TA 28 cover

Mwalimu Nyerere’s Future
The Economy:
Tanzania and the IMF
Interim Situation Report
Budget Highlights
Future Prospects
Kigamboni Ferry Saga
Makonde Carving
Chimpanzees and Aids
Ndugu and Waheshimiwa
Tourism – New Directions?


According to the Daily News, the Party Chairman, Mwalimu Nyerere, stated at a meeting in Ngorongoro as recently as August 5th 1987 that it will be the task of the National Party Congress to be held in Dodoma In the second half of October this year to decide whether he should continue to be the C.C.M. Party Chairman or whether the President of the United Republic of Tanzania should become the Chairman, Mwalimu has also indicated however, at several other meetings that he believes that the two posts should be held by the same person.

Mwalimu Nyerere was answering a question at Ngorongoro from a Party member who wanted to know how the nation would benefit from his ideas if he decided to step down in October when elections of Party national leaders would be conducted. The member proposed that Mwalimu should become an adviser to the Party and Government because of his rich experience in leadership.

A little while earlier however, on July 20 1987, Britain’s Daily Telegraph, quoting from the Party newspaper Uhuru, stated that Mwalimu would definitely quit as Chairman in October. The Telegraph went on to say that this news had come as a big relief to the reformers who now lead the Tanzanian Government.

This Bulletin believes that Mwalimu is likely to stand down in October unless there is a mass movement in the Party resulting in an appeal to him to change his mind and continue in office.


Mwalimu Nyerere has refuted allegations that he is opposed to certain decisions made by the second Phase Government, particularly the agreement with the International Monetary Fund (IMF. He said that all along he had been defending the Government decision to agree to IMF conditions in the absence of an alternative. “The Government was right to sign the agreement with the IMF” he stressed.

“Not even in my sleep can I oppose the Government for it is the CCM Government” Mwalimu told Sumbawanga Party members on June 5th 1987. He had been asked by a Party member why he had been denouncing the IMF publicly although the Government had already agreed to the Fund’s conditions. The member felt that such public criticisms could scare the Government from making decisions necessary for the development of the nation.

Mwalimu said that he had never changed his position regarding the IMF. It was an institution of the rich nations which was used to disrupt the economies of poor countries. “I have never spoken in favour of the IMF” he emphasised adding that instead he had been attacking its policies which were directed at suppressing the people even when he was President. “Why should I change my position now?” he asked. Mwalimu said the agreement with the IMF did not change the evils suppressing the poor nations – Daily News


Speaking at the Peasants Day celebrations in Shinyanga on July 7th 1987 President Mwinyi said that people should not lose hope because of the current economic hardships but rather they should face them squarely. Tanzania would succeed in building a strong economy if the people worked hard.

The Government had been forced to sign the IMF agreement because it could not meet its foreign exchange requirements. He said that signs of recovery could now be seen, as evidenced by the availability of clothes, cement and other consumer goods. Although prices were high, at least the situation was better than a few years ago when people had to buy items such as soap at hiked black market price’s. “People used to carry money in their stockings because there was a lot of it but very little to buy” he said. – Daily News

There has been a distinct improvement in Tanzanian economic performance over the year and a half beginning in February 1986. Goods are less unavailable, basic services are under less strain, food prices fell seasonally, and then rose slowly, morale has improved. Over the same period Tanzania has concluded two successive Economic Recovery Programme agreements with the World Bank and bilateral donors, a standby facility with the IXF and two rescheduling agreements of the bulk of its bilateral debt with the Paris Club (OECD governments).

The speed of the shift is related to the atypical background to the international endorsement of Tanzania’s structural adjustment and rehabilitation programme. Following a failed 1981-82 programme, when World Bank and bilateral negotiations collapsed after an IMF standby had been negotiated, Tanzania has had three further structural adjustment programmes.

The 1981-82 programme was centred on export rehabilitation. It raised export volume 30% in 1981 but as prices fell 20% the net foreign exchange gain was negligible and unable to sustain the programme. 1983 saw the adoption of the report of the ‘Three Wise Men’ jointly appointed by Tanzania and the World Bank. In retrospect this was a time wasting digression for all concerned. The report pleased nobody, had no physical or sectoral base and ignored both budgetary and price imbalances.

In 1984 the basic elements of the 1986 strategy (except the rolling exchange rate adjustment component) were put in place. The lag in negotiating international backing resulted from the unfortunate interaction of a slow World Bank response and the approaching elections. As a result, as of early 1986, Tanzania had had three years of positive GDP growth behind it; a relatively stable (25 to 35% range) inflation rate, falling government bank borrowing, bank credit growth in the 15 to 20% range and a number of efficiency reforms (eg. in crop pricing and marketing) plus an agenda for rehabilitation and reutilisation of capacity. What it did not have – and could never get from the export and infrastructural base – was the foreign exchange to finance imports to put the rehabilitation exercise in high gear. One element in achieving the latter was a shift to regular, moderate adjustments of the exchange rate. It moved from about Shs16 to the US dollar in February 1986 to Shs32 in June. After a 25% devaluation to Shs 40, adjustments were made to offset Tanzanian inflation and to slowly bring the effective rate back to late 1970’s levels. By mid 1987 the rate was around Shs 62 to the dollar which had itself fallen 25%. In terms of the pound (a less unstable currency) the change was from about Shs 20 in early 1986 to Shs 104 in mid-August 1987.

The devaluation has had limited inflationary impact. The changes up to June 1986 were largely absorbed into the actual retail prices which valued imports at something nearer the parallel rate (currently Shs 190 to the pound Editor) rather than the official rate. Since then however, the portions of consumption linked to imports have risen about as rapidly as the number of shillings needed to buy a dollar. 1986/87 Cost of Living increases are of the order of 30~ overall but probably 50% plus on the two fifths of goods and services with significant import content.

The relatively good price trends are related to the good 1985 and 1986 harvests – the first good ones since 1978. Food prices actually fell in the second half of 1986 and rose perhaps by 10% during 1986/87. Similarly the fall in world all prices in 1986 helped dampen the impact of devaluation on transport costs. The good harvest allowed of the establishment of a grain reserve of perhaps 100,000 tons. If the 1987 crop year has been average, which seems likely (several good, several normal zones and only the Kilimanjaro and coast regions having suffered) food scarcity should not hamper recovery or affect inflation in 1987/88. The key problems will be the restoration of manufactured output levels (now perhaps 35% of those in 1978) and the halting of the erosion in real wages. The 1987 minimum wage increase is 30% and the target for inflation in 1987/88 is from 20% to 25%.

Whether these goals can be achieved depends on how fast and how fully the agreed foreign resource flows arrive. Normal time lags from agreement in principle through detailed negotiation, procurement and delivery have meant that, as of mid-1987, external support for the recovery programme has played little part in economic improvement although it has helped to restore morale.

In 1986 GDP is estimated to have risen by 3.6% led by agriculture and services. The 1986/87 target of 4.5% should be attained.

The external side of the programme is – unusually – built around the accumulated minimum import requirements for current sectoral production and rehabilitation targets. It is well designed, has been well received and should have begun to payoff by the April/June 1987 quarter.

To date. IMF targets have largely been met. The Recurrent Budget deficit (certain grants being included as recurrent revenue) was over estimated largely because of late financing of 1985/86 overruns and defence bills related to solidarity with Mozambique. Excluding the former, domestic government bank borrowing fell dramatically to Shs1.2 billion, if it is included, the level was Shs3.4 billion compared with a target of Shs 2.5 billion. Total bank credit rose about 20% of which 60% (Shs 5.3 billion) went to enterprises. The overrun was related to a sharp rise in cotton production, delays in processing and transporting, exacerbated by falls in world prices and the rather unexpected acquisition of the 100,000 ton grain reserve, In this context credit ceilings were renegotiated with the IMF during the first half of 1987.

The debt rescheduling programme buys some time. Bilateral principal and interest (including arrears) for 1986/90 have been rolled forward to 1991/99. This is not a permanent solution but, taken together with the recovery programme commitments, results in the most positive import capacity expansion of any major structural adjustment programme.

Tanzania’s stubbornness in sticking to its strategy during the 1980 to 1986 IMF negotiations did cost time but it also led to successive refinements of domestic strategies and significant improvements in the conditions surrounding external support. Uniquely among large structural adjustment programmes the Tanzanian programme has a relatively small IMF component (10% odd). Tanzania does not believe that six year money at 8% can be a basic means of financing a six to ten year recovery programme nor to reducing the external debt problem to manageable levels.

The health sector, particularly at rural and urban clinic level, has been substantially though not fully rehabilitated. A Danish/UNICEF project has filled basic drug gaps and related support has allowed for renewed vaccination of young children.

Education faces more problems. Enrolment is falling at primary level even though fees are automatically waved for children of families unable to pay.

The 1986/87 recurrent budget estimated outturn and the 1987/88 estimates show a real increase in health, education and other government spending for the first time since 1978/79. This is a major turn-around if it can be maintained.

The long term weak link in the strategy remains exports. On optimistic projections the present programme might raise exports (including recaptured smuggled ones) from $400 million in 1985 to $800 million in 1990. However, with at least $200 million current account debt service and $1,200 million imports needed to sustain a 5 to 6% growth rate in output (a rate likely to be achieved in 1987) there remains a current account gap of about $700million, (Future prospects are discussed in more detail in the article which follows – Editor).

Domestic manufacturing’s slow revival seems to be related to lags in disbursement of most import support grants and soft loans. The world Bank and UK contributions are exceptions to this. As a 10 to 15% output recovery in 1987/88 will be crucial to raising GDP from 4.5% to 5% and to achieving the target of a 20 to 25% rise in cost of living (thus making the 30% minimum wage increase translate into a real increase of 5% (the first real increase since 1973/74) this gives cause for concern.

One hazard to the renewed balance of the recurrent budget is the renewed need to provide solidarity forces – of perhaps 6000 – to Mozambique. They have been crucial to reversing the tide of the ‘bandidos armados’ (MNR) advance in northern Mozambique but they do represent a substantial budgetary burden. It is an unavoidable one. Neither Tanzanian principles, Tanzanian’s self respect nor stability and security in southern Tanzania are consistent with failing to avert a collapse of Mozambique’s northern provinces into anarchy or MNR rule.

In short, 1986/87 has seen significant economic recovery. This has been built up from the slow but real partial stabilisation and growth of 1983/85. Funds and a framework for utilising them to sustain that recovery in 1987/88 and 1988/89 are pledged and/or in place.
Reginald Herbold Green

– Minimum wage for civil servants raised from Shs 1,055 to Shs 1,370 per month – equivalent, at official exchange rates, to £13.17
– Substantial increases in the tax on fuel,
– Customs duties up by 10 to 15%
– Driving licences to cost Shs 1,000
– 10% sales tax at restaurants.
– Hotel levy increased by 5%
– Two new road toll stations introduced on the Mwanza-Musoma and Isaka-Lusahunga roads.
– Prices of detergent powder, cotton yarn, blankets, plastic containers, salt, radio sets, cooking oil and match boxes decontrolled.
– No increase on beer, cigarettes or spirits.

In the years between the wars there was a widespread belief in certain quarters that, with adequate economic support, economies could be both planned and managed by centralised organs of state, The second world war, involving rigorous planning for a limited objective, appeared to lend some colour to this view, But the experience of the USSR and elsewhere has shown clearly that economies are not machines producing predictable results at the press of a button, They are on the contrary profoundly influenced by the decisions and reactions of millions of people, In common parlance these are referred to as ‘market forces’, though the phrase suggests some anonymous reagent and obscures its real character as the sum of decisions taken by many individual human beings.

The ‘rediscovery’ of market forces has been a salutory lesson for the planners, but the current popularity of this style of economic democracy has gone too far in some quarters. Market forces, correctly interpreted, are an important prime mover in any economy, a fact that must never be forgotten; but untutored, unguided and unaided by the state they are likely to remain a somewhat anarchic influence incapable of solving the country’s most urgent problems.

For Tanzania by far the most pressing and immediate problem is that of the foreign exchange gap. Tanzania is spending abroad three times as much as she is earning by her exports. In 1986 she was $700 million in the red on her trading account, Even then her imports had been reduced to the barest necessities, much less than would be required by any self-sustaining and developing economy. Development, it must be remembered, almost always makes new demands on the foreign exchange account.

The shortfall in Tanzania’s foreign exchange earnings represents not merely a grossly inadequate income from the sale of exports and services to finance the purchase abroad of es.sentia1 imports, but also insufficient resources for the funding of external debts, including debt service arrears of $900 million. Fortunately, the debt problem has been relieved for the time being by agreement with Tanzania’s main creditors, as indicated in the article above. This concession does not extend to obligations due to the IMF which makes the full payment of arrears a first charge on any new loan – a process known as ‘rolling over’. These alleviations provide a valuable respite in the administration of Tanzania’s foreign exchange and have the additional merit of removing a barrier to natural trade relations. But it is essential to bear in mind that, unless further concessions are made, the burden of servicing and repayment will reappear in the early years of the coming decade, considerably increasing the obligations that will at that juncture have to be financed by the sale of goods and services.

The debt overhang, though removed from the present economic context, remains a serious threat to future recovery. It is a problem that Tanzania alone cannot solve cither than by a self-defeating policy of debt repudiation, What is needed is international agreement on the writing off of debts, or their conversion into long-term loans at concessionary rates of interest as proposed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa at Abuja in June. It seems likely that the South Commission shortly to meet for the fifth time under the chairmanship of Mwalimu Julius Nyerere, will consider this matter as one of high priority.

What are the prospects for Tanzania’s exports? At present over 80% of the foreign exchange earned by the export of commodities comes from the sale of traditional items, namely, coffee, cotton, sisal, cloves, cashew nuts, tea, tobacco, and diamonds. It cannot be said that the present prospect for any of these items is encouraging. The bargaining position of the producer countries of such primary products remains in most cases weak and attempts to rectify this situation by forming producers’ cartels have hitherto been disappointing. Recently the coffee conference ended in failure to reinstate a quota agreement between producers that had been abandoned in the previous year. The problem of the producing countries is not simply the inadequate prices of their exports, but violent price fluctuations. These are well illustrated by the case of Tanzania’s cotton exports, the volume of which rose by 43% between 1985 and 1986, while the proceeds of sales grew by only 3% due to a drastic fall in price. On the other hand, cashew nuts, where crops were declining on account of the ageing trees, disease and inadequate husbandry, earned 30% more in the same period on account of steeply rising prices, despite a fall in export volume of 25%. It is one of Tanzania’s misfortunes that it has not been in a position to take advantage of the favourable opportunities offered by the market for this commodity.

Apart from the severe difficulties caused by world price fluctuations, competition between Third World countries, all desperately trying to solve their acute foreign exchange problems by increasing the volume of their traditional exports, is tending in some cases to result in oversupply and a consequent downward pressure on prices. Weak coffee prices provide an example of this tendency in the absence of agreement between producers on production quotas.

The government’s target is an 11.6% increase in exports in 1987, a 19% increase in 1988 and a further 19% in 1989. There is, however, no firm basis for assuming, on present evidence, except in a wholly unusual set of circumstances, that an increased revenue from exports of anything like this amount could be earned solely on the basis of traditional items. This means that export growth in other areas has assumed special importance.

Industrial exports might seem to provide just such a resource. There are few industrial products that are being exported, mainly to Tanzania’s African neighbours, but at present the dollar rates of such exports is less than half the level achieved in 1980. Tanzania’s present concentration on import substitution makes it unlikely that industry’s contribution to export earnings will be significant for some time to come.

In the case of non-traditional rural and agricultural products, however, the prospect is a great deal more hopeful. Changes in food habits in European countries have greatly increased the demand for products hitherto often regarded as rather specialised health foods to which the shelves of the supermarket bear witness. Honey, a product of Tanzania’s vast miombo forest hinterland, is a case in point. An astute and timely response to such unfolding opportunities could yield for Tanzania a handsome return in foreign exchange earnings. But there are difficulties in the path of such a development.

First, some investment capital is almost certainly required, part of which may well have to be in foreign currencies. The government has a ‘seed-corn’ scheme for advancing foreign exchange against later foreign earnings, but it is desperately short of such resources and the hand-to -mouth existence led by the foreign exchange account makes this scheme into a somewhat limited source of initial capital. This is an area in which foreign aid could play – and in some cases already does play – a vital part.

But, secondly, a much more intractable problem is the shortage of entrepreneurial capacity. A successful export programme calls for special insights and abilities as well as knowledge of the mechanics of the export trade. Exporters have to learn about quality control and the importance of delivery dates, packaging and meeting the often exacting requirements of foreign importers. They have to know about, and conform with, any official regulations, such as those in the United Kingdom under the Food and Drugs Act 1955. To meet these requirements calls for high organisational capacity and sufficient financial knowledge to avoid difficulties with cash flow. A Tanzanian exporter has, moreover, to face problems not so seriously present in European countries – a labour force imperfectly acclimatised to the demands of modern industry and commerce, an over loaded telephone system, subcontractors with uncertain delivery dates, interruptions in the supply of essential inputs, and so forth. It is clear that the task of identifying and training potential entrepreneurs is one of exceptional importance at the present time. A valuable contribution is already being made by bodies such as the Institute of Finance Management, but practical experience is an essential ingredient of any training and this, in the present depressed state of the economy, is not easy to provide within Tanzania. Carefully chosen opportunities for experience overseas might make up, in part at least, for their shortage, though they are no adequate substitute for exposure to the very special problems of the Tanzanian exporter.

Finally, tourism is often mentioned as a neglected earner of foreign exchange. Of Tanzania’s potential for tourism there can be little doubt. with game parks and game reserves second to none, a long safe coast line and fascinating offshore islands. Moreover, the political stability of Tanzania is a great asset to any tourist industry. The fact that Tanzania has not prospered has been due principally to the shortage of funds affecting in particular transport, market promotion and hotel management. In 1985 out of 82 vehicles belonging to the State Travel Service, which caters for tourists, only 37 were in use and plans to buy a further 40 vehicles had to be abandoned for lack of funds. However, a modest programme for the rehabilitation of 12 tourist hotels was supported by a loan from the World Bank.

An effort is now being made to rectify this situation, though at this stage resource limitations are bound to slow down the pace of advance. However, fuel supplies, which are essential both for transport purposes and for the maintenance of tourist hotels in the game parks, are now easier, while spare parts for vehicles and other purposes are more easily secured under the export support scheme announced in the 1986 budget speech. Under these arrangements operators in the tourist industry can retain up to 50% of their foreign currency earnings in an external account at the National Bank of Commerce and use them to finance their import requirements without reference to the Bank of Tanzania.

The foregoing paragraphs provide little certainty at this stage that the country’s foreign exchange account will be in balance within five or six years , the period suggested by the Minister of Finance and there is no doubt that the struggle to achieve economic viability will be hard and long. However, there are encouraging signs of progress. The policy of entrusting trade to monopolistic state corporations has given place to official recognition and support for a variety of agencies, such as cooperatives, small companies and even groups of individuals. The result has been the emergence of commercial enterprise for which previously there has been no outlet. The extent of such hidden talents remains to be seen and no doubt some enterprises will end in bankruptcy. But the renewed interest in foreign trade creates an environment favourable to the success of the government’s export drive.

It remains to be seen whether the integrity of the Arusha principles will be maintained in their essentials. The impulse towards diversification derives from economic rather than political causes and is a response as much to the growing complexity of the economy, for which monolithic solutions were becoming increasingly unsuitable, as to the influence of external pressures. The measures now in train are part of an evolutionary process and it is devoutly to be hoped that they will prove effective without sacrifice of the idealism of the earlier years.
J.Roger Carter.


Makonde carvers

A good many pieces of wood tourists buy as Makonde carvings are far from the carvings of the Makonde. This may be true of what most tourists buy in many parts of the world.

The tourist has proved to be a source of income to nations as well as individuals. He has the money and urge to take away something that will remind him of the people and their culture; so the people give it to him, but, in the process, and because they want to get as much money out of him as possible, what is given becomes less and less authentic.

In the sixties the majority of Makonde carvers found in Dar es Salaam today lived in a small Makonde settlement called Boko some thirty two kilometres along the Bagamoyo road. The seventies saw a move by the Makonde to get closer to the buyer until by the late seventies Boko village was left as a farming area. This was also the beginning of the disintegration of the Makonde Society there.

Like other African ethnic groups, the Makonde have their own cobweb of a heritage of ritual, taboos and superstition. They have their own way of seeing and relating to ‘godness’ and their own systems of keeping at peace with this godness.

During one weekend in 1967 I was witness at Boko village to a ritual that started on a Friday afternoon and ran through to Sunday evening. It was a ‘coming of age’ rite for a girl. After greetings, salutations and ululation, drums started to get tuned. It was the beginning of a fifty hours long ritual, There were high toned drums accompanied by something of a talking drum; males with heavily tattoed faces and torsoes; females with tatooed faces and lip plugs; high resonant female voices combined to make an intricate base for the “Sindimba’ dance. At one stage the circle of dancers was joined by two masked dancers. The dance and rhythm flowed and stopped in a manner rather distracting to a learner but meaningful to the Makonde.

The staccato movements of the masked dancers which are otherwise very comic made the core of the function. While there is very close communication between the musicians and dancers, there is also some communication with the audience far and beyond that which exists with strangers watching. Hence the success or failure of the function.

The girl whose day this was, was locked up in the house and brought out only briefly for a glimpse by future suitors. The combination of drum music, masked dancers, heavily tattoed males and the unusually exotic hip movements of the women, merged to give a taste of something of the mystique understandable only to them.

The mystical air, indeed, this esoteric web of rites is the source of and inspiration behind the Makonde carver. On the other hand the carving is part and parcel of this web. It is, as it were, a symbolisation of the mystique referred to earlier.

This carving was never made for sale. The carver kept it as one would keep the shirt of a deceased father. It was a link between him and, say, the supernatural. It was like a charm on the one hand and an effigy on the other.

The name “shetani” which has come to be used to describe the abstract carvings does not mean “satan” as it is generally understood. The name should not be tinted with any “evil” connotations either. It is the best the Makonde have done and can do to explain “the mystique”. Outside this aura of ritual, the Makonde, as an artist, and like any artist from any other culture, has nature and his own socio-economic surroundings to provide inspiration and reaction to his art.

One Vitorino Antony Madonga, a reputed carver, directed my attention to the clouds when I was trying to find his source of inspiration. Clouds, he said, are always full of pictures. One can actually see a total picture there and all one has to do is to copy it and transform it into a carving. At times the cloud pictures tend to compliment something or some event that is taking place down on earth. The carver tries to incorporate this cloud-earth relationship into his carving.

Carvings derived from this inspiration are called “mawingu” (clouds). But the carver says there are so many aspects of our lives, our spirits and our true nature and identity as animals which are very cloudy. What the artist does is try to represent the frightening and rather ugly nature of that which is not understandable and dark about man.

To Mr. Madonga, the tattoo designs on their faces and bodies have a particular meaning. Some of the body tattoos stand for clan totems. These are at times reproduced in yet more abstract form in the carvings. The true Makonde carving is therefore an embodiment of the austerity of life not represented in many of the so-called Makonde carvings bought today.
Godwin Z Kaduma


I am not particularly happy with the Bulletin of Tanzanian Affairs. While retaining a great interest in Tanzania, Tanzanian politics, evidently the main preoccupation of the Bulletin, are to me the least interesting aspect of the country. In any case, policies which, while aiming at prevention of inequality in income, lead in practice to everyone becoming equally poor, do not have my support.

Stories concerned with economic rather than political activity would interest me more, particularly reports on the state of the infrastructure without which significant economic activity cannot take place.

If the Bulletin of Tanzanian Affairs could tell me how the lightweight highways built in the ’50s and ’60s have performed, or how the Tanzanian railway system operates nowadays, I should be fascinated. Or how the water supply and sewerage systems of Dar es Salaam have coped with the influx from the countryside. How have the air services of the country fared in the last 20 years? Do container ships use the ports, and if so how are containers handled? So many questions .

Undoubtedly socialism and self-reliance will have affected the infrastructure. Surely its present state is a matter of concern to a wider field than merely Yours sincerely,
S.A.W. Bowman

We accept your point and would welcome contributions from readers on the issues you mention – Editor


I am writing in response to the letter from Mr Imray in the May issue, about the Ruaha National Park. At this time many organisations at home and abroad are having to re-think their management problems, to which you drew attention.

I wonder what efforts the park management has made to enlist the cooperation of the surrounding local communities. Do the young people understand the aims of the park, and why it exists? Is it seen as a place only for rich tourists, and of no benefit to them? Are any of the rangers employed in the park local people? In some regions it has been found possible to provide planned income supplementing activities for the community in the work of the national park. This can create a sort of protective buffer area for the park where it is in the interest of local people to protect the area from poaching by outsiders. But maybe this has already been tried.

Friends of Ruaha might like to consider ordering an extremely valuable and practical book published by IUCN/UNEP ‘Managing Protected Areas in the Tropics’ by J&K Mac Kinnon, Graham Child, and Jim T Horsell. It is obtainable from: IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre
219c Huntingdon Road
Cambridge CB3 ODL Price £18.50

This may give useful ideas for the Ruaha management and lead to opportunities for raising the funds needed for infra-structure improvements.
Brenda Bailey


I was most interested to read the note in your January 1987 issue of the research by Mrs.F.A. Mturi into the Zanzibar red colobus. Your readers will be interested to know that this is the second time in the last hundred years that this animal has faced extinction.

Writing in April 1884 H. H. Johnston records the following incident concerning .. a handsome monkey. the Colobus Kirkii. This as its name implies was brought to light by Sir. John Kirk; it was also extinguished by his means. Like most great men who have helped to extend the British Empire, Sir John has one dark blot on his escutcheon. Warren Hastings exterminated the Rohillas, Governor Eyre was accused of too summarily suppressing the Maroons; Sir. John Kirk, more, perhaps, in the interests of British science than of British rule, has entirely destroyed an innocent species of monkey. The Colobus Kirkii had disappeared from nearly every part of the island of Zanzibar, but a rumour prevailed that it still lingered in a clump of forest as yet unvisited by hunters. Thither Sir John sent his chasseurs to report on the monkey’s existence. After a weeks absence they returned, triumph illumining their swarthy lineaments. “Well did you find them?” asked the British Consul General. “Yes,” replied the men with glee, “and we killed them everyone!” Wherewith twelve monkey corpses were flung upon the floor and Colobus Kirkii joined the Dodo, the Auk, the Rhytina and the Moa in the limbo of species extinguished by the act of man.

It is to be sincerely hoped that by the means which Mrs. Mturi and the Zanzibar authorities advocate, this interesting and unique species will avoid the extinction which it allegedly suffered over a hundred years ago.

I refer to the Article ‘A Queen’s Scarf’ which appeared in the May issue of the Bulletin, In German times Old Shinyanga was of course just Shinyanga and came under Tabora District. Their 8th Company (162 men) were stationed in Tabora at the outbreak of war together with 110 Police, and 30 Police were stationed at Shinyanga. Shinyanga had a well- built German Boma (Fort) which was to become the Headquarters of the Department of Tsetse Research. The avenues which radiated out from the Boma were typical of German planning. The road to the kopje turned left off the Old Shinyanga-New Shiyanga road just beyond Old Shinyanga village. About half-way to the kopje, on the right, was a large hollow baobab which had once been the abode of an eminent witch doctor; indeed some of the remnants of his paraphernalia were found therein. At the foot of the kopje there was a well-kept ‘spirit hut’; these were common in the area.

The view from the top of the kopje was magnificent and covered the experimental area where the officers of the Tsetse Department had carried out such stalwart work. The bodies of C.F.M. Swynnerton, C.M.G. and B.D.Burtt, the botanist, were buried at Singida after the air crash. On top of the kopje was a huge granite outcrop to which was attached a bronze plaque bearing the well-known words from the epitaph to Sir Christopher Wren in St. Paul’s ‘si monumentum requiris, circuspice’ (if you seek his memorial, look around you).

The Captain mentioned in the article, Captain Victor A. C. Findlay, had been a regular officer (Woolwich) and was, I believe, a godson of Queen Victoria. He was on duty at Kitalala in August 1946 when he considered he should finish off a rhino which had been wounded by one of the A.A.s. He was charged at close quarters in a thicket and knocked down, suffering severe internal injuries. He was taken to Mwanza 100 miles to the North on a mattress in the back of a station wagon. He was buried near Swynnerton and Burtt on the kopje.

One likes to think that the descendants of the helmeted guinea fowl and of the dik-d1k, always in pairs, continue to live on that kopje. Also perhaps the descendant of the leopard which used to keep the Fire Watcher company. And that kopje must remain dear to many memories.
S.E. Napier Bax

Herewith cheque for £2.80 for another years subscription to your excellent and well informed Bulletin.

In connection with your recent obituary on Sheikh Thabit Kombo you may be interested to hear that I was in Zanzibar last year before he died. Our meeting in his house was hilarious as he told anecdotes about the desperate battles he had been engaged in in the 50’s with the Zanzibar Nationalist Party. In fact, it was in my office in December 1956 (I was then Assistant Superviser of Elections), in my presence, that Mwalimu Nyerere, Sheikh Thabit Kombo and Abeid Karume discussed the amalgamation of the then African and Shirazi Associations into what became the Afro-Shirazi Party.

I thought he was a wonderful man. I liked his simple and direct smile. I remember on one occasion he met me at the airport which was crowded with people, whisked me quickly through the controls and said with a cheerful smile “They must think you are very important because you are with me”.
Tim Mayhew


The Bulletin’s French counterpart ‘Urafiki Tanzania’ contains in a recent issue an article by a Mr. Larry Barouch in which he describes his experiences as a tourist in Tanzania.
The following are extracts from his article: (Translation by A. and P. Dio

I was rather favoured as a tourist in Tanzania because I could communicate with the people much better than the majority of French tourists. I can speak English and I can get by in Arabic ……

I had never been in Africa before this trip, which arose out of a combination of circumstance. I like animals very much and I always dreamt of a safari in Africa. In Paris I had befriended a Tanzanian student who talked to me about the marvels of the Serengeti and of the Ngorongoro National Park. (The Serengeti game park is bigger than Belgium and the Netherlands put together.) These game parks are situated at the Kenyan and Tanzanian borders and the body which arranged the trip designed an itinerary which meant that the Kenyan game parks were to be visited first, before those of Tanzania. Tourist facilities in the Kenyan game parks are marvellous and everything works perfectly well. On the contrary, nothing seemed to work properly in the Tanzanian parks, for the Tanzanian government policy has always been hostile to tourism, this means that the infrastructure is old and rusty. I think that my arrival coincided with a new government political orientation more favourable to tourism, but nothing had yet been done to renew outdated hotels and motels. Furthermore, it was the time when tourists had been bombarded with excessively expensive game park fees.

Of course when on safari one does not have any contact with the locals, driving mile after mile through the savannah taking picture after picture like Japanese tourists in the Champs-Elysees. My first contact with people was in the little Village of Mto Wa Mbu (which means river of mosquitoes, but I never saw one during my whole journey). We had a disagreement with the hotel manager, who had to go and fetch the only person in the village speaking English to serve as an interpreter. Once we reached an understanding I had a chat with the interpreter, who happened to be a prosperous farmer. I asked him whether he belonged to the Ujamaa; he answered me laughing that he didn’t, and didn’t need to. “You understand,” he said to me, “here it is not like Kenya, everybody is free here, everybody does what he wants. There in Kenya the poor are obliged to remain poor but here the poor can unite within the Ujamaa cooperative. I, thanks to God, am rich, and don’t need it, but if I were poor, of course, I would be a member.” ……..

Later, by good chance, when I was in the process of moving into a hotel in Arusha I found that the hotel manager was the half brother of my Tanzanian friend in Paris …… He invited me to have a drink (he was a Muslim – not very devout.) In his nearby house I met his wife who was a ravishing beauty and was busy sewing. She kept on glancing in our direction with disapproval as she noticed the bottle of whisky whose level was rapidly going lower. The manager explained that he didn’t get a very good salary and that his wife therefore helped them to reach the end of the month by making clothes for sale. Whisky must be expensive in Tanzania.

Once arrived in Dar es Salaam after several delays in the departure time (Air Tanzania possesses only two Boeings, and when one of them is in repair the timetable collapses) I quickly found myself short of money. The poor hotels, said to be ‘deluxe’, full of cockroaches in the rooms, and where the lift doesn’t work three times out of four, are beyond the means of French tourists. My Tanzanian friend from Paris, who had not been back to his country for several years, advised me to take as little money as possible with me and to pay everything with my Carte Bleu. Unfortunately, when I was there, there was a dispute between the Bank of Tanzania and Visa International, which made my Carte Bleu useless. I explained my problems to the room steward. (In this hotel, women chambermaids are not allowed. Islamic morals?) He agreed with my complaints, saying that life was very very hard for white people in Tanzania, but thanks to God, it was agreeable for Tanzanians ……

Next I took a plane to the capitalist paradise of Kenya …. Kenya and Tanzania are almost like twin countries – same climate, same topography, same language but strangely I found the Kenyans not very pleasant and the Tanzanians friendly and happy ……. perhaps it is because a left wing person like me prefers it when restaurant waiters tap you on the shoulder and address you as ‘rafiki’ or comrade rather than, as in Kenya as ‘Bwana’ or Sir.

Unfortunately I was not able to see a lot in Zanzibar. All the members of the family I was staying with came to admire the noble foreigner I was, and insisted that they should show me the city, which I could not refuse. This meant that I visited the same monuments four times in three days, marvelling each time at the Sultans Palace, the House of Karve1s and the two cathedrals, one Catholic and the other Anglican, which in actual fact are the only points of touristic interest of this town. I never saw a clove tree. I managed at least to escape one afternoon in order to scuba dive with the young man at the house in the warm and clear waters of the Indian Ocean.


Tanzania has reported over 800 cases of HIV-AIDS; half have resulted in death since 1983, and local medical experts believe that the disease was introduced to East Africa by foreign servicemen. Prostitutes in East African ports contracted the disease from the troops and then trailer drivers transporting land-looked Burundi’s imports introduced it to Tanzania. The disease was first reported at Lukuyu village in Kagera region close to Uganda which is a major stop on the trailer route. The first victims were women wearing T-shirts labelled ‘Juliana’, obtained from trailer drivers. When the disease was first detected local people referred to it as ‘Juliana’ because its victims were wearers of Juliana T-shirts – Daily News.

The Government has launched an aggressive five year campaign to halt what the Minister for Health and Social Welfare, Dr. Aaron Chidua has described as the ‘alarming spread’ of the disease. AIDS is now threatening all twenty regions of the country.

At a recent two day AIDS donor meeting in Dar es Salaam, 14 donor agencies undertook to support the Government’s efforts by contributing Shs 270 million out of the first year’s estimated costs of Shs 800 million. The Aid Control Programme (ACP) will include research, training, clinical improvements, systematic screening of blood exchange and a Campaign to educate the people. The ACP has been acclaimed by the World Health Organisation.

A count by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare ending June 28 this year showed that 1,256 Tanzanians have developed cases of AIDS since 1983 of whom 426 have died in hospitals. Tanzania’s rate of infection among pregnant women in Dar es Salaam is 3.6% in Arusha 0.7% in Mbeya 6% and in Kagera region 16%. – Shihata.


The National Assembly has decided that Members of Parliament should be addressed as Waheshimiwa. But Mwalimu Nyerere has made it clear that CCM Party leaders will continue to be addressed as Ndugu. “Never will they be addressed as Your Excellencies” Mwalimu Nyerere said. “If an MP insisted on being called Mheshimiwa then it would not be bad if he was addressed as Ndugu Mheshimiwa Mbunge”.

The whole issue has sparked off a lively debate. A reader in the Daily News complained that Waheshimiwa sounds colonial and bourgeois and brings in people’s minds the idea of a class opposed to other classes. It should be remembered that the President introduced the word Ndugu to show that Tanzania is a classless society.

Effective July 1, 1987 Villages have become the official agents of the District Councils in the collection of Development Levy. Under the new arrangements the villages will be able to retain 17% of the collection to help run their own village governments. Village governments will use the ten cell leaders to collect the levy and these leaders will receive 3% of the collections as an incentive. District Councils will cooperate with the village governments in drawing up registers of Development Levy payers – Daily News.

The Architectural Association of Tanzania at a recent meeting with a UNESCO expert, Dr. J. Jokilehto from the International Centre for the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property has complained about the increasing and widespread demolition and rebuilding of historical buildings under the pretext that they are dangerous or unsuitable for human habitation. They cited the new structures being added to the German built headquarters of the Tanzania Railways Corporation in Dar es Salaam which they considered to be not only ugly and disfiguring to the remainder of the building but also as lacking in imagination. It would have been better if the corporation had looked for office space somewhere else.

The most famous Dar es Salaam landmark to suffer from the craze for Demolition is generally considered to have been the New Africa Hotel. This was followed by the Splendid Hotel and a host of others – Shihata

Zanzibar will, this year re-introduce the teaching of history in its education system. The subject was struck off the syllabus soon after the Zanzibar Revolution in 1964. It was replaced at that time by lessons on political education which centred mostly on the protracted liberation struggle in Zanzibar which culminated in the overthrow of the Arab dominated regime – Daily News

The Minister for Energy and Minerals, Mr. Al Noor Kassum, has announced that the Government intends to allow gold and gemstone exporters to retain 70% of their foreign exchange earnings as an incentive and to enable them to import the necessary inputs for mining.

The son of Butiama village chairman and former head of Tanzania’s youth organisation, Mr. Joseph Nyerere, died in April after allegedly jumping from the first floor of a building in Upanga, Dar es Salaam. Mr. Kwame Joseph Nyerere was twenty six. His body was flown to Butiama for burial – Daily News

The Tanzania Railways Corporation (TRC) has secured 1,576.2 million shillings from the Government and eight foreign donors for the purchase of 32 locomotive engines, 1,000 freight wagons and seventy five container wagons. The locomotives are to be bought during 1988/89. Some of the funds will also be used for laying sleepers along the Ruvu-Mnyusi and Kilosa-Dodoma lines.

In October 1985 the TRC took up the task of relaying the line between Manyoni and Singida which was removed by the colonialists in 1947 after it had been found to be running at a loss. The 115 mile line was expected to take about two years to complete.

However, the project has been facing a lot of problems including lack of equipment, building materials and labour. The line is now scheduled to be completed in thirty months but cost will have gone up because of the devaluation of the Shilling – Shihata.

There are now 103 Government secondary schools in Tanzania compared with 95 last year. The student population in these schools has increased from 43,911 to 46,120. 136 private secondary schools and seminaries had 56,293 pupils – Daily News.


The well known ethologist, Dr. Jane Goodall, widow of the late Mr. Derek Bryceson, the former Minister for Agriculture, who has become an international authority on chimpanzees and works mainly at Gombe, near Kigoma, spoke to the Bulletin recently in Dar es Salaam about her fears for the future of chimpanzees. For, as D. J Eichberg, head of a major AIDS research programme in Texas was quoted as saying recently, ‘Chimpanzees are the only model available to do human AIDS virus vaccine work. They are 100% affectable with the disease. Once you get to the nitty gritty, essential questions like the efficacy and efficiency of vaccines have to be tested in chimpanzees” The centre in Texas has 172 of the.. Now, in Britain too, the Porton Down research centre is looking for 30 chimpanzees for similar work.

It was in 1960 that the famous palaeontologist/archaeologist Dr. Leakey persuaded Jane Goodall to undertake a long term study of chimpanzees at Gombe. During the intervening twenty seven years she has written numerous scientific papers, and received many international awards. She has also published the definitive work ‘The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behaviour’ which is now in its 4th printing. And this is what she told us.

She lives in a house on the lake shore in the midst of a high canopy forest. In the forest is the spectacular Kakombe falls. The water hurls itself over a rock ledge and drops forty feet on its way to a stream and ultimately, the lake below. And there, up in the giant fig trees chimpanzees can sometimes be seen at play.

The Gombe park is only 30 square miles in area. It is situated 30 miles north of Kigoma. The research work, which can be expected to continue for many years yet, involves many visiting scientists and some 30 Tanzanians work there. . Tourists find it difficult to get there although they can arrange to be brought to the beach by boatmen from Kigoma. When they do arrive, they stay in an old student hostel. “We share with chimpanzees 98% of our genetic make-up” she said. “Chimpanzees are much more like us than are baboons. There are only 150 chimpanzees at Gombe. They live in three social groups of about fifty. I know one group quite well.”

Apparently, they can be capricious and brutal as well as charming and friendly. Jane Goodall has always responded to them as individuals. She writes in her book about Gigi, considered very sexy by males despite her unusual (for a female) size and aggressiveness. Fagan was ousted as dominant male in the group by his former protege, Goblin. He regained his position when he and four other males ganged up on Goblin. There was Passion, a psychotic primate who, with her daughter Pall stole infants from other chimp mothers and ate them. There was Honey Bee, who stayed with her mortally wounded mother for five days, grooming her and shooing away flies, after the two were attacked by a group of males.

To the usual human ear the sound made by chimpanzees is a sort of hoot. “But”, says Jane Goodall, “I have managed to record 25 different chimpanzee sounds. But they find it difficult to make a sound on purpose.”

Normally chimpanzees used in research have been bred in captivity. But young chimpanzees captured from the wild – an extremely difficult operation – rarely breed satisfactorily in captivity. Jane Goodall fears that, with the greatly increased demand for them now because of the needs of AIDS research, there will be increasing pressure on wild colonies to provide extra chimpanzees for testing purposes.

Jane Goodall realises that such is the enormous concern about AIDS that there is no way anyone can prevent chimpanzees being taken from the wild. But she is angered by the way in which many of them are being kept in captivity. She spoke of conditions being like in Nazi concentration camps. “Sometimes they are shut up in little cells only 6 ft. square”.


The comments made in the extracts from the media which follow – and indeed articles in other sections of the Bulletin – do not necessarily represent the views of the Britain-Tanzania Society. They are published to illustrate the impressions of various writers on what they have seen and heard about Tanzania – Editor

TOURISM African Business in its May 1987 issue indicates that big changes in Tanzania’s tourism policy may be underway. Some sources contend that the Government has decided to go for mass tourism with the private sector playing a big role in the promotion of the trade. “According to the General Manager of the Tanzania Tourist Corporation (T.T.C.), Mr. Timothy Kassela, the policy would contain, among many other things, a code on investment and repatriation of dividends by foreign firms.

In a move to improve tourist services, the Government has accepted a proposal by the T.T.C. to relinquish day-to-day management of the 15 state-owned tourist hotels and lodges to foreign management agencies which are expected to give better services to the tourist.

The Chairman of the Board of Directors at the T.T.C., Mr Iddi Simba, confirms that negotiations have reached an advanced stage with foreign hotel management agents, so that the change of management should be effective by January 1988.

However, ardent adherents to African cultural values fear that a decision to go for mass tourism will open the flood gates for the destruction of the country’s ecology and national culture. Minister for Natural Resources and Tourism Mrs Gertrude Mongella, has stated recently that “We will not destroy our ecology. We will not disturb the habitat of our wild animals, and we will not disfigure our virgin coastline for the sake of tourism”.

According to African Business’s June issue, Lonhro has acquired a
second tea estate near Njombe. Lonrho – one of the first major investors to return to the country after a 7 year absence – is now understood to be strongly positioned to proceed with its development plans in Tanzania.

The re-acquisition in 1985 of a 75% stake in its previously owned Mufindi Tea Company, with the Tanzania Tea Authority (TTT) retaining the Balance, marked Lonrho’s first major re-involvement in Tanzania under the new “liberalised” foreign investment policy initiated by the Tanzanian Government 18 months ago. “We now intend to present a comprehensive 10-year re-development programme to be partly funded by enhanced export earnings retention through the Bank of Tanzania”, said Lonrho Tanzania Ltd Director J. L. Platts-Mills in Dar es Salaam.

The Luponde Estate near Njombe already has 500 hectares of tea but
this was in a ‘seriously neglected’ state when Lonrho acquired it in February 1987. according to Platts-Mills. In 1986 production from Luponde was 285 tons of made tea. “Lonrho plans to more than double this”, he said. Lonrho is currently negotiating for a third tea factory and an estate near Mufindi so that by 1991 it plans to have nearly tripled its existing area.

A scathing interpretation of recent East African history filled 16 pages of the June 20th edition of the Economist. The feature began by stating that “In a quarter of a century colonial British East Africa has diversified into three utterly different nations – one slaughter-house (Uganda), one slum (Tanzania) and one risky success (Kenya). The article went on to examine “tragic Uganda, failed Tanzania and upwardly mobile Kenya”. “The three nations bicker all the time and behave as badly towards each other as, until very lately, neighbours in Europe did”.

On the subject of Tanzania the Economist had much to say including the following: “Stable government, say some wise people, is what Africa needs for its development. It would be hard to be stabler than Tanzania. Mr. Julius Nyerere was its President from 1961 to 1985 when he handed over the reins to his former juniors. As party chairman he is still hampering his successor’s efforts to bring Tanzania into the real world …..

Mr. Nyerere is a persuasive, eloquent man, the leading spokesman of the third world and articulator of its proclaimed injustices. He has toured the world preaching what his friends half-affectionately call the Gospel according to Saint Julius. It includes the parable of the Tractor and the Bale of Sisal, concerning the relative prices of industrial goods and of a Tanzanian crop that was unfortunately rendered unprofitable thirty years ago by the invention of synthetic course fibres …..

Aid donors have picked Tanzania as a show-place for grand and often grossly inappropriate projects. The pattern was established in the late 1940’s when the British Government’s huge scheme to grow groundnuts became a by-word for well-intentioned extravagance. Chairman Mao’s engineers completed a new railway and hoped to hand it over to local control. …. but it still does not haul the copper out and works at all only because 1,000 Chinese engineers are still employed on it …. Zanzibar town contains a disgraceful little replica of East Berlin’s Stalinallee; roasting six story flats without running water or electricity, overcrowded, filthy, unfinished as they were when Mr. Ulbricht’s men walked away in 1972. The army’s barracks are junkyards of unrepaired vehicles from every imaginable producer in the world from Brazil to Albania.

Arusha was designated in the 1960’s as the headquarters of the East African Community; high rise buildings paid for by kindly Scandinavians litter the landscape, their maintenance a pointless burden on the national exchequer. Not far off the Canadians who run a huge wheat-growing scheme must find each year a fresh excuse for not meeting their production target…. Aid has done good service to many recipient countries …. Tanzania shows aid at its worst. Donors complete project after project, the expatriates leave and the hardware starts to rust. Mr. Nyerere, in his passion for equality, denied his people the incentive to work …….

Colin Legum took the International Herald Tribune to task in a letter published in the paper on July 30th.

What has happened to the crucial teaching of C.P. Scott on the Manchester Guardian that newspapers should not mix factual reporting with comment in the same news story? In your issue of July 20 you published an agency report stating ‘Former President Nyerere whose socialist policies plunged his nation into bankruptcy, has confirmed he will retire as chairman of the ruling party ….’

This is a glaring example of mixing news with comment. It is debatable whether Mr Nyerere’s ‘socialist policies’ did indeed plunge Tanzania into bankruptcy. The country’s situation was no worse than that of many other African countries that did not practice socialism. Distinguished academic economists have identified seven reasons for Tanzania’s economic setback since 1973, of which five involve external factors (for instance, the impact of the fourfold increase in the price of commodities) and climatic conditions; only two have to do with wrong government policies. Some of us would argue that, mistaken as some of the policies were, the rural transformation in Tanzania has in fact laid the foundation for the country’s rapid economic recovery, depending mainly on good rainfalls and the correction of some past errors …

However, the purpose of this letter is not to argue the case in favour of Tanzania’s ‘Socialist experiment’ but to express disappointment that a newspaper of distinction such as the International Herald Tribune should have offended against Scott’s cardinal rule.

The Paris based ‘Marches Tropicaux’ in its August 7th issue reported that the Zanzibar clove season commenced at the beginning of July. Zanzibar is the world’s fourth largest supplier of cloves, but the world market has shrunk drastically during recent years. 14,500 tons were bought in the 1960’s but in the 1985-86 season only 1,548 tons were bought.

The Zanzibar Trading Corporation is offering prices to producers very similar to those of last year. ‘A’ quality cloves fetch Shs. 65 per kilo; ‘C’ quality Shs. 47. This year the harvest is expected to be lower than last year in quantity. .. Indonesia remains the main market.

Under this rather surprising headline the spring issue of Oasis, the WaterAid journal featured a number of articles about problems of water supply in Tanzania. Chocolate and cheese turn out to be the only things missing from the lives of two Britons, Tyrone and Cynthia Barnes from Wrexham who are working in Tanzania under the auspices of WaterAid.

The article goes on to explain how Tanzanian water and sanitation installations, sometimes dating from colonial times, have been particularly prone to breakdown due to lack of spare parts. Many of WaterAid’s projects therefore concentrate on ‘rehabilitation’ – on repairing existing installations, on providing spares for the future and on training staff for proper running and maintenance. Projects costing about £100,000 have been funded so far and these are said to have helped some 45,000 people. The low unit cost, not much more than £2 per person, reflects the fact that most of the WaterAid projects merely re-activate or build on other people’s earlier investments.

The Barnes’s live at the Mvumi hospital. When they first arrived there were eight projects on the books. Mr Barnes now reckons that there are over a hundred. His job is to get other people to help themselves through self-help methods.

The magazine New Africa is much exercised about the future of former President Nyerere. The subject has been raised under various headings in three of its most recent issues. Under the heading ‘What Next Nyerere?’ New Africa stated that “There is growing political controversy in Tanzania and particularly within the ruling Chama cha Mapinduzi party, over the political future of former President Julius Nyerere. After he stepped down from the Presidency in 1985 Nyerere concentrated his undiminished energy on a party revitalisation campaign and retained the post of Chairman of the C.C.M. It was widely expected that he would then relinquish his party post without a fight when the C.C.M. holds its electoral conference in October. But there are now signs that sections of the party are interested in him staying on and his maintenance of a high political profile suggests that he might not be averse to the idea ……

Nyerere’s most trenchant criticisms have been of what he has termed ‘unplanned retreats from socialism’ and the increasing role being given to the private sector in economic activity. In one particularly scathing attack on the greater leeway given to the private sector, the veteran leader said that ‘these moves to help the private sector forced people to steal from the state to enable them to acquire foreign exchange with which to import goods …….

Journalists in Dar es Salaam believe that there is considerable support for Nyerere among ordinary party members and that if Nyerere himself decided to stay on and implicitly challenge Mwinyi for the job. then there might be a snowball effect.

One factor in Nyerere’s favour is that rumours now abound that further austerity measures are on the way as part of the IMF influenced economic reforms. These could threaten living standards.”

Some 80 million people suffer from iodine deficiency in Africa. The German magazine Afrika in its July – August issue states that a relatively high number of victims of this disease, manifested externally by an enlargement of the thyroid gland, are to be found in Tanzania, where about nine million people – 41% of the rural population – show symptoms of this disease.

The most seriously affected are women and children. The deficiency in the supply to the body of vital elements can lead to miscarriages or underweight among newborn children. Congenital diseases like deaf-muteness and mental retardedness are also ascribed to iodine deficiency.

The National Commission for Control of Iodine Deficiency Diseases (N.C.C.I.D.D.), has launched two campaigns to fight iodine deficiency. Statistical surveys to establish the distribution of the disease have so far been conducted in one third of the country’s 106 districts. In areas with an especially high incidence of the sickness, like the mountainous regions of Mbeya and Iringa in the western part of the country, people are being given iodine by injection or in capsule form.

According to the authorities, half a million iodine capsules have so far been distributed, with considerable success. After two to three weeks of treatment the enlargement of the thyroid, a result of the deficiency, generally recedes.

The journal Afrika in its April – May 1987 issue had much praise for President Mwinyi. He was said to have …”taken a tough stand on corruption and says he is determined to restore accountability in public offices. He wasted no time in summoning his cabinet and warning ministers that he would not tolerate a rotten administration and has already begun to prune out deadwood.

“Those eliminated include heads of a number of parastatals. Several corrupt public officers have received their marching orders. Five senior army officers who were alleged to have swindled more than $5.0 million at the Arusha-based Artillery Training School are in jail awaiting charges of theft.”

African Business in its May issue discussed Tanzanian tractor Manufacture. Apparently a private firm in Mwanza wished to enter into competition with the Tanzanian Tractor Manufacturing Company (TRAMA) in which the Government holds 90% of the equity. Valmet of •Finland, which supplies imported kits, holds 10%. The Tanzanian Industrial Licensing Board refused to grant a license to the Mwanza firm on the grounds that TRAMA is capable of meeting the country’s demands for tractors.

TRAMA has assembled 1,500 tractors from imported kits since 1983, of which 50 were sold to Sudan for $244,000 last year, for refugee settlements.

TRAMA uses 17% local components for its tractors, such as Radiators, ballast weights, paints, batteries and cabins. It has an installed capacity, at the associated Tamco plant at KIBAHA near Dar es Salaam, to assemble 800 units per year, but Tamco confirms that ‘this can easily be changed.’ Actual production is well below that level in most years; Trama assembled 83 tractors in 1983, 414 in 1984, 729 in 1985 and 257 in 1986. Trama plans to utilise the whole capacity this year.

The International Herald Tribune has been featuring an article by Eileen Stillwagon highlighting examples of what it describes as the oppressive conditions under which woman still have to live in Tanzania.

One example was said to come from the University of Dar es Salaam. Women at the University can apparently get ‘punched’ if they are too visible. Not punched with a fist, but punched with intimidation, lies, public humiliation and shunning. The ‘punch’ used to be a political tool, the article states, by which students criticised state party and university leaders who, in the students’ view, had abused their positions or made bad decisions. The ‘punch’ was subsequently taken over by a secret group of male engineering students. Since then it has been used exclusively to punish university women who are too visible, successful or outspoken.

The woman’s likeness and biographical information are posted, along with lies about her sexual relationships. She is then shunned by women and men students, both for the fabricated charges and for fear of being punched themselves for not cooperating, according to the author of the article.