Archive for Letters


I am trying to work out a history of the spread of coffee culture around the tropics and I am wondering whether any of your readers could shed some light on when and from where C. arabica cultivars came to East Africa.

In your article on Kilimanjaro Agriculture in Tanganyika Notes and Records No.64 you stated that the first coffee planting was made at Kilema Mission ‘over 60 years ago’ i.e around the beginning of the century. Monseigneur Le Roy of the Holy Ghost Fathers based in Zanzibar negotiated for the site of the mission at Kilema in August 1890. German plantations around Kilimanjaro appear to have started around 1895 when a Land Commission was set up to give out concessions and a Colonial Economic Committee of 1896 investigated suitable crops, of which coffee and rubber were the most important, so presumably coffee was already available by then. On the other hand robusta coffee had been in use around Bukoba and traded locally in pre-colonial times and the Germans certainly exported this and may well have used it in their plantations initially.

I wonder if the Holy Ghost Fathers were responsible for the importation into Kenya and Uganda from Reunion and then passed stock on to the other countries? Being a French mission, they might well have had contacts with Reunion and their headquarters in Zanzibar could have been used as a port of entry. Furthermore, the White Fathers sent out to the Lake Region and Uganda in 1878 were also French. I wonder if you have any more information or know where I could find some?
Mike Bigger
(The writer is updating the standard work ‘Insect Pests of Coffee’ -Longmans -and has increased the world list of such insects from 890 to some 1,400. Anyone able to help in his research can contact him at Tel: 01568708319 -Editor)

Thank you for producing a very good magazine, with lots of interesting information in it. You asked for suggestions about how to improve it, so below I have described my idea.
I lived in Tanzania for a total of 7 years, which means that family and friends, and often friends of friends, regard me as someone who ought to know about things Tanzanian. Obviously I do not feel like an authority in any sense of the word. But increasingly I receive letters and e-mails from people who have been given my address by friends or family, asking for my advice. Typically they say that their 18-year old daughter wants to take a year off before university and has applied to go to Tanzania with an organization for a ‘short-term experience’. They want to know what my opinion is of this organization. Is it a rip-off? Is it reliable? Do I recommend it? Or the letter will say that they wish to give money to a charity that works in Tanzania. Can I recommend one? Will that charity use their money wisely?

I wonder if there is a place in Tanzanian Affairs for a series of articles about organizations that work in Tanzania. I’m not really looking for the facts and figures; they are easily obtainable from the organization itself. I’m looking for an honest report from people who can advise, recommend or even condemn a particular organization. Would this be possible? 1 know that there are many other people in my situation because we ask each other for advice, but frequently we are stuck, and don’t know who to turn to for the answer.
Catherine Lee.

As regards organizations that really work in Tanzania would readers who are able to help please get in touch with Catherine Lee at St. James Episcopal Church, 23 Wu-chuan West Road, Taichung, Taiwan. Concerning charities which work and use their money Wisely I think you should be aware of the Tanzania Development Trust’ which is part of the Britain-Tanzania Society and helps development projects in various part of the country. Its Project Officer is Peter Park, 45 Highsett, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 1NZ -Editor

I have copies of 11 of Tanganyika/Tanzania Notes and Records (1960-65) -plus the index for Nos. 1-55 -which I would be happy to pass on to anyone who has an interest in them.
V Evans (Tel: 01323 733 966)

You have recently reviewed Randal Sadleir’s book -‘Tanzania ­Journey to a Republic’ in which he describes the events following a plane crash in Handeni in 1952. My uncle was killed in this crash and the local authorities in Tanga (presumably including Mr Sadleir) were kind enough to arrange a Jewish burial and gravestone. Could you let me have Mr Sadleir’s address.
John Rudkin

Randal has spoken to Professor Yudkin and disclaimed any credit for the Jewish burial which he believes was perhaps arranged by the then Provincial Commissioner Mr J C Clarke or his staff as Tanga is 150 miles from the site of the crash -Editor.

A quick thought on the really excellent Tanzanian Affairs. Being quite a substantial publication now it would benefit from a contents page. This would include (as on the cover now) regular sections and, of course, page numbers.
Nick Mc William

Thank you for this suggestion with which I am sure many readers would agree. The trouble is that this would slightly reduce the space for the main text so much good material has to be rejected each time TA is published that I am reluctant to make any reduction in this space. The problem might be eased if we could publish say a separate annual or five­yearly index. Any volunteers to make one? -Editor



The letter on Nyerere’s Economic Policies (January-April, 2000) argues that they failed not because they were wrong but because they were poorly implemented.

Nationalization and putting the economy into the hands of parastatals failed, the letter says, because of “lack of attention,” “management inefficiencies,” an unfortunate need for imported inputs to production, “a severe lack of trained personnel,” and an excess of trnst in self-serving foreign sellers of technology and know-how.

The ujamaa villages were a good strategy for rural development, according to the letter, but failed because of “lack of attention” (again), elitist politicians who lacked respect for the rural people, and the failure of the central government to raise the prices for rural produce in line with inflation.

Anyone who has lived through the last decade should have learned that centrally planned and centrally run economies have failed everywhere. Perhaps it is because there can never be enough trained managers or because management inefficiencies creep into all governmental operations or because politicians are always elitist and disrespect the people being governed. Or perhaps there are other reasons.

I was present on the field in Dar es Salaam, heard Nyerere deliver the Arusha Declaration and had a certain amount of enthusiasm for the policies and great hope for the country. However, the lesson of this century has been that the economic policies that Nyerere chose have failed wherever they have been tried. They did not fail in Tanzania because of special circumstances or bad luck or bad timing. It would have been very hard to know it in the 1960s and 1970s, but they were just policies that don’t work.
Paul Sack, San Francisco

Can any readers of Tanzanian Affairs please tell me whether the Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania is still functioning? I have been a member for the last ten years sending subscriptions and donations to their London bank account but have received no copies of their twice-yearly newsletter ‘Miombo’ since April 1998 and letters to the Society at P 0 Box 70919, Dar es Salaam have produced no reply. If you have any information please ring me on 01434 3445810r write to Primrose House, Bardon Mill, Hexham, Northumberland NE477HF.
M. H. Dorey




I happened to see the interview you gave on CNN on the day that Julius Nyerere died. On the whole, I would like to congratulate you on your success in fielding the questions thrown at you.

However, there was one particular answer that you gave which troubled me. It was on the question of Tanzania’s economic policies under Nyerere when you appeared to agree with the interviewer that they were mistaken, and more or less the cause of Tanzania’s economic difficulties. Using Nyerere as a scapegoat for Tanzania’s economic problems has become something of a conventional wisdom which, to say the least, is quite unfair.

First, it needs to be pointed out that people in most other underdeveloped countries, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, are not noticeably better off, if not much worse off, than in Tanzania, without, presumably, having been ‘subjected’ to Nyerere’s economic policies.

But, more important, what were those economic policies and their background? For the first few years of independence, government policy was that being promoted (and still is being promoted) by the IMF, the World Bank, etc. -namely to make the country as attractive as possible for foreign investors, offering tax breaks or other subsidies financed by foreign loans and the like. The result? It became more or less a satellite economy of Kenya. Because of the latter’s more developed infrastructure, and the larger number of people wealthy enough to provide a market, Kenya received the lion’s share of foreign investment in East Africa.

Meanwhile, the few significant industries that Tanzania did have were subsidiaries of foreign companies, the profits of which were mainly transferred abroad (either directly or indirectly through the device of transfer pricing), and were therefore not available for reinvestment in Tanzania. Furthermore, during the first few years of independence, the international prices of Tanzania’s major export crops began to decline sharply. Something had to change. Hence the Arusha Declaration.

The nationalisation of those few foreign-owned enterprises, and the subsequent establishment of a number of new parastatal enterprises, did have the desired effect of stimulating economic development, and put in place the means by which profits generated by workers in Tanzania could be recycled within the Tanzanian economy rather than disappear abroad. Unfortunately, that initial success could not be sustained. Partly, this was due to the lack of attention given to strategy -all was very ad hoc. In particular many parastatals were heavily dependent on imports. Thus, when there was a squeeze on foreign exchange, many could not function or only at very low capacity. Much more emphasis should have been placed on developing industries utilising Tanzania’s own natural resources

Other types of creeping inefficiencies can be attributed to the fact that many were local monopolies which led to various types of management inefficiencies. However, the problem here was that the Tanzanian economy in the early 1970s, related to its extreme state of underdevelopment, simply was not big enough in most cases to accommodate more than one major enterprise in anyone sector. This would have applied equally had these enterprises been privately owned, which, in any case, at the time, would hardly have been possible since there were few individuals or institutions wealthy enough (apart from the government) that could afford such investments.

In other words, managers of Tanzania’s new parastatal enterprises needed to be particularly self-disciplined and experienced, and considering the severe lack of trained personnel immediately after independence, it is hardly surprising that mistakes were made. A further issue, with hindsight, is that the government and Tanzanian managers of parastatals should have been more distrustful of the foreign collaborators supplying technology and technical know-how, because many of the deals struck turned out to be highly exploitative and became a drain on foreign exchange.

The proposals for rural development following the Arusha Declaration also made sense. In essence, the policy was to create a system to pool local resources -especially labour -to develop the rural economy rather than wait around for years for the government to provide finance (which it simply did not have) or for outside investors to come along (which would have created new foreign debts and all the implications of that). The policy got off to a bad start for three major reasons. First, again, was the lack of attention given to strategy. Second, practically all the politicians entrusted with the process failed to emulate Nyerere in that they had become elitist, and, lacked respect for rural people and their immense knowledge of their local environment. In many areas, notoriously, people were moved against their will. In other words, it was not the policy as such, but the way it was implemented that was more of the problem. Rural people were further alienated by the failure of the government -which controlled prices for rural produce -to raise prices in line with inflation.

It is possible that in different economic circumstances, all these various teething troubles and practical difficulties would have been less intense or could have been addressed. But soon after the new industrial policy had been launched, and even before the new rural policy was under way, the international economy was lurching into deep crisis, triggered by the United States government decision to print dollars to finance its war with Vietnam and its welfare programme. This led to worldwide inflation, and extreme economic instability everywhere -and ultimately to the global debt crisis of the 1980s, which severely affected all countries, not just Tanzania -and from which, despite much wishful thinking, the world has yet to recover.

More important, the problems Nyerere was seeking to address in the 1960s are still with us. Nobody has come up with any real alternative for rapid and sustainable development. Indeed, the policies being pushed on to developing countries by advanced industrial country governments and the international banks that serve their interests -such as measures to encourage foreign direct investment, removal of import controls and the free movement of capital in and out of the country -are likely to make matters worse. They are a recipe for the giant transnational corporations to get rich at everybody else’s expense, thus, in effect, holding back development. Moreover, it is a matter of historical fact that no country in the world has ever achieved an advanced state of development by that route. Thus, there is a strong argument for all underdeveloped countries, not to reject, but to revisit Nyerere’s ideas adapting them to their circumstances.
Jerry Jones


I think that your readers may be interested to know that there is a new free internet service. It is at and has lots of information about Tanzania on it.
Cuthbert Kimambo

I congratulate you on the decision to include in ‘Tanzanian Affairs’ articles on Swahili with new words and contemporary meanings of old and familiar ones. However, perhaps Kisa ya Kisasa -3 could have been improved in its structure. The first three sentences are impeccable. In the 4th extract, the second sentence would be better translated by ‘I had been around in different parts of Tanzania for some time but my Swahili was far from up to date’. Last sentence: I don’t think anybody now or then, would say na wewe; nawe is the idiomatic term. In the penultimate sentence in the English version “I thus learnt … ‘ does not appear in the Swahili (although it fits the context). The last sentence is of course true but it is an editor’s gloss and not a translation of anything. I suspect that the greatest interest for people with former fluency in archaic Swahili is to have a literal translation followed, where appropriate, by the idiomatic, contemporary one.

In the 8th entry the phrase ‘striking out’ is in no way a translation of kugoma kuondoka (perfectly correct in the 6th entry).
The English omits any reference to the complainant, the main reason for the trouble and alipofunguliwa shitaka is sloppy : it should be lilipo …
But the articles are great fun. Please let us have more.
PC Duff

I attach a note about a UK tour operator’s 17-day’ Safari by steam’. It begins at a remote beach camp in the Sadani Game Reserve. After sailing down the Wami river and driving to Tanga the group boards the train at Mombo for the Ngorongoro Crater. Details: 01420 541007. I wonder if any reader has raised his/her eyebrows at this! Has anybody been on the tour?
Dick Waller

Re the reference (in the last issue’s review by Christine Lawrence of the book Heroes of the Faith’) to Neil Russell who became Bishop of Zanzibar in 1961, I remember in about 1950 seeing him in the distance approaching our camp at Kongwa. As he got nearer I recognised the ‘Kanzu’ type gown he was wearing, slip-slops on his feet and a long staff in his hand. My friend Steven Faithfull, who was responsible for accommodation of our visitors, offered him a fully-furnished tent with bed, blankets and all the trimmings plus a servant but he refused and asked if he could have an empty tent as he preferred to sleep on the ground … after two nights with us communing with his Wazigua friends, he walked out of our camp, as he came in, to visit the next camp, about eight miles away – he was the nearest to a Christ-like figure I have ever seen.
Ronald W Munns. Adelaide, Australia



I am currently working on a research project looking at the role of medical missionaries in colonial Tanganyika. I am attempting to write a history of the medical missionaries -how and why they joined, their interaction with both Tanzanians and the colonial government and experiences of ‘indigenous medicine’ amongst other things. I would love to hear from any ex-missionaries who had any experiences of working in the medical field and any other medical workers who had dealings with medical missionaries. If you feel that you may be able to help me in my research please get in touch with me.
Dr. Michael Jennings, TheWellcome Unit for the History of Medicine,
45-47 Banbury Road, Oxford OX2 6PE


I was pleased to see the review of ‘East African Expressions of Christianity’ in the last issue of Tanzanian Affairs but very disappointed that you failed to include the fact that it is published in Dar es Salaam by ‘Mkuki wa Nyota’. Could you please note in the next issue that, thanks to the University of Wisconsin, the price in Tanzanian shillings will be surprisingly accessible.
James Currey

I was most interested to read Ben Rawlence (TA No 63) saying hujambo is a contraction of huna jambo; I always thought it was the 2nd person singular, negative verb prefix, or is huna another form of it? Hence, having said Hujambo?, the other replies Sijambo!, or, if replying (also on behalf of others, Hatujambo!. If you are greeting more than one person you say Hamjambo? The 3rd person greetings would be Hajambo? (sing.) and Hawajambo? (plural), with the same answers, but these forms I have found to be rare in conversation, with people more likely to say Habari ya Mzee Saidi? or whatever, rather than Mama Ngina, hajambo?

I suppose all the above could be styled in the plural, ego Humambo?, though I’ve never heard the plural form used, except on its own -Mambo?

I was glad Rawlence gave the correct translation of the word jambo. It has gone down in history as meaning “hello”. I wonder how many magazines and such-like around the globe, given the title or part-title Jambo, would have been so-named had the producers realised the word’s true meaning.
A D H Leishman, Westdene, South Africa.



I believe my subscription for Tanzanian Affairs needs renewing. Please send the magazines to my new Taiwan address. Should there be any other subscribers to Tanzanian Affairs living in Taiwan I’d love to know. We could get together and brush up our Kiswahili!

Catherine Lee
St. James’ Episcopal Church, 23 Wu-chuan West
Road, 403 Taichung, Taiwan, ROC.
Sorry. I don’t think there are any others yet. Your subscription means that we now have subscribers in 37 countries around the world -Editor.

……Am just back from Dar and Dodoma. Hotels in central Dar are becoming a rare breed -apart from those two millionaires hideouts. Motel Agip has now closed down, to add to the Twiga, Mawenzi and Skyway. And as for the Kilimanjaro ……I am hoping to join a Tony Janes tour this year-probably the coast safari, so that I can stay on in Zanzibar for an extra day or so. We really are spoilt for choice by Tony. I want to do all of his tours!
I have just read Ben Rawlence’s piece in Tanzanian Affairs No. 62. Even greetings are changing in Tanzania. It’s now streetwise to say “Mambo” or “Vipi”. To which the reply is “Poa”. Gone are “Habari” and “Mzuri!”
David Leishman, Westdene, South Africa

(For the benefit of readers like me whose Swahili is out-dated I asked our contributor on Swahili, Ben Rawlence, to elaborate on your last paragraph. He responded as follows: The greetings quoted are commonly used but informal. A common greeting is ‘Hujambo’ -a contraction of ‘huna jambo ‘ (do you not have a problem? Of you don’t have any problem?). You are using a double negative to confirm that you don’t have any problems. ‘Mambo’ is the plural of ‘Jambo’ and is a short way of saying ­’problems?’ The questioning is determined by a rising intonation. You can say ‘Mambo’, or ‘Vipi Mambo’ (how are the problems?) or ‘Mambo vipi?’ The reply is ‘Poa’, which is that highly popular (amongst the young) English word ‘cool ‘. Or you can reply ‘Safi’ meaning ‘clean of problems’ ­Editor}.


With reference to the report in Tanzanian Affairs No. 62 on the Sexual Offences Act, according to the report of the General Police Commander, Mr Omar Mahita, raping cases increased from 1,181 in 1997 to 1,542 in 1998 (23.4%), sex with under age girls cases increased by 26% and sodomy cases by 13.6%. There may be many other cases which were not reported. The reasons for this are said to be the introduction of foreign culture, poor child bringing up, more broken marriages, children brought up without proper parental care, women wearing short dresses and the influence of drugs and alcohol.
While these reasons may have played a part it seems that the real cause of the problem has not been explained. Many people have been talking about a recent case where a person who held high positions in the government and the parastatals and was involved in church matters was caught in the bedroom with his own daughter. Psychologists may have something to say about it but I agree to the view that the culture and norms of Tanzanians are no longer observed. People used to fear society and government laws but both these have now lost power. What do your readers think about the new Sexual Act?
John Orasa, Dar es Salaam



Your obituary of the late Edmund Capper does him less than justice. As Provost of St Albans in Dar es Salaam and subsequently as Chaplain of St Nicholas, Ilala, he steered the Anglican Church with great tact and skill through the tumultuous period of the coming of independence and the birth of Tanzania. The pressure on those in public positions at that time was intense and he was an important figure-head of the old Establishment who set an example of integrity, tolerance and good humour. He was widely respected by the members of his church – and indeed far beyond it. The Provost always spoke sound common sense and proffered good counsel to the highest in the land and to the lowest. To those of us in the expatriate community during this time of transition, he was a rock – of principle and faith, as well as a genial and wise companion.
R F Eberlie

I am sure other people who have received the last issue will have contacted you regarding the obituaries. As far as I am aware Edmund Capper joined the UMCA in 1936 as a priest in Masasi. He was appointed Archdeacon of Lindi and in 1954 Archdeacon of Dar es Salaam and Rector of St Albans and later the Provost. It was after he left Tanganyika that he finally became a bishop. Most of the report refers to Leslie Stradling who was consecrated bishop on July 25 1945 and arrived in Moshi on December 4. That delay was due to lack of a passage to East Africa because of the war. He became the first bishop of South West Tanganyika in 1952. Certainly the last anecdote – re the goat – is from Bishop Leslie and possibly the confirmation one too.
Peter Stringer UMCA 1954-63

(You and other readers who have pointed out the serious errors in the obituaries section are quite right. The obituary did the Rt. Rev Edmund Capper less than justice because his obituary became mixed up with that of the Rt. Rev Leslie Stradling who died a short while earlier. The confusion can be partially explained only by reference to the fact that both apparently died at the same age, both served several years in Masasi, both were members of the UMCA and they left Tanganyika within a year of each other. But this is no excuse. Apologies to all concerned – Editor).

In TA No. 60 it says that Mark Cotton had discovered the remains of an underground mosque believed to date back to the 6th Century AD. Did not Islam begin in the 7th Century AD? So how come we find a 6th Century mosque in Pemba?
Trevor Jagger

We spotted in the last issue a reproduction of part of Ann McFerran’s article in the Telegraph a few weeks ago. I enclose a copy of an article from the Sunday Times Magazine written by Patrick Wilson. (I like the article but sorry, no more space in this issue. Perhaps next time – Editor). ‘Health Projects Abroad’ (HPA) now offers 120 young people a year the chance to spend three months in Tanzania seeing what it is like to live and work in rural villages there.
Cath Rowlatt. HPA Volunteer Programme Manager

Another reader has written as follows: ‘You did not mention the cholera outbreak in Zanzibar in your last issue. Many people (perhaps 200) died in December 1997. My husband was one of them’ – Apologies and our sympathy on your loss – Editor.

Comments (1)



Greetings from Tanzania. I enclose a translation I have done of an article about the closure of the Goethe Institute in Dar es Salaam written by Bartholomaus Grill in Die Zeit on December 5 1997 which might be of interest to some of your readers. Extracts from the article:

In four months it will be all over. A movie in December symbolises this final act: Der Totmacher (the Dead-Maker); and there can be no doubt whom Tanzanians identify it with: the Minister of Finance in wealthy Germany. His money saving measures put an end to this episode which began in 1962 when the grandchildren of German colonialists founded a branch of the Goethe Institute in Tanzania, not far from the military cemetery where for 100 years their heroic grandfathers had found their rest. It was not meant as an apology as Germany was then busy enough forgetting her most recent past. With the passage of 35 years, however, the project became some kind of compensation. At least, that’s the way many Tanzanians see it. “Through this cross-cultural exchange programme, Germany has shed her colonial reputation” says painter Robino Ntila….. “With the closure of the Institute, the finest period of German-Tanzanian cross-cultural communication ends” palaeanthropologist Charles Saanane complains…. “If you were seeking to meet with Tanzania’s artists, writers and intellectuals, just sit in the institute’s foyer and wait.” Situated at Dar’s most popular spot, the city’s geographical centre, it had been integrated into the host country, unlike other Goethe branches. By comparison the Institute in Johannesburg, placed in the sterile white shopping quarter of Rosebank, looks like an alien spaceship landed by accident in the new South Africa. ….” Why in the world Dar es Salaam?” asks Shafi Adam Shafi, author of that mysterious story from Zanzibar ‘The Slavery of Spices’ who gave his very first lecture at the institute.. . . “in Munich, where the decision was taken, it’s a mere movement of the pen. For us in Tanzania it’s a catastrophe’ remarks Shafi…… Germany’s financial and technical aid for community development in Tanzania for one year would suffice to finance the Goethe Institute for 184 years.”

Oliver Stegen, Box 21, Kondoa


I served as Park Warden Tourism in the Serengeti from 1965 to 1967 and was able to return about once a year for some time but have not seen it for 12 years. I have some 6,000 slides of the Serengeti, many of which have been published.

After school in 1955 I went to Tanzania to stay with a school friend, Jonathan Kingdon, now an established and internationally acclaimed wildlife artist/cientist. Jonathan’s father was Provincial Commissioner, Central Province, so I stayed with the Kingdon family at Dodoma and photographed several bird of prey nests on the Dodoma Golf Course! This trip was extensively photographed, sadly only in black and white. I am wondering now about making the entire trip again, covering exactly the same ground, (Arusha -Dodoma -Mbeya). I am keen to ascertain whether anyone can advise me on the safety and otherwise of making this trip, probably driving alone, with photographic equipment aboard.

I have just learned of the death of former Minister of Wildlife Soloman
ole Saibul. I shall greatly miss his smiles, his wit and his help -but above all his friendship. I would like to contact his family; can anyone help me with the address?

Grahame Dangerfield,
The Grahame Dangerfield Wildlife Trust, Bowers Heath,
Harpenden. Herts, AL5 5EE.
Telephone and Fax: xxxxx


I started travelling to East Africa as a consultant to UNIDO, developing seed treatment technology suitable for rural farmers. When the project finished we had shown that yields of maize and beans can be substantially increased by treating the seeds before planting and that the low cost machines we developed worked well. We found a general awareness among villagers that treated seed grew better than untreated. However, we did not disseminate, so our prototypes were in line to join the many other workable ideas abandoned because their dissemination was not properly tackled.

I therefore decided to spend a few years in Tanzania to try and luck start a seed treatment system for rural farmers but I have faced a number of problems. There is now no legal and available seed treatment available in Tanzania. The registration authority, TPRI in Arusha, charges $5,500 for registration which is beyond my means and is also too high to be justified by any agro-chemical company. The market is quite small and speculative. The recently re-vamped pesticide formulation plant at Moshi is now developing a formulation using some active ingredients imported by UNIDO at the end of their project but they are devoid of funds. I also have problems with a resident’s permit.

The reason I am writing to you is because I believe the matter may be of interest to the Britain Tanzania Society and also to ask if you have any ideas regarding my problems.

J E Elsworth. E-Mail: xxxxx



I am in the process of conducting PhD research Into the social history of
Dar es Salaam in the colonial and post-colonial periods and am keen to contact people who lived and/or worked in the city between 1920 and 1980. I am especially interested in the administration and policing in the town, urban growth and attempts to control it; the housing sector, the development of an urban economy and workforce, and the growth of crime and petty crime, particularly activities which might be described as ‘informal sector’ ones such as illegal street trading, the manufacture and sale of alcohol, prostitution, and begging. Anyone who feels they could be of assistance please contact me on XXXX
Andrew Burton, London

In about 1963 visits to Pangani were made special by meeting the Grundys, to enjoy their hospitality in the remarkable house they were building and to see boat building, spinning of coconut fibre, metal work and furniture making in the workshop. Major Grundy was the first registered citizen of Tanganyika and he meant to stay. Unfortunately, the business was a victim of blanket nationalisation and the Grundys left. However, when the Britain- Tanzania Study Tour visited Pangani in August 1997 several people told us of the debt the town still owes to them. Major Grundy is remembered with great affection and respect. The Independence memorial is acknowledged as his work. The workshop has been extended and is in reasonable condition although the business seems to be at a standstill. It would be good if ‘Tanzanian Affairs’ could carry a tribute to the Grundys. To that end, I am asking anyone who has information about their lives before or after Pangani to send it to me. Peter Yeo Loughborough

Further to your earlier news Item (TA No 57) about the giant tortoises (Geochelone gigantea) of Zanzibar, my wife and I were there in August 1997 and can now give you an update. We found that only seven adults now remain on Changuu island but they are under close surveillance and 16 new young ones have been successfully hatched. On Zanzibar itself a holding facility has been established for tortoises moved from Changuu in 1996 and other tortoises that have been seized after they were stolen from the island.

The translocation of confiscated tortoises could result in the introduction of diseases and parasites not previously present on Changuu. One of the purposes of our visit therefore was to draw up a health monitoring programme. Fortunately, professional veterinary assistance is available there from various sources but funds are needed to save the tortoises and to keep them free of disease. Those wishing to help are invited to send cheques made payable to the ‘Changuu Tortoise Account XXXX and sent to Barclays Bank, P0 Box 8, 13 Library Place, St Heller, Jersey John E Cooper, Wiltshire



The paragraph published in TA issue No. 57 under the above heading summarised an article published in the London Observer on April 5th. That article named the George Adamson Wildlife Preservation Trust and contained a number of grossly distorted facts and half truths.

I do not intend to comment on the Maasai claim to grazing rights in the Mkomazi Game Reserve since the Trust is not a party to the dispute but the statement that there are ‘…fly infested, stinking animal carcases, children with distended bodies …’ around the boundaries of the reserve is false. The lot of the local villagers is no better and no worse than that of most of the rural population in Tanzania. The famous ‘glass-fronted house with a satellite dish’ in which the Trust’s representative, Tony Fitzjohn, lives, was a one-room building constructed of local stone until a small nursery was added recently. Alas there is no satellite dish. Until he built his house, Fitzjohn lived for many years under canvas….

The Mkomazi Reserve is not privately run by the Trust and Fitzjohn is not the manager. It is a national reserve managed by the Tanzanian Government and has a Tanzanian manager. The George Adamson Trust was asked by the Government to assist in rehabilitating the reserve and it has acted strictly within its remit. It does not, as might be inferred from your comments, have the authority to negotiate with the Maasai.

The Trust and its sister trusts have raised millions of dollars for the building of roads and airstrips, equipping the ranger force, constructing the only purpose-built rhino sanctuary in Africa and for the Mkomazi Outreach Programme which funds resources and educational facilities for those living near the reserve. The Duke of Kent is not the patron of the trust. The trust has no such officer.

Most of the original Observer article is incorrect and indeed libellous …
Dr. S K Eltringham
Chairman of Trustees
The George Adamson Wildlife Preservation Trust

Hasty, narrow research leads to shallow conclusions. The article ‘Barred from animal’s kingdom’ (Observer 6th April) which was referred to in your last issue, demonstrates both.

I am a Tanzanian. I have been working in rural extension for 23 years.. .I have worked in and around the Mkomazi Game Reserve for more than two years researching community conservation ….I and my colleagues have had considerable dialogue with villagers of all ethnic groups…we have lived there. From this research I have come to realise that the area is not just a Garden of Eden for Maasai that you fancy. There are other ethnic groups such as the Pare and Sambaa who have historical roots with the area inside and outside the Reserve, before the Maasai arrived…. Where was the voice of other ethnic groups in the article?

Another group whose viewpoint seems to have been omitted is that of the Tanzanian Government. Since the Reserve was gazetted there has been a great deal of consultation between the people and the government.. . .of course, where movement was not voluntary some force was used. Which government does not use force like this? Ask Swampy!!

…… It is vital that we Tanzanians solve our conflicts between different ethnic groups and between ethnic groups and the Government. This can only be done with good information and careful, broad research. Please do not antagonise and aggravate conflict between the government and the people, and between NG07s of the North and the South, with such poor information. Tanzania has 120 ethnic groups…. Groups in the Mkomazi area have coexisted for many years, they have intermarried, they have traded. They were and are still able to solve conflicts and have organised utilisation and management of rangelands and irrigation water together. It is wrong for outsiders to pick on one ethnic group, fancy it, sponsor it and promote it at the expense of other groups’ inclusion in debates.. . .
Yours, in love with my country,
Hildegarda Lucian Petri Kiwasila
University College, London

(I regret that it has been necessary to slightly abbreviate the above two important letters. I think it should be pointed out that our column headed ‘Tanzania in the Media’ is intended to tell readers what the international press is writing about Tanzania. What is written is not necessarily the view of the Britain-Tanzania society or of myself- Editor).

Thank you for letting me have the address of Mr Clarke following my recent letter. On page 9 of Tanzanian Affairs No. 57 you refer to CCM’s candidate at the Magu vacant seat as being ‘a well-known local businessman who had been the NCCR candidate for the seat during the general elections’. If this refers to Dr. Festus Limbu, then our records show that Dr. Limbu is a member of staff of the Department of Economics at the University of Dar es Salaam. Dr. Limbu did contest the seat through the NCCR-Mageuzi during the general elections and lost. The description of the well-known local businessman I suspect fits one of the other contestants.
On page 12 there is a reference to Lake Malawi which is called Lake Nyasa by this side of the border!
Professor Geoffrey Mmari
Vice Chancellor, the Open University of Tanzania

One of the main tasks of a reviewer, dealing with writings on a controversial subject, is to place those writings in their context and let his readers know that there are two sides to the argument. John Budge, in issue No 57, simply fails to do this. There IS a debate on structural adjustment, but all he has done is to take a couple of writers from the ‘anti’ side and tell us how much he is in agreement with them.

Both Kaiser and Schatz, as he quotes them, draw their conclusions from shaky evidence. Tanzania’s admirable social cohesion was already there (in contrast to Kenya and Uganda) when Julius Nyerere took over the reins, and was not created later. Whatever you think about structural adjustment, the country’s economic and social decline dates from long before Government took to measures of economic liberalisation. It began as a spin-off of the one-party state and the centralisation of power; it continued with the policies of ‘nationalising everything’, pressures for people to leave their homesteads and migrate to ujamaa villages, and the unrealistically low producer prices fixed by Government which shattered national food production in the 1970’s. Crime and corruption went into a steep rise then, not after the adoption of IMF/World Bank policies.

Where WERE Messrs Budge, Kaiser and Schatz when all this was going on?
Dr Philip Mawhood
University of Exeter

Thank you so very, very much for your wonderful review of Werner Voigt’s book in the last issue. I have long felt passionate about how great the story of Werner and Helga’s life is. You may not be aware that Werner died last February 8th. It is very unfortunate that we were not in touch just a year earlier because we stopped in England on the way to Tanzania and you could have met Werner and Helga (and myself and Evelyn, their daughter)……
Gordon Breedyk, Ottawa, Canada

I was delighted to read the kind review of my book about the Barabaig in your last issue. I am pleased to advise the reviewer, Christine Lawrence, that the book was published in Kenya…..but is also available from the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) 3 Endsleigh St. London WClH ODD.

The quotation with which Christine ends her review is most apt. At this time in Tanzania the whole question of how land is to be administered is under consideration with a new land policy in place and a new land law to be passed by the Bunge in the near future.. . .Indications from the draft legislation suggest that customary tenure will be accommodated and the interests of pastoralists will be satisfied to an extent by its provisions. If this comes to pass then it will be the result of the efforts of many including pastoralists, a triumph of reason and as a result of good governance. I have made regular comment on this process in the IIED Bulletin Haramata.
Charles Lane

Reviewer John Budge has responded to the letters from Julie Jarman and Dr Astier Almedom in our last issue by writing to say that he is thoroughly ashamed of his ill-considered and inconsiderate comment about the handwashing of African children. He goes on ‘I suppose that foremost in my mind was the plight of country people in places where saving water is of paramount importance… I regret any implied devaluation of the magnificent work of WaterAid UNICEF, The Dodoma Hygiene Evaluation Study and the Tanzanian Government and above all, of devoted relief workers in close contact with village people. Perhaps I can take some consolation in the fact that their letters can play some small part in shedding even more light on a vital Issue of African rural life – the connection between water and killer diseases’ – Editor



I am writing in response to John Budge’s review of Astier Almedom’s article ‘Recent developments in hygiene behaviour research’ which appeared in Tanzanian Affairs No 56. John Budge comments “one cannot help being surprised ….. by the naivete and glibness of experts, who, sitting in a room in London, with no doubt an adjoining toilet, discuss the importance of teaching African children to wash their hands … ”

I was based in Dodoma myself for three years and worked on the WaterAid programme as the Community Involvement and Hygiene Education Co-ordinator. I was responsible for liaising with Astier Almedom whilst she conducted her field trials, and can assure you that she was not discussing the importance of hand washing with other experts but with Tanzanian villagers and government field staff. WaterAid staff and those of our partners, the Tanzanian Government, work extremely hard. They are in the field, visiting and staying in villages, five-six days a week, most weeks of the year. All of the work they do is based on the full participation of the people who will benefit, and they employ a range of community development techniques to ensure the involvement of the whole community (some of which are mentioned in Dr Almedom’s article. The hygiene education component of the work is a prime example. The villagers are involved in assessing and prioritising the hygiene behaviours that should be targeted for change. Sanitation improvements are also discussed with villagers using a sanitation ladder, an exercise which stimulates discussion about the usefulness of making incremental improvements to latrines. This means that villagers can make changes at their own pace. WaterAid carries out hygiene education activities at the same time as providing clean water to a community. Whilst not the same level of service as ‘an adjoining toilet’, clean water is an invaluable resource for hand washing.

I am not writing purely in a professional capacity, but also as a member of the Britain-Tanzania Society since 1989. May I add that I find ‘Tanzanian Affairs’ an essential lifeline to events in Tanzania.
Julie Jarman
Advocacy Manager, WaterAid

Tanzanian Affairs’s review of my paper on recent developments in hygiene behaviour research was brought to my attention by Ms Julie Jarman of WaterAid with whom I had collaborated in 1994.

My paper describes the development of a field handbook ‘Hygiene Evaluation Procedure’ which has been published by the International Foundation for Developing Countries (INFDC), Boston, 1996. Among the field studies which contributed to the handbook was the Dodoma Hygiene Evaluation Study. The results of that study are mentioned in my paper as examples of the value of involving rural women and children in discussions of health and hygiene as part of good planning and implementation of hygiene education projects. Looking at John Budge’s ‘review’ I am not sure that he has read my paper. This is the first task of any reviewer, to actually read and then comment. As it is I do not know which experts ‘sitting in London’ he is referring to. As an African woman with young children, I have no problems in emphasising the need to wash hands at ‘critical times’ with African children (or any other children) because it is a simple and effective way to prevent diarrhoeal disease which claims the lives of too many of our children. Where clean water is not available WaterAid and other agencies try to make it available as much as possible.

Your readers may be interested to know that the hygiene evaluation procedures handbook is already being used by WaterAid and its partners in the field as part of its ‘good practice’ package. In addition, UNICEF is disseminating it more widely by funding a French and Spanish translation of it.
Dr. Astier M Almedom
Medical Anthropologist

…… We have been invited by the Anglican Church, Diocese of Central Tanzania, to work on the language development, literacy and Bible translation project for the Langi (also known as kiRangi) language … .if any of your readers knows something about the Langi, be it from own experience or from other people’s writings we would be only too happy to hear from them …. Oliver and Dorothea Stegen, P 0 Box 1369, Dodoma

I am writing to ask whether there is anyone out there who knows anything at all about ‘Dynamite Dan’ – one of East Africa’s most colourful personalities. There may be a reader of ‘Tanzanian Affairs’ who remembers him or a least can add to my very meagre but vividly clear memory of him. I know he was a big game hunter in Tanganyika after the first World War. I was told he was a remittance man, that he came from a ‘good’ family, had been educated at Winchester College and that his surname was Eldridge. I was six years old at the time and clearly remember Dan leading his game scouts and porters to Songea, where my father was then D. O. The procession was enormous, with men, sometimes two to a tusk, carrying a vast amount of ivory which was taken to the Boma for storage. Dynamite Dan was a wiry weather beaten man with a huge felt hat, a bushjacket with many pockets and a sort of khaki kilt which came to the top of his snake-crusher boots. He was as fascinated by the small fair haired child as she was by him. My parents found him an interesting guest though my father complained that his stock of sundowner whisky was depleted very rapidly. I can’t remember if they ever caught any escaping would-be German spies or what had happened to all that ivory or even what became of Dan but I’d love to find out.
Mrs Fiona Marsland
contact editor for contact details