But irregularities in Zanzibar harm the image
President Mkapa and his Chama cha Mapinduzi (CCM) party achieved an overwhelming victory in the October 29 elections in Tanzania. He won primarily because he had maintained peace but there were other reasons. He had established a good macro-economic climate for investment and had begun to tackle corruption. People had been impressed by the way in which 40 incumbent CCM MP’s had been rejected at the time of selection of CCM candidates for seats in parliament for what was described as ‘violation of party ethics and regulations’ (see Tanzanian Affairs No 67).
The Tanzanian electorate has benefited also from some 40 years of education in politics from the late Mwalimu Nyerere and has become astute in choosing its representatives. People registered to vote in much greater numbers this time (8.1 million cf 6.8 million in 1995), they turned out in their thousands to listen to the four presidential candidates (causing all of them to believe that they were going to win!) and then proceeded to vote in large numbers. They largely rejected parties considered to be religiously biased -the Civic United Front (CUF) on the mainland was alleged to be Muslim oriented -and tribally-based parties, as the United Democratic Party (UDP) in the Lake Victoria regions was alleged to be. They had no doubt about which candidate they considered to be of presidential calibre and voted for CCM because they feared that the other parties spelt disunity in the country. The President also had the advantage of a CCM party united and well organised in every village and with substantial funds for the campaign. The fact that government subsidies for political parties had been stopped handicapped the previously relatively well-financed main opposition parties.
Observers praised the mainland election for being broadly free and fair. Even if there had been irregularities, they could not have affected the overall result. The subsequent action of three opposition parties (not CHADEMA) in saying that the election had not been free and that they would not recognise President Mkapa seemed surprising. By December 10 however, when the country celebrated 39 years of independence, another party leader (John Cheyo of the UDP) was advising colleagues to bury their differences and cooperate with the government in the interests of development.
For the disunited opposition the election was a disaster from which it has much to learn. CUF’s Ibrahim Lipumba obtained only 16.3% in the presidential election and just two mainland MP’s in the National Assembly (none last time). Former idol of the masses and vigorous anti-corruption fighter Augustine Mrema was humiliated. His vote dropped from 27.8% in 1995 to 7.8% in 2000 and the successful candidates in the party which he had recently joined totalled only four compared with the 16 he had led to victory in 1995. The NCCRMageuzi party which he led at the time had self-destructed before the election through personality differences and obtained only one seat. United Democratic Party (UDP) leader John Cheyo could hardly believe that, after five years of effort and an impressive record in parliament, he got only 4.2% of the vote (6.4% last time) and the same number of MP’s -three. The CHADEMA party, which was in alliance with CUF in support of Lipumba for president, got 4 MP’s compared with 3 in 1995.
A PERSONAL ELECTION DIARY. Part 1. The mainland. by Editor David Brewin
(What follows is from notes taken at the time. Words in italics have been added later – Editor)
Saturday 21 October
At the Kenya/Tanzania border post Tanzanian customs officers demand that all the rucksacks on the roof -the luggage was nearly all rucksacks -had to be taken down and then had to be taken by each tourist to the customs office about 20 yards away. Each piece was then awarded a cross in chalk. “Its just like my country -we have petty bureaucrats there too” said a young Indian tourist on his way to climb Mount Kilimanjaro.
As we continue the journey we soon see evidence that there is an election going on. There are green CCM flags outside many shops in the villages we pass through and most houses sport a coloured poster of President Mkapa. At Usa River between Arusha and Moshi a large crowd has gathered in a field. Ten minutes later a police car waves to our driver to tell him to get off the road. It soon becomes apparent that the procession of cars coming towards includes one containing the President of the Republic. The tourists rush for their cameras -but it is too late. Some 20 vehicles pass us at high speed. We read about President Mkapa’s speech there the next day.
My hotel in Moshi is doubling as the regional HQ for the CHADEMA PARTY one of the 13 parties taking part in the election, of which four have candidates for the presidency: the ruling Chama cha Mapinduzi -CCM; Tanzania Labour Party TLP; the Civic United Front CUF/CHADEMA alliance and the United Democratic Party (UDP). The other main party -the NCCR-Mageuzi wanted to do the same but its candidates failed to register correctly. The hotel’s car park is full of CHADEMA’s heavily-postered vehicles. On arrival I hear that there is no time even to shake off the dust from the journey. The legendary former Deputy Prime Minister and later leader of the biggest opposition party -The NCCR-Mageuzi -is in town and about to speak. It’s a fairly large crowd. Not as large as I had anticipated. Five years ago, any appearance by Augustine Mrema was like the arrival of the Messiah. First we hear an eloquent warm-up speech by Archbishop Kakobe of the Full Gospel Fellowship Church whom many in the crowd say that they have specifically come to hear. His well argued address is punctuated with good humour -an essential component of political speech making in Tanzania. He does the candidate no harm at all. Then Mrema takes the stage. The same as always. “They say I will destroy the peace in this country ….. Tanzania will become like Burundi and the Congo” he begins before launching into his favourite themes -corruption, dishonesty, poverty, the price of food, of coffee ….. He is in good humour and soon has the crowd on his side. He has not lost his popular touch but the magic has gone. (Mrema’s TLP won only two seats in his own Kilimanjaro Region). In the midst of the goodnatured crowd, one young man leans on his bicycle, to which he has tied a prominent coloured poster featuring the rival CUF/CHADEMA alliance presidential candidate -Ibrahim Lipumba. I decide that this will make a good photograph (later I lost my camera!). The man agrees to the photograph with a smile and those around him also see the funny side and smile too. What an excellent example of tolerance and democracy.
In the evening I am ‘taken over’ by a CHADEMA stalwart. We work our way around a number of bars -everyone is keen to talk politics. I note a general admiration for CCM President Mkapa. He is going to win in a big way. (He did!) But I think I detect something new. The possibility that some people might split their vote, and while supporting Mkapa for president, support another party when voting for their MP. (I was wrong. CCM got 90% of the seats in parliament)
Sunday 22nd October.
CHADEMA stalwart offers to drive me around. I point out that in the interests of fairness I also want to see what the other parties are up to. We agree to go first to a NCCR meeting. My companions remove their CHADEMA badges. Moshi Urban’s present MP is from the NCCR but at this meeting the assembled throng comprises just six adults and seven children. It is apparent that he will not be re-elected (He got just 1,406 out of 44,863 votes). I feel sorry for the lonely speaker but my CHADEMA companion is delighted.
Then to a small CCM meeting -lots of lively music but seemingly not much enthusiasm for the message. The candidate is President Mkapa’s sister-in-law. Somebody asks me: “Don’t you have a word for it in English?”. “Do you mean nepotism?” I reply. “Yes that’s it” he says. The CHADEMA meeting, which according to my companion was to be the climax of my tour, had had to be cancelled because of a death in the neighbourhood where the meeting was to be held. So, as an alternative, I am taken to Mahoma village in Old Moshi, in the foothills of Mount Kilimanajro (Moshi Rural constituency) to another CHADEMA meeting. A very enthusiastic crowd. I am introduced publicly to the candidate and then, to my great embarrassment, a microphone is thrust into my hands and I have to say a few words. At the end, the applause is so fervent that I rather wish that I was the candidate myself!. (CHADEMA didn’t win this one -TLP took the seat). In the evening I find the Moshi Urban CHADEMA candidate, who is clearly running a highly efficient campaign, listening to recordings his ‘spies’ have obtained at the meetings of his rivals that day. He explains how he carefully notes down what they have said and then prepares the rebuttals he will deliver in his own speeches tomorrow. (Mr Philimon Ndesamburo (CHADEMA) won 25,183 votes compared with 15, 922 for his CCM opponent).
Wednesday 25th October.
Dar es Salaam. By now I have spoken to scores of people and when I ask them how they’re going to vote on Sunday, everyone has answered the question without hesitation and told me exactly why they have decided to vote they way they will. There is no hiding behind the kind of reply you would get in the UK: “It’s a secret ballot you know”. What an impressive open society the new Tanzania has become. I try to find out where CUF is holding its rally this afternoon. I ask taxi drivers, hotel staff, passers by, even a distinguished looking man who is concealing a CUF badge in his pocket. Nobody knows where the meeting will be held, where the CUF headquarters is or even where I might find CUF’s telephone number. It would be just the same in the UK of course but Tanzanians seem to be much more enthusiastic about their politics -DRB.
THE DETAILED RESULTS
Mkapa 5,863,201 out of the 8,172,284 votes cast. 71.7%
(1995 -Total votes cast 6,846,681 of which Mkapa got 4,026,422 votes. 61.8%)
Lipumba 1,329,077 16.3%
(1995 418,973 votes. 6.4%)
Mrema 637,115 7.8%
(1995 Mrema was then the leader of the NCCRparty and got 1,808,616 votes. 27.8%)
Cheyo 342,891 4.2%
(1995 258,734 votes. 6.4%)
CCM 203 elected (before the elections CCM had 186 elected seats; total 222) plus 40 special seats for women plus 10 additional seats under a recent constitutional change). Total 253 . (Subject to correction).
CUF 2 elected on the mainland plus 16 from the Zanzibar island of Pemba, compared with 24 from Zanzibar in 1995 (including three from Unguja) plus four special seats for women. All except the two elected from the mainland decided to boycott the Union parliament (and are threatened with expulsion if they continue to do so until April 2001).
CHADEMA 4 plus 1 special seat for women (1995 -3 plus 1)
TLP 4 plus 1 special seat (1995 -0)
UDP 3 plus 1 special seat (1995 -3 plus 1)
NCCR-Mageuzi 1 (1995 -16 plus 3 = 19)
Prominent leaders who lost their seats included NCCR-Mageuzi Chairman James Mbatia, NCCR Founder Mabere Marando (Rorya, Mara), CHADEMA chairman Bob Makani, and the former Dar es Salaam Mayor Kitwana Kondo (CCM).
Among the 10 male MP’s nominated by the President were Chief Fundikira and Mr Kingunge Ngombale-Mwiru.
RESULTS BY REGION
CCM was unopposed in 25 seats and won all seats, usually with big majorities, in the following regions:
COAST (8) with CUF second in every seat, IRINGA (11), DODOMA (8) with CCM Vice-Chairman John Malecela taking 33,118 out of 35,372 votes (CUF very nearly took Kondoa North), LINDI (8), MBEYA (12), MOROGORO (10), MTWARA (7), MWANZA (13) with UDP usually in second place, RUKWA (12) with the election in Kwela postponed, RUVUMA (6), SINGIDA (7) with massive CCM majorities, TABORA (9) with CUF scoring high votes in most constituencies and TANGA (11) with CUF second in every seat.
Results in other regions were as follows:
ARUSHA CCM 12. CHADEMA 1 (Karatu)
DAR ES SALAAM CCM 6. CUF 1. A big surprise was the failure of CUF to win the hotly contested Temeke seat, held at one time by Augustine Mrema, but eight opposition parties split the vote. got 89,665 votes compared with the victorious CCM’s 60,872.
KAGERA CCM 10. CUF 1 (Bukoba Urban) TLP 1(Kyerwa with a majority of 148 out of 45,102 votes cast).
KIGOMA CCM 5. NCCR 1 (Kigoma South) CHADEMA 1. The repeatedly contested Kigoma Urban seat was won this time by Dr Amin Kabourou (CHADEMA) by 21,615 votes to Azim Premji’s 20,82:L. He became leader of the opposition.
KILIMANJARO. This was the opposition stronghold in 1995 but this
time CCM got 5 seats (including Siha, Mwanga and Rombo). CHADEMA got 2 (Hai and Moshi Urban) and TLP 2 (Moshi Rural and Vunjo).
MARA CCM 6. TLP 1 (Mwibara -majority 313 out of 25,613 votes cast). The party missed taking Tarime by 29 votes.
MWANZA CCM 13 with UDP usually in second place.
SHINYANGA CCM 7 UDP 3. Solwa result not known.
SINGIDA CCM 7 with massive majorities
COMMENTS FROM OBSERVERS
International observers had much praise for the way in which the elections were conducted. However, the broad-based Tanzania Election Monitoring Committee (TEMCO) described in the Guardian as perhaps the most experienced and painstaking election monitoring body in the country, issued a warning in October that the elections were ‘heading to become unfair’ because of the restrictions often placed on opposition candidates which did not apply to those from CCM; for example police actions in stopping opposition meetings on time at 6pm while allowing CCM meetings to proceed to their conclusion.
(TEMCO’s full report on the elections was not available when we went to press -Editor). According to the Media Council of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam TV stations gave more time during the election campaign to CCM than to other parties.
THE NEW CABINET
President Mkapa has retained his key lieutenants: Vice President Dr Omar Ali Juma, Prime Minister Frederick Sumaye, and Attorney General Andrew Chenge. The National Assembly elected Speaker Pius Msekwa again. For his 46-member new government the President appointed 19 new faces, dropped 13 old ones including Messrs Makweta, Kimiti, Mbonde, Chidua, Ali Ameir and Kusila and created a new Ministry of Cooperatives and Marketing. The cabinet comprises five professors, six doctors and four soldiers and includes four women. The new ministry and the Ministry of Regional Administration and Local Government will move to Dodoma next year.
Finance -Basil Mramba
Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation -Jakaya Kikwete
Science, Technology and Higher Education -Dr. Pius Ng’wandu
Defence -Professor Philemon Sarungi
Home Affairs -Mohamed Khatib
Community Development, Women Affairs and Children -Dr Asharose Migiro
Justice and Constitutional Affairs -Bakari Mwapachu
Industry and Commerce -Iddi Simba
Natural Resources and Tourism -Zakia Meghji
Energy and Minerals -Edgar Maokola Majogo
Health -Anna Abdallah
Labour, Youth Development and Sports -Prof. Juma Kapuya
Cooperatives and Marketing -George Kahama
Transport and Communication -Prof. Mark Mwandosya
Food and Agriculture -Charles Keenja
Water and Livestock Development -Edward Lowassa
Works -John Magufuli
Lands and Human Settlement Development -Gideon Cheyo
Education -James Mungai
President’s Office: Planning and Privatisation -Dr. Abdallah Kigoda
Good Governance -Wilson Massilingi
Central Establishment -Mary Nagu
Regional Administration and Local Government Brigadier General Hassan Ngwilizi
Vice President’s Office: Daniel Yona
Prime Minister’s Office: William Lukuvi
Omar Ramdhani Mapuri