1965. His many books include ‘A Map Book of Exploration’ in English and Swahili, ‘Primary School Inspection in New Countries’, ‘Education for Self-Reliance in Tanzania’ and, with John Cameron, ‘Society, Schools and Progress in Tanzania.’ (Thank you David Connelly and Peter Hill for contributing to this item – Editor).

JOHN CAMERON OBE (89), who died in December, served in the education department in Tanganyika/Tanzania from 1948 until 1964. Following involvement in teacher training, he became Principal of the Government teacher training colleges in Butimba and Mpwapwa. From 1960 onwards he was Assistant Director of Education in which capacity he supervised the amalgamation of the hitherto separate systems of education – the African and the “non native”. (Bill Dodd sent this item on December 12 not long before, sadly, he himself passed away – Editor).

BERNARD GILCHRIST spent 20 years of his life helping to preserve the forests of Tanganyika. He established a large escarpment forest reserve at Mufindi, prepared a vegetation map for much of southern Tanganyika and helped to create Engurdoto Crater National Park. Most of the forest reserves he worked in had large numbers of elephant, rhino and buffalo and he was attacked by elephants on several occasions. While on these foot safaris he enjoyed collecting botanical specimens and photographing plants with his ancient Leica. He subsequently became Deputy Chief Conservator of Forests in Tanzania – (Thank you Jill Bowden for sending this item – Editor).

JUDGE JOSEPH MWAKIBETE, who died of heart problems on January 17, was born in the early 1930s at Mabonde, Tukuyu. He worked as an administrative officer in various districts in the country, later joining the University of Dar es Salaam for a law degree. He joined the Judiciary and worked in different positions until his appointment as Judge of the High Court in 1972.

Former chief of the Tanzania People’s Defence Forces GENERAL ABDULLAH TWALIPO who died at the end of 2003, spent 41 years of his life from 1947 to 1972 in military service and then served as Minister of State in the President’s Office in 1984 – Sunday Observer.

HUKWE ZAWOSE (65), who died on December 30, was a Tanzanian singer with an astonishing range; he eventually became a star of world music. As a boy he sang as he herded the cattle across the plains of Ugogo and then, as his voice dropped, he retained a high sweetness of tone and was eventually able to boast a five octave range. He was also a remarkable instrumentalist, learning and researching the traditional instruments of the Wagogo people. Later he wrote songs celebrating the late Julius Nyerere and the independence struggle and helped to establish the ‘National Musical Ensemble’ of Tanzania. In 2002, with his nephew Charles, he went on a sell-out tour to some of the biggest stadiums in America and Europe. He reputedly fathered 15 children by four wives. (Thank you Liz Fennell and Debbie Simmons for sending the obituary from the Times of 12th January on which this note is based – Editor).



MICHAEL DOREY OBE (80) who spent 12 years in Tanganyika from 1948, became a DC in 1953. Following service with HM Inland Revenue (1962 -71) he returned to Dar es Salaam for two years as a Senior Assessor in the East African Income Tax Department. He died on 28th January 2003.

RAYMOND INSKEEP (76) an archaeologist who spent most of his life working on African archaeology died on 3rd August. He first went to Tanzania as a young man at the invitation of Louis and Mary Leakey to excavate at the painted rock-shelter of Kisese 2 where he established the surprisingly early date of the first art there -The Times.

ALAN LINTON (83), who died on June 3 last year, was the son of the then Anglican Bishop of Persia and served for 15 years in Tanganyika from 1947 becoming a District Commissioner in 1955 (Thank you Simon Hardwick and John Sankey for sending this item -Editor).



The forester BERNARD GILCHRIST (83), who died recently, was appointed to the Colonial Service in 1943. On his first journey to Tanganyika his ship ran into a ferocious storm during which all the lifeboats, decking and railings were washed away. Later, in South African waters, the ship was torpedoed. In 1946 he moved to Mufindi to establish a large escarpment forest reserve and in 1948 to Morogoro where he was responsible for the management of the mangrove forest of the Rufiji delta. During his service he prepared a vegetation map for much of southern Tanganyika, determined the sustainable rate of yield from the West Usambara forest reserve and helped draw up a management plan for the Ngorongoro crater. In the 1960’s he became Deputy Chief Conservatory of Forests, drew up a pulp and paper production scheme and wrote a five year plan for forest development –Thank you John Ainley for sending this obituary from the Daily Telegraph -Editor.

Veteran politician JOSEPH KASELA BANTU (81) died on 29th April. He was among the 17 founder members of TANU in 1954 and later became a founder member of the opposition United Democratic Party (UDP) ­Guardian.

The Swahili press has reported that the University of Dar es Salaam historian PROFESSOR ISRAEL KATOKE has been killed by thugs at his home in Karagwe. His body was found bound and gagged and he had been strangled with a necktie. Some workers on his farm have been arrested as suspects. Prof Katoke was also a Consultant to UNESCO and, in his retirement, was working on developing a new university in Bukoba.

Mrs JOSEHPINE SHARP, wife of the late former Commissioner for Town Planning in Tanganyika, Robert Sharp, who has died of cancer, directed or took part in more than 39 of the productions of The Dar es Salaam Players at the Little Theatre. Her proudest moment was when, in 1964, President Nyerere attended a production of ‘Twelfth Night’ which she directed. She was also sometime President of the Women’s Service League. [this is corrected version see letters issue 79]

The London Guardian (22nd May) published an obituary on the influential World Bank development economist BEVAN WAIDE who has died at the age of 66. In 1969 he was seconded as Chief Adviser to the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Development Planning in Tanzania. He advised on Tanzania’s second five-year plan during the turbulent years when Julius Nyerere was consolidating his country’s socialist stance in development and the World Bank was less concerned than today about nationalisation and substantial state expenditure. While in Tanzania he also obtained a pilot’s licence and flew frequently to remote areas in the course of his work –Thank you Peter Yea for sending this obituary -Editor.



Elsbeth Court writes: PROFESSOR KIURE FRANCIS MSANGI, b. Usangi, Pare, 1937, passed away during January in Nairobi, where he had been teaching Graphic Design and practical teaching methods since 1986. He practiced what he preached; his last solo exhibition of new work was in December 2002. Indeed, in recent years, his intellectual energy was absorbed with spiritual concerns, though he was always an active Christian having served the Lutheran ministry in many ways, from meditation to music­making on the piano.

Amongst the most academically-educated artists in eastern Africa, Msangi had earned diplomas and higher degrees from Mpwapwa Teachers’ College; Makerere University School of Art (where he was awarded the Trowell Prize for top performance); yet, when we met, he observed he had “not one full lecture on African art in five years at Makerere”, 26.10.00); California College of Art and Craft (on a Fulbright Scholarship, 1973); and, Stanford University School of Education. On completion of his thesis on the teaching of art in Tanzanian schools, he returned to Nairobi rather than Dar­es-Salaam. He explained he was attracted by Kenya’s educational reforms, known as “8-4-4” (referring to the phases of the formal cycle) which made art a compulsory subject at school level and incorporated local–ethnic–practices of art-making. Throughout his life, Kiure Msangi pursued several kinds of art work. These are painter, print maker, art educator, book illustrator such as Samaki Mdogo Mweusi -Little black fish (Tanzania Publishing House) and author, such as his little classic ‘Art Handbook for Teachers’ (TPH, 1975).

Francis Kiure Msangi. 1967. Woodcut print 'Ujamaa'. (Photo: E Court)

His print Ujamaa (1967), reproduced here, is characteristic of his energetic and expressive re-presentation of local, modern life. Like his deeply-held values, his artistic style was consistent all through his career. Unlike many ‘African’ artists, his oeuvre is documented in the literature (African Arts magazine, Fosu:1985, Agthe:1990, Kennedy: 1992).

Professor Msangi is buried in Tanzania. In their obituary statement that celebrates his life, ‘The Family’ review the scope of Msangi’s accomplishments, not the least being his family. They describe him as a devoted husband (of Grace Namkari) and cherishing father (of Ziddi, Siwa and Altha) , who was deeply spiritual and committed to painting. Their conclusion uses portrait painting as a metaphor for memory, ‘The portrait we have painted is unfinished…’ They welcome us –his friends, colleagues, patrons, readers –to join them ‘in painting the portrait of Kiure Francis Msangi… so that Kiure’s [legacy] lives on in the portrait we create .. …we invite you to continue to paint. (Thank you to Prof Olive Mugenda, Deputy Vice-Chancellor of Kenyatta University, for forwarding The Family’s obituary statement-EC).

Joan Wicken writes: JUSTICE ABDULLA MUSTAFA died at the end of January in Canada. Born in 1916 in Hong Kong, he went to university in India, worked for Nairobi City Council while studying privately until he passed full law examinations, ‘ate his dinners’ at Lincolns Inn in 1946 and was called to the bar the same year. After private practice in Arusha, in 1970 he was made a judge in the Tanzanian High Court, then in the East African Court of Appeal; and finally he became a senior judge in the Tanzania Appeal Court, retiring only in 1989. Throughout this period, Judge Mustafa earned a great reputation in Eastern Africa as a man of absolute integrity, a strong supporter of the rule of law and thus of the independence of the judiciary, regardless of the status or wealth of those before him. It was this reputation which led to his services being ‘lent’ to the Seychelles, where he helped to establish an Appeal Court and to sit as its president in 1992. Judge Mustafa was dependent upon thrice weekly dialysis for his last years, but continued to enjoy life with his wife Sophie, who was an elected member of the Tanganyika legislature from 1958 to 1965. The two went together to the ‘launch’ in December 2002 of Sophie’s first novel; she is just 80 years of age.

Jim Read writes:
FRANCIS NYALALI, retired only in 2000 after a remarkable and mould-breaking 23 years as Chief Justice of Tanzania. His contributions to developing the institutions of government were second only to those of President Nyerere whose insight in selecting him in 1977 to lead the judiciary, after only three years on the High Court bench and above ten more senior judges, was fully justified by his achievements. Nyalali’s life story -from Sukuma herd-boy via Tabora school and Makerere University College to Lincoln’s Inn (called to the Bar 1966, Honorary Bencher 1994) and then as zealous, reforming local magistrate and chairman of the industrial court, was well used by Jennifer Widner as the framework for her recent searching study of the daunting problems facing African judges in general, Building the Rule of Law (reviewed in Tanzanian Affairs No 71). Nyalali’s lasting achievements included persuading initially suspicious, even hostile politicians, of the importance of the rule of law and then chairing the Presidential Commission which restored multi-party politics in place of the one-party system. Prominent in the debate which led to the adoption of the Bill of Rights in 1984, he also launched a legal literacy programme to help Tanzanians understand their laws. He was instrumental in creating the Tanzanian Court of Appeal, over which he presided. He died on April 2nd and was commemorated at special Mass at a packed St Peter’s Church, Oyster Bay.

Former Minister of Health and former Chief Scout DR LEADER STIRLING (97) who died on 7th February was described in an obituary in The Times as ‘the epitome of the muscular Christian and, like Livingstone, became a legend in his adopted country. His life was like a tale from Buchan or Rider Haggard.’ Further extracts from The Times: ‘He was on his way to becoming a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons but, before completing his exams, he prayed: “Lord, what will you have me to do?”. Two days later there came a cable from the Universities Mission to Central Africa: ‘A doctor is urgently needed at Masasi; can you come?’ There would be no salary, a suit of clothes every four years, and pocket money of one shilling day ….. He spent the next 14 years in a hospital of mud huts -cooking pots and stores of food, live hens, spears and bows and arrows were stowed under the beds in the wards; the operating theatre was an openwork bamboo building with a grass roof and every gust of wind filled it with dust and dead leaves; there was no running water and the hospital had no lighting except for oil lamps. Nevertheless, with meticulous asepsis, he achieved a post-operative infection rate of almost nil.. …. After these years at Lulundi, he became a Catholic and joined the Benedictine Mission. They sent him to Mnero where he built another hospital and started a school for rural medical assistants. 15 years later he was transferred to Kibisho, Kilimanjaro Region. He devised instruments from simple materials: screwdrivers made ideal traction-pins; sewing cotton was perfect for ligatures; Thomas splints were contrived from bamboo; extension cord from plaited palm leaves with stones as traction weights; when plaster of Paris ran out, he made his own from locally quarried gypsum. He devised a new bloodless operation for the giant swellings of the scrotum caused by Filiariasis. At independence he became a Tanzanian citizen and was elected to Parliament. In 1973 Julius Nyerere made him Minister of Health.

In 1993 the Royal College of Surgeons made him a Fellow by Election -a rare honour.’ His funeral was attended by thousands. It rained in buckets for more than two hours -the first rain for five months. In Tanzanian folklore, it rains only on the funeral of a truly great man.
(Thank you to several readers who sent us this obituary -Editor)



A ceremony was held to celebrate the-life of EMERITUS PROFESSOR ARTHUR HUGH BUNTING, CMG (who died on May 8) at Reading University on September 6. Speaker’s referred inter alia to the four years he spent as Head of the Scientific Department of the Tanganyika Groundnut Scheme from 1947 to 1951 when it was closed down.
Extracts from the book ‘The Groundnut Affair’ by Alan Wood ­
Bunting arrived to test the soil while bulldozers were already clearing the ground …. He had a portable soil testing kit in a wooden box; he used a tea-strainer as sieve and he tested for acidity with dyes which changed colour. … But with this box Bunting obtained results which were to prove remarkably accurate, although he did not detect the unusually high proportion of clay in the soil as he had no means of mechanical analysis. The decision to start the Groundnut Scheme at Kongwa had been taken before he was able to carry out his tests …. In view of subsequent events it was what Bunting had to say on rain which was the most important. With scientific caution he noted: ‘Actual rainfall figures for the area are entirely lacking and the subject needs further investigation’. He strongly opposed the opening of a new area for groundnut cultivation in the Southern Province in 1948 but was overruled.’ Summarising the experience gained, the author of the book wrote ‘It was impossible not to be impressed by the vigour with which the multitudinous problems the scheme faced were being tackled by Hugh Bunting and two other leaders and their helpers’ A speaker at the ceremony said that Bunting’s outspokenness when talking to the British cabinet minister responsible for the Groundnut Scheme resulted in him being sacked and told that he would never be employed in the Colonial Service again. The Foreign Office then offered him a job in the Sudan and he continued to be involved in development projects all over Africa for the next forty years. He was working until a few days before his death.

GORDON CHITTELBOROUGH (86), once described as ‘the ten­talent man’, who died on July 28, spent 39 years in Tanganyika/Tanzania from 1938. He was a pharmacist, teacher, builder and fluent Swahili speaker. He began as a missionary of CMS Australia. He became Provincial Secretary of the Province of East Africa and later worked on the creation of a new Province.

HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS PRINCE CLAUS (76), husband of Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands, died from pneumonia on October 26. He was particularly active in development co-operation and visited Tanzania regularly. The Tanzania Government was represented at his funeral.

RH R (DICK) CLIFFORD who was born in 1920 in India and grew up in Kenya started his service in Tanzania as D. O. Moshi in 1953. His final position was Personal Secretary to the then Governor of Tanganyika, Sir Richard Tumbull.

High Court JUDGE LUHEKELO KYANDO (59) who died from a severe attack of asthma on 13th October had given his last major judgment only a few days earlier. He had rejected a request from four Muslim Sheikhs to stop the BAKWATA elections (see above).

MAJOR GENERAL ROWLAND MANS served with 1I6th King’s African Rifles (initially trained in Moshi) during the advance into Italian Somaliland during the Second World War. At the battle of Colito they took 489 Italian and 31 African prisoners. In 1942 Mans led Tanganyikan soldiers in occupying Mayotte in the Comores and then conquering Madagascar from the Vichy French regime. Later, he represented former Tanganyika soldiers on the British and Commonwealth Ex-Servicemen’s League and launched the ‘Askari Appeal’ in 1998 which raised £250,000 to provide gratuities to former Tanganyikan askaris. The oldest of these had served in German East Africa in the First World War and was aged 110 in 2002, having lived in the same house, except for his war service, for 100 years. Mans was President of the East African Forces Association from 1997 to 2002 (Thank you John Sankey for sending this -Editor).

ROBERT SHARP (86) FRTPI (Rtd), MIMunE., died on 27th August. He joined the recently formed government Department of Town Planning in Tanganyika in 1954. At independence he became Commissioner for Town Planning (later renamed Director), a position he held until he returned to England in 1969. (Thank you John Rollinson for sending this -Editor).



ANASTASIOS CHRISTODOULOU (70) CBE, a Cypriot recruit to the British Colonial Service, served in Tanganyika from 1956 to 1962 as a District Officer/District Commissioner and magistrate. He later achieved considerable fame as founding secretary of the British Open University and was responsible for every aspect of the academic, financial, staff and general administration. He was also Secretary­General of the Association of Commonwealth Universities.

GEOFFREY HUCKS OBE (95), who died on August 4th was District Commissioner in Iringa in the early 50’s and later became Acting Provincial Commissioner in the then Southern Highlands Province. He became more widely known when he was appointed Supervisor of Elections during Tanzania’s first general election (Thank you Michael Longford for sending this news -Editor).

Advocate ELEUTHA FABIAN KAPINGA was killed by bandits on June 10th in Dar es Salaam. During a distinguished career Mr Kapinga had been Deputy Director of the Tanzania Legal Corporation, many times President of the Tanzania Law Society and a board member of the Tanzania Cigarette Company. He was buried in his village in Mbinga District, Ruvuma Region.

RONALD NEATH (81) who died on May 4th was among the more progressive administrators who served in the administration in Tanganyika from the late 1940’s to mid-1960’s, something which tied in well with the pre-independence political scene at the time. After leaving Tanzania he had a distinguished career in the United Nations in New York and Geneva. (Thank you Tony Lee for this -Editor).

Described in the Tanzanian Guardian as one of the pillars of the Kagera War against Iddi Amin in Uganda, MAJOR GENERAL JOHN W ALDEN has died. He was a retired Divisional Commander of the Tanzania People’s Defence forces (TPDF). In field operations he picked up the code name “Commander Black Mamba”. He was described as having represented a relic of Tanzania’s colonial history ­that of successful localisation of German era settlers.

The well known wildlife photographer and conservationist HUGO VAN LARWICK, who was born in the Netherlands but lived and worked largely in Tanzania for many years, has died. The Government decided that, although cremation had been planned originally, his body would be buried at Lake Ndutu in the Serengeti National Park. In its leading article on 7th June the Guardian wrote ‘Having the body of Hugo van Larwick placed to rest within the Serengeti helps us to grasp how far we are part of humanity living near the Serengeti rather than owning it. Humanity will feel closer to us when students of nature from around the world will be visiting his memorial site in the park. This will be similar to visitors making their way to Mwalimu Nyerere’s grave in Butiama or to see Chief Mkwawa’s skull in Iringa.



The CHEIF SHEIKH, Mufti Hemed bin Jumaa bin Hemed, died in the Intensive Care Unit of the Muhimbili National Hospital on April 8. The National Muslim Council of Tanzania (BAKWATA) said a special prayer and President Mkapa led mourners at the funeral in Tanga.

“It is with sadness, I am writing to inform you that my husband, ANTHONY GILBERT SHORT (83) died on 30th September, 2001. He and his first wife Jean, who died in 1989, spent about 20 years in Tanzania during the 1950s and 1960s living in Urambo and latterly in Dar Salaam. Tony went out initially to work on the ill-fated ground scheme and later helped to develop an African settlement scheme. He was a supporter of Julius Nyerere’s independence movement and was elected as MP for Tabora in the transition Parliament” -letter from Mrs Joan M Short.