The failure to use local consultants was a ‘Betrayal’ according to Robert Rweyemamu writing in the January 18th issue of Dar es Salaam’s Business Times. The article began by stating that behind every successful project there is always a successful consultant. ‘Yes, consultants are a brand of businessmen who seem to be indispensable in every walk of life’. ‘Occupying a place of dominance in the field of consultancy in Tanzania is the Tanzania Industrial Studies and Consultancy Organisation, otherwise known as TISCO. It was established under Act No 2 of 1976. It is an interesting piece of legislation. On the one hand it gives TISCO’ s big wigs the power to monitor and vet employment of local and foreign consultants in the country ….. On the other hand dear TISCO does not seem to have been vested with enough professional clout or technical vim and vigour to be able to limit the influx of foreign consultants into the country or to keep the clamour for foreign consultancy under control …. the original legislation .. . created TISCO mainly to slash our overdependence on foreign expertise in the running of our (wobbling) economy …. Yet our ‘banana republic’ coughs out nearly 300 million yankee dollars a year paying for consultancy services … a good chunk of our export earnings’.

The Managing Director of M/S Iramba Management and Industrial Services Ltd. Dar es Salaam, Hr Lawrence Mmasi, recently made scathing attack on government leaders’ neglect and/or failure to give sufficient support to the local consultancy industry. “It is a betrayal of the taxpayer’s interests to throw overboard local people trained at such a high cost” he said. “Consultancy has not been seen as an important productive or service sector. On the part of donors there is no serious goodwill to support local consultancy”.


The Tanzania Investment Promotion Centre (TIPC) had approved 58 projects worth Shs 19,300 million (US$ 98.5 million) by the end of December 1990 according to the AFRICAN ECONOMIC DIGEST (February 18, 1991). The TlPC had received 150 investment proposals and 310 investment enquiries since it s establishment in July 1990. Of the total velue of projects approved foreign sources will invest US$ 65.0 million.

‘The University of Dar es Salaam – seven months after its closure by the Government – is back in business, hoisting its academic flag as it greets the new year.’ So began an article in the February issue of AFRICA EVENTS. The article went on: But neither the students, the lecturers nor the Government seem satisfied. The students came back minus 13 of their number (the Government expelled the 13 who had either been student leaders or had been the most vocal in the meetings during the crisis; eight other students were severely reprimanded); the lecturers were promised an incentive package which they have yet to see; the Government botched up the house-cleaning job by expelling the wrong students. The Mroso Commission of Enquiry (Bulletin No 38) named after its chairman, a High Court Judge, had completely exonerated the students. Some lecturers who proved ‘troublesome’ during the crisis were said to have been offered lucrative jobs outside the university. ‘However’, the article concluded, ‘the university seems to be going about its business, all calm and academic’.

In a major feature on road and rail transport in Africa the March 18 issue of the AFRICA ECONOMIC DIGEST described in some detail a new 12- point plan drawn up by the Tanzania Harbours Authority (THA) and the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA) to streamline operations in the port of Dar es Salaam and on the TAZARA railway. Topping the list of improvement measures is the stoppage of demurrage or storage charges once clients have paid freight and port Charges. Secondly, once payments have been made, the process of planning the supply of wagons and loading equipment is done by TAZARA and THA respectively and customers will not have to simply wait for wagons and equipment to become available as in the past. Similarly, checking by the Customs Department will in future be done simultaneously as cargo is being loaded and not, as previously, before the loading has taken place.

KUMEKUCHA, the journal of the Denmark Tanzania Associati on (DANTAN ) published in its March 1991 issue the full text of the article headed ‘A Letter from Iceland’ published in Bulletin No 38. The Editor of Kumekucha wrote that it was always interesting to see how one is perceived ‘by the world around us – and, in this case, through the spectacles of our English sister organisation. ‘

Under this heading the March 1991 issue of BRITISH OVERSEAS DEVELOPMENT wrote about an ODA Goat Extension Project in the Newala District near the border with Mozambique. Researchers from Edinburgh University have recently visited the area to help farmers raise goat s more successfully than at present. One development has been the building of improved goat houses which not only protect the goat s better from hyenas and leopards but also keep them dry in the wet season, reducing the risk of foot rot. The goats have been given drugs to get rid of any parasitic worms infesting them and researchers and farmers have worked on improved methods of hoof trimming.

Medical researchers in Tanzania, according to a recent issue of AFRICA HEALTH MARKETLETTER, say the malaria situation is getting worse. Whereas, in the past, urban areas and highlands were regarded as free from malaria that concept has now been quashed. A study by the National Institute for Medical Research has stated that the main reasons for failure in malaria control in urban areas include financial, managerial, personnel and administrative constraints. Environmental degradation has been blamed for the upsurge in malaria in the Eastern Usambara mountains. A vector control Training Centre has been set up in Tanga.

On the subject of malaria parasite resistance the NIMR states that, provided a full dose is taken, chloroquine is still effective in treating most malaria attacks. Camoquine appears to clear the parasite better than chloroquine, although, on follow-up, parasites may reappear. Resistance to Fansidar is said to be extremely rare.

Meanwhile, according to the AFRICA ECONOMIC DIGEST (February 25) the Third Phase of the Malaria Control Project between the Governments of Japan and Tanzania was signed on February 11th. The US$ 2.34 million project is aimed at reducing malaria prevalence and improving environmental conditions and health education.


The AFRICA ECONOMIC DIGEST (March 18, 1991) quoted the Tanzania Coffee Marketing Board as stating that the highest coffee exports in five years were achieved in the first four months of the 1990/91 coffee season when 326,075 bags of clean coffee were sold compared with 190,448 sold in the same period in the previous year. The International Coffee Organisation has reported that, during the first two months of the season (October-November last year), Tanzania’s coffee exports recorded the highest increase, compared to the previous two years, of all mild arabica coffee producers in the world.

WORLD BANK NEWS reports that a US$ 44 million IDA Credit recently made to Tanzania will help the Government to finance improvements to the petroleum distribution system so that businesses, farms and households in outlying areas will have better access to a reliable supply of petroleum products. Petroleum storage depots will be constructed, rail transport will be upgraded (the cost of using rail transport is about three times less then the present practice of using mainly heavy trailer trucks which damage the roads) an off-shore terminal will be built at Tanga and other distribution facilit1es will be developed. But one of the main contributions of the project will be to encourage the return of the private sector in petroleum distribution.

Years of neglect are said to have left a crumbling petroleum distribution system with little incentive for local subsidiaries of international oil companies to maintain or expand their facilities, of rundown roads, shortages of spare parts, dilapidated petrol stations and retail outlets and inadequate storage facilities. As a result, fuel shortages are common in Tanzania’s agricultural regions and in land cities and this is acting as a constraint on increasing agricultural production. The article went on to say that, although the prospects are good for finding oil in the Rift Valley and in the coastal basins, none has been discovered yet. In the meantime the country must import all of the crude oil needed.

Reporting on a campaign to ban the import into UK of exotic wild birds the SUNDAY TIMES (May 19, 1991) noted the sequel to the case which followed the death through suffocation of more than 1,000 birds, including flamingos, which were found dead on arrival in London from Dar es Salaam. The British government was said to have subsequently suspended imports of birds from Tanzania after the government there refused to allow British Ministry of Agriculture officials to inspect conditions in Dar. At a court hearing the airline carrying the birds, KLM, was fined £20,000.

News from Indonesia in a recent issue of the INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE will cause further anxiety to the vital clove industry of Zanzibar devastated by the fall in prices. According to the article, Indonesian state banks have earmarked up to US$ 250 million to help boost local clove prices. A newly established Clove Support and Marketing Board has been given the monopoly to buy cloves from village cooperatives and sell them. mostly to makers of pungent, clove-flavoured Cigarettes.

Once production starts on a new production line at Tanzania Breweries it would be able to bottle 8,000 crates of 25 bottles each per day, enough to meet increasing beer demand in Dar es Salaam and neighbouring regions, according to the April 1 issue of the AFRICA ECONOMIC DIGEST. It is hoped that the beer brewed on the new line will replace Pilsner beer imported from Kenya. A second bottling plant was due to become operational by the end of April 1991. The cost of the new plants, imported from Czechoslovakia. was US$ 3.8 million. Due to severe leakages of filling machines in the old bottling plants the Breweries were losing about 20% of their output worth the equivalent of US$ 24.7 million annually.

According to the French language magazine LA LETTRE DE L’OCEAN INDIEN (21/1/91) several South African businessmen have been visiting Tanzania recently to study the possibility of commercial exchanges between the two countries. Some of them have been authorised to invest in Tanzania but no official publicity has been given to this decision. Already numerous South African products are circulating in Tanzania. The Dar es Salaam Daily News was said to have reported that shops in Mbeya were ‘regorgaient’ with South African products. BMW and Mercedes cars assembled in South Africa were said to be in use in Dar es Salaam and the parastatal TAMEX in association with De Beers of South Africa was said to have concluded an agreement for diamond exploration near to Lake Victoria.

AFRICA EVENTS (April 1991) has described the new government restriction on private tuition of school children as ‘bizarre’. The Tanzanian Minister of Education recently ruled that teachers must not hold tuition sessions after school hours in return for a fee. The Minister bases his argument on egalitarianism. In his view children whose parents are too poor to apply for extra lessons will be at a disadvantage and will be no match for their mates from more privileged homes. But, writes AFRICA EVENTS, this is a complex problem the Minister has sought to overcome with a simple solution.

Some students have to trudge five miles to school, are not sure to get a square meal when they get back home, have no privacy to do their homework and might have to miss evening study because their parents expect them to fetch water. Other students are dropped at school in a family car, have a nice working environment at home for private study and are never asked to do house chores because there are servants.

The article goes on: ‘Much as one might sympathise with the Minister’s concern for equality in the classroom, any effort on his part to tackle the larger question of inequality in society is bound to fly in the face of the new official mood for individual enterprise. The Leadership Code, a cornerstone of the Arusha Declaration, the ideological anchor of social and economic policy since independence, has just been scrapped. Is the Minister of Education on the same wavelength as the bigwigs in the ruling party and the Cabinet? ….

Getting the schools better equipped, improving the teacher/pupil ratio and motivating teachers would be a far more positive stab at the core (of the educational problem) than the nit picking and scratching on the periphery that he is currently tied down to’.

BUSINESS TRAVELLER has been advising its readers on where they can find
the most reasonably priced mens’ suits. Prices were given in US dollars and the average for UK was said to be $290. Tanzania came out as the second lowest (Ghana was the lowest). It was stated that a suit can be bought in Tanzania for $80. The highest priced suits were in Japan – $608 .

Tanzania also received prominence when it was found to be the cheapest place (36 countries were included in the sample) for the suit to be dry-cleaned. Taking 100 as the price of dry cleaning in Britain, the cost in Tanzania was estimated to be 16.5. Switzerland was the most expensive at 135.

In issue no 37 of this Bullet in, under the heading ‘Tanzania in the Media’ we quoted from an article in AFRICA EVENTS under the heading ‘Plenty of Sulk, Little Bulk’ referring to dissident Tanzanian political groups in London.

In its February 1991 issue AFRICA EVENTS published a rejoinder which it stated had been published earlier in the September issue of Zanzibar Newsletter, an organ of the UK-based Zanzibar Organisation. The rejoinder stated that frivolity should not be a characteristic of a periodical claiming to report on events with a degree of seriousness. It went on ‘It is said that “who pays the piper calls the tune” and the magazine has of late been obviously extra cautious trying to avoid treading on the corns of the waning Mwalimu … . the subscription arrears blocked in Dar es Salaam have a sobering effect on Journalistic objectivity …. it is deplorable to see the first come-together of various political groupings dedicated to liberate Tanzania from a thirty-year dictatorship (being ridiculed) …. unless of course it is the writer’s intention to maintain the status quo in Tanzania when the whole world is moving towards freedom and progress …. the Tanzania Democratic Front has two aims: the democratisation of Tanzania and the liberation of Zanzibar . . . . pouring petty journalese cynicism on these laudable aims serves only to perpetuate dictatorship in Tanzania and to prolong the agony of occupation in Zanzibar ‘.

Tanzania Posts and Telecommunications Corporation has announced that a US$ 6.0 million international telephone exchange, which will connect Tanzania with the outside world, began on February 12th 1991. This was stated in the March 4 issue of t he AFRICA ECONOMIC DIGEST. The new exchange has a capacity of 2,000 trunks compared with the previous capacity of 650.

‘The bunting is out, the cheerleaders sing and the dirt roads have been specially graded’ . So began an article in the London TIMES (May 20, 1991) reporting on the visit to a project they are sponsoring at Mareu in the foothills of Mount Kilimanjaro by former President Jimmy Carter, father of the Green Revolution, 77-year old Dr Norman Borlaug and former Nigerian President Obasanjo who has submitted his candidacy for the post of Secretary General of the United Nations. Finance for the project comes from wealthy Japanese philanthropist Ryoichi Sasakawa.

The project’s implementation was delayed for three years until the government was able to guarantee fertiliser supplies and a change in its agricultural pricing policy. Starting with 67 management training plots in 1989 the project now administers 4,286 in 78 villages in the area around Mareu. Each participating farmer has a demonstration plot of one acre and yields up to 12 to 28 bags of maize are being achieved compared with a local average of 4 to 8 bags. The idea is for other farmers to copy the success of the demonstration plots.

‘Zanzibar has just lost one of the greatest treasures in the literary world. Few are those amongst Swahili readers who do not know of Bwana Mohamed Said Abdalla, Monsieur MSA – which is also the name of the main character in his crime novels’. So reported URAFIKI TANZANIA in its January-March 1991 issue. ‘The two personalities resembled each other and both were always found smoking their pipes…. Monsieur MSA had a remarkable ability in handling words and through his many books his name will live forever.’

This was the first time in over 15 years that any Tanzanian soccer team be it at national or club level had brought home some sort of silverware to the soccer-mad Tanzanians. So began AFRICA EVENTS’ account of the triumph of Tanzania in the East and Central Club Championship. It was the famous Simba Sports Club of Dar es Salaam that was crowned king of club soccer in East and Central Africa when they trounced the much feared Sports Club Ville of Uganda 3-0. Simba were the first winners of the trophy, way back in 1974, in an era when they provided strong rivalry to the other well known team Young African. Would, asked Africe Events, Simba’s win usher in a new ere of success for Tanzanian soccer?


In its recent obituary on Sir Rex Surridge, a former Acting Governor of Tanganyika, who died recently at the age of 91, the Daily Telegraph recalled how he had fought vehemently, in the late 1940’s, against the ‘Groundnuts Scheme’. The idea had been to plant groundnuts on a large scale in the ‘rocky wilderness’ of Tanganyika. Surridge recalled that huge tractors as big as houses were used to clear the bush; fertliser was ordered – on one occasion a convoy of lOO-ton railway trucks arrived carrying gunny bags containing what was thought to be urea but was found, after it had been spread on the land, to be cement. The Scheme was eventually abandoned at a cost of more than f19 million.

Sir Rex was standing in for two years during the illness of the then Governor, Sir William Battershill, affectionately known as ‘Battered Bill’.

Father Cox, as he was most widely known, was born in 1912 and died on 23/1/01. He will be remembered well both in the Diocese of Masasi in Tanzania and also in the Parish of Ermington in Devon, UK.

After serving his curacy in Gorton, Manchester, he offered himself to the missionary society founded by David Livingstone, the Universities Mission to Central Africa, and was posted to the Diocese of Masasi in 1944 where he remained until 1972.

The full story of those 28 years can never be told but he has left a tremendous legacy in buildings, and, such was his personality, that no doubt he is even now a legend among Tanzanians. ‘Bwana Kelele’ (Mr Noise) had a powerful voice which went with his physique as well as his generous and enthusiastic Christian service to those around him, regardless of the cost to himself.

Amongst other places he served at Newala (1944), Chidya, Nachingwea (1952-56) and Mtwara (1956-62) before becoming Procurator of Masasi Cathedral in 1963 while Trevor Huddleston was Bishop of Masasi. Bishop Huddleston has said about those years at Masasi “I can’t imagine I would have achieved anything without him. He was a ‘Jack of all trades’ and a master of each one”.

Bishop Huddleston’s first priority on arriving in Masasi was to rebuild the Theological Training College, St Cyprian’s at a beautiful site on the Rondo Plateau. Father Cox was given the task of building the chapel, an octagonal building with seven stained glass windows telling the story of creation designed by Jonathan Kingdon. Bishop Huddleston writes “If of Christopher Wren’s St Paul’s Cathedral, it could be said ‘Si monumentum requiris circumspice’ (if you went a memorial look around you) so could it be said of the glorious little chapel et the Rondo, a fitting memorial to Ronnie”

Father Cox also built a new Nursing School, children’s ward end operating theatre et Nkomaindo Hospital. There were village churches rebuilt; Mtwara and Nachingwea churches; the Diocesan Library; the girl’s department at Mahiwa Farm School (now CCM); and many other smaller buildings.

Leaving Africa was a great wrench for Father Cox but he proved equal to the challenge and served the Perish of Ermington well from 1973 to 1988 when he retired. In Ermington there was undoubtedly a small corner of Masasi. He was made an honorary Canon of Masasi Cathedral end Commissary to Bishop Richard of Masasi in 1984. Without neglecting his parishioners, even inspiring them to help, he continued to work tirelessly for Tanzania and was planning a visit to Masasi in July this year.
Christine Lawrence

(Donations in memory of Father Cox will go to Masasi. P1ease send to Britain-Tanzania Society, 45 Heath Hurst Road London NW3 2RU)


IN TELEKI’S FOOTSTEPS. A WALK ACROSS EAST AFRICA. Tom Heston. – Macmillan. London 1989.

This book recounts the remarkable journey of the author, first on a bicycle end then on foot, between February end December 1983, from Pangani in Tanzania to Mombasa in Kenya where he celebrated the end of his journey with a cold Tusker beer on the verandah of the Castle Hotel. Tom Heaton had been working for the BBC in Kenya for 10 years and at the age of fifty, after living a luxurious but boring life in Kenya, decided that the only way for him to unravel some of the mysteries of East Africa was to travel simply. He hoped to replace the envy and suspicion he had previously experienced in travels in Kenya with sympathy and curiosity.

After much deliberation Heaton decided that the route for his journey, some 3,500 miles, would retrace the route taken by two 19th century explorers, Count Samuel Teleki and his travelling companion Ludwig von Hoehnel, the first Europeans to pass through Kikuyuland and penetrate the area North of Lake Baringo. Heaton set out with the support only of his wife Mary. Many of his friends predicted that his fate would be unsavoury, ‘the thugs of Kikuyuland will pounce end strip you naked … you will be speared by the Hamar Kuhe from Ethiopia and your testicles turned into necklace beads’. Heaton, arguing that he was as likely to be run over by a bus in Oxford Street, set off from Pangani with his guide Desmond (a potential troublemaker, partly due to the fact that he regarded every black face with suspicion) heading for Mauia on the left bank of the Ruvu river, where Teleki had made his first camp.

About a quarter of the book deals with the Tanzanian part of the journey. It tends to be rather superficial but good on description.

Heaton writes about the ‘dusty weariness’ of a Church in Mkuzi, the ‘sprawling slum’ Muheza, the never failing generosity of the people, the Usambara mountain range – ‘its stately gazelle-dun buttresses jutting out as though through rents in a vast curtain of gold, blue, orange and green velvet thrown loosely over its mass’; the Butu forest in Same district – ‘some of the most beautiful country I have ever seen’.

A chapter is entitled ‘Marealle’. Heaton talked in Moshi to the son of the famous Chagga Chief Merealle – ‘not only had his father befriended Teleki. but he had also become involved with the notorious German adventurer Carl Peters.’ Heaton refers at each stop to Teleki’s earlier experiences. He also has something to say about present politics. ‘Arriving from socialist Tanzania in capitalist Kenya is like stepping out of Albania into Greece – on one side lies a land of sapped energies and respectful greetings; on the other you crash into a Hogarthian tide of men and women seething all around you … a land where men are judged not by what they are but by what they have.’

His travels are full of incident; losing his bicycle temporarily under a Mango tree, being attacked by a swarm of African bees (‘I was carpeted from head to foot … but ten minutes later I gradually realised that it was not only their feet I could feel, but their tongues; the bees were drinking my sweat’); facing a bush fire and having to pedal away as fast as he could.

The dangers and disasters which are recalled in detail together with his humour and understanding of many of the people he met and situations he found himself in, make this an extremely readable book . Patricia Diop

THE GUNNY SACK by Moez G Vassanji. Heinemann. 1990. F4.95.

BLACK, AMBER, WHITE by J K Williams. Churchman Publishing. 1990. £5.95.

Black, Amber, White is a disappointing book. It promises well, purporting to give an account of Tanzanian legal services in which the author worked from 1951 until his retirement in 1965. It should therefore be packed with incident and excitement. Here was a colonial country looking forward to independence and relying heavily on its courts and justices to steer the way forward. The first years of independence, in particular , must have been full of interest and many new developments in the law.

Unfortunately Williams does not catch the flavour of these years in a meaningful way. He tells us a good deal about himself, his family and his daily travels but rarely looks at the wider scene. When he does so he says very little. Even the accident with his gun in Arusha, when he could have killed his wife, seems somehow undramatic. So often in the book it is because his style is flat and proseic. His book revolves so much around himself and his rather small world that it does not see the huge questions hurtling around him. What is the role of the judiciary in a fast developing, newly independent state? Whet powers should be given to the judiciary and what different powers to government? Should capital punishment still be carried out for the most serious crimes? There is no shortage of questions . The real need is for some stimulating answers, and these we do not get. Those readers who want a plain, unvarnished tale of how Wlll1ems spent his colonial years might find it mildly interesting biography. But if they are more demanding and want the wider picture, they will, alas, be as hungry and unfulfilled at the end as at the beginning.

The Gunny Sack, by contrast, is a marvellous piece of writing. Salim Juma, a Tanzanian Asian, is left a gunny sack by his mystical grand aunt. Nicknamed ‘Shehru’, this gunny pours out for our entertainment, and enlightenment a huge number of characters and incidents which mirror superbly the Asian experience in East Africa over several generations.

The novel has three great qualities which should commend it to readers far and wide. First and foremost it has from the very early chapters the most beautiful word-pictures of life in Tanganyika, especially before the first world war. His description of the two ‘jewels’ – the German farmers Herr Graff and Herr Weiss – are very funny and sad at the same time, and convey with such precision the whole flavour of German rule that we are given a remarkable insight into a world that seems now so far away, and yet shaped the world we have now. And the menace of that German rule is conveyed so swiftly. “Sometimes Guu Refu’s arrival was preceded by news that he was on the lookout for more men for a special project; and as soon as the lanky figure with the sunhat and the rifle was sited, towering over his Askaris, men and boys scurried towards the forest, at which sight the German and his mercenaries stomped after them in their heavy boots, cutting off their paths to safety.”

And in these pictures Vassanji has used caricature, satire, and occasional farce with marvellous effect. This is the hallmark of good, perhaps even great writing.

The second remarkable quality of this novel is its very clear, direct style. Vassanji has such sure mastery of his material, and even moral depth, that he does not need to play tricks. Above all his work has breadth and vision. He knows his people so well that he can glimpse a wider world beyond them and set his memories in such a firm context that they live absolutely, on their own terms. Fine style and extraordinary use of language are the keys to his art in which there is no deception. His publishers seek to spread his fame by subtitling his novel ‘Africa’s answer to ‘Midnight’s Children’. I have news for them; they have undersold him. This novel is considerably more powerful and much more clear in its vision than anything done by Mr Salman Rushdie.

Its final strength is that it tells a great story and holds the reader from first to last. Vassanji is quite simply a fine story teller, in addition to all his other achievements. Even his treatment of Tanzanian independence, and the views of Julius Nyerere, never get bogged down in political sterility. His work has all the integrity of an artist. He never lets his story wait for second hand analysis or sociological dispute. Here is, in essence, a fine vision of four generations of life in this Asian community, and there is very little indeed which compares with it, in depth of thought and the sheer compassion of its colourful prose. Get it – and read it IMMEDIATELY.
N. K. Thomas.

(The author of the Gunny Sack is the recipient of the 1990 Commonwealth Literature First Novel Award. According to Ahmed Rajab writing in AFRICA EVENTS Vassanji now joins Ngugi and Abdirazak Gurnah as the finest East African novelists writing in English at present – Editor).

BED IN THE BUSH by Wllliam Heleane. The Book Guild Ltd. 1991. £12.95

William Heleane, a new Zealand District Commissioner in colonial Tanganyika has written an authentic and amusing novel, based largely on his own up-country experiences in the decade preceding independence. The intriguing title is taken from Robert Louis Stevensons’s romantic poem ‘The Vagabond’ and indeed a golden thread of romanticism runs through the book which vividly portrays the sights, sounds end scent of the African bush.

The precise location of his imaginary Magonda District is anyone’s guess but from various clues tantalisingly scattered through the pages it would appear to be in the old Central Province – an amalgum perhaps of Manyoni and Kondoa Irangi given enough poetic licence to shift the railway a bit!
The day-to-day life in this archetypal ‘one-men station’ is faithfully depicted in a series of exciting scenes set in his hero Stephen Ashton’s time.

The often unconscious strain of being on duty 24 hours a day is well expressed in descriptions of the problems of providing food and accommodation for a variety of visitors appearing at short notice by road, rail or even air in response to constant crises of Mau Mau, leopard men murders, man eating lions and plague, and the more mundane claims of increased cassava and cotton production, fish farming and VIP visits….

The author paints sympathetic portraits of a greet variety of characters ranging from the larger than life European officers, missionaries whose latest eccentricities, here accentuated by their relative isolation in the bush, to Asian merchants and Africans old and new.

Indeed Mr Heleane shows great insight in understanding not only the tribal peasant farmers and their chiefs with whom he mostly has to deal but also with the growing number of educated African administrative officers, nurses and so on who were entrusted to his care for training and guidance.

Despite the obligatory legal disclaimer et the front of the book some of the characters seem vaguely familiar !

A delightfully hopeless love affair runs through the book lending a more precise relevance and poignancy to the excellent title. There are some lovely descriptive passages which evoke dream-like memories. ‘As I gazed at the early evening shadows on the plain I became aware of a blue-tinged veil over the land below me. This phenomenon was visible from high ground in this part of Africa quite often in the dry season. It never failed to stir a shudder of delight and wonder in me. I gloried in this one for a few minutes end the fairy shade slowly dissolved and disappeared and it was dark’.

It may seem churlish to refer to a few proof-reading errors such as ‘Provisional’ for ‘Provincial’, Agriculture end Education Officers, the Swahili ‘Anasemu’ for ‘Anasema’, the German ‘Dectch’ for ‘Deutsch’ and so on. Incidentally, the King’s African Rifles was certainly not the local equivalent of the French Foreign Legion, whilst Tanganyika became independent in 1961 not 1962. These minor errors apart, however, I can safely commend this book to older readers who wish to relive the past and to the younger ones who will read how it was from the ‘horses’ mouth’ . Randal Sadleir

THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL POLICY IN TANZANIA. Felician S. K. Tungaraza. Journal of Social Development in Africa. Vol 5. No 2. 1990.

This paper analyses the development of social policy in Tanzania from 1961. From then until 1967 social policy was urban based and aimed to influence economic growth; afterwards it was oriented towards the broader population. Social policy has been determined by economics and politics. Amongst the sub-sectors of social policy throughout the period up to 1983 the health sector had the highest real growth (11. 7%) with education second at 7.4% – DRB.

WALUGURU TRADERS IN DAR ES SALAAM. Paper by Jan Kees van Donge of the Agricultural University, Wageningen, Netherlands presented to the African Studies Conference, Birmingham, 11-13 September 1990.

This paper contains few figures. It concentrates on the business careers and life stories of migrants to Dar es Salaam from the Mgeta division of the Uluguru mountains, south of Morogoro. It is thus both easy to read and fascinating to follow.

It begins by comparing the various other ways 1n which contemporary African society has been studied impersonal economic mechanisms, capitalist development, entrepreneurial behaviour. The paper points out how these various factors work out in practice. Virtually everybody in the area trades from time to time; the backbone of the trade is vegetables grown in the mountains and subsequently sold in Dar es Salaam.

As the story of the various individuals who were studied unfolds certain factors are repeated over and over again; unreliabllty of income; land scarcity in Mgeta; stiff competition; the physical hardship of the life of the traders; the unstable partnerships between new entrants and more established traders even though often framed in kinship terms; the constant threat of bankruptcy; the ambiguous relationship with government authorities and the frequent raids by the police; the widespread ambition to avoid physical wage labour; the aspiration to obtain a legitimate stall from which to sell; and, the totally ingrained value of individualism with, at the same time, a very great need for cooperation to survive.

Some of the traders are successful. Gaudens Thomas is one of the big men at the market. He tried many other things before becoming first an illegal trader and then having his own legal stall. He now has two houses. He is secure! – ORB.

PERSISTENT PRINCIPLES AMIDST CRISIS. C K Omari (Editor). Uzima Press for the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Tanzania. 1989. £8.95 (incl. p&p)

The first major benefit in this study is that it should have been published at all in East Africa, at a price that gives it a chance of being accessible to students and decision makers in Tanzania. The Editor, his contributors and the publishers are to be congratulated on making this possible.

The study is a great deal more than the title implies – in fact a comprehensive, in depth analysis by leading Tanzanian commentators of the economic and structural problems of the Tanzanian economy over the 30 years since Independence. The context is comparative analysis – Tanzania’s ideology and resulting policies against real economic development problems. However, the studies as presented, with the exception of a useful presentation of extracts from Nyerere’s writings on Tanzanian economic development and a less useful theoretical/ideological analysis of agricultural and rural development policy by Maganya, concentrate on a rigorous empirical analysis of structural, economic and financial problems in the economy’s development. The main focus is on agriculture but the logic of comprehensive analysis is followed through in informative chapters on population growth, the balance of trade, industrial development and financial and budgetary policy. Presentations are academic in the best sense of the word – analysed in depth and carefully documented – but intelligible to the lay reader.

The study should become essential reading in all undergraduate courses at the University of Dar es Salaam. It should also concern aid agencies and the officials of the IMF and the World Bank, as an example of a genre all too absent from debate on Structural Adjustment and Transformation Policies – African analysis of African problems. The difficulties created by this lack of input are now gradually being recognised, for example in the recently launched African Capacity Building Initiative, but will take time to work through.

The one major criticism that could be made is of the failure to move from exhaustive analysis of causes and symptoms to prescriptions for reform. For example, on the ‘agricultural/economic crisis’ that has dogged Tanzania for the last 15 years, both Miti and Omad provide excellent and comprehensive analyses of alternative causes drought, collectivisation/villagisation, population growth, inappropriate technology, relative emphasis between cash and food crop production and availability of finance. Hesitation in going on to policy prescription is understandable as the choice and solutions are so difficult. But more effort could hove been made. Even the one article that concentrates on policy – Wagoo’s critique of the IMF package for Tanzania – sticks very much to analysis. Someone, and preferably a Tanzanian expert, has to take the lead in defining reform programmes. Not least of the reasons for policy definition is the psychological need to move beyond the extremely depressing picture presented of current economic reality.

One last small but valuable addition that could be made to any reprint. Some of the authors are well known, some are not; the overall impact would benefit from brief biographical notes on contributors.
Gsrth Glentworth

(The above book is available from Leishman and Taussig, 2b Westgate, Notts, Southwell, Notts – Editor)

TAXING DEVELOPMENT IN TANZANIA: WHY MUST WOMEN PAY? Janet Bujra. Review of African Political Economy. No 47/48. 1990
LIMITATIONS ON WOMEN MANAGERS’ FREEDOM TO NETWORK IN THE TANZANIAN CIVIL SERVICE. Wendy Hollway. University of Bradford. Paper presented at the African Studies Conference, Birmingham. September 1990.

Janet Bujra uses the issue of development tax to examine the role of women in the Tanzanian economy, and particularly in its development. She combines some familiar questions about feminism and development in a fascinating study of the Tanzanian experience. The argument for a feminist perspective is made against a background of ‘Womens Studies’ in Tanzania; she highlights the tensions between the perception that the issue of womens position is a unique factor in society and an analysis which includes it in a broader context of class and national exploitation.

Tanzania’s explicitly socialist development policy implied greater equality for women and Nyerere himself drew attention to this. At first glance the Ujamaa policy of village production provided an opportunity for greater participation by women, but Bujra shows that, in fact, it added to the burden of women, while the policy continued to be dictated by men. Other development policies, too, ignored the particular role of women in Tanzania particularly as primary subsistence providers and fuelwood gatherers. Many of the classic development errors caused by consulting men, when women were the relevant group, were repeated in Tanzania – with adverse consequences for both the development programme and women.

Bujra investigates possible solutions to this problem, including the ‘Women in Development’ Way. However, this concentration on the role of women can be itself divisive, by concentrating on the ‘token’ women involved, without a more holistic approach to the community. Just as the theories of women’s role had concentrated on different aspects, the practical WID approach could be disappointing, and be hijacked by particular groups and classes of women for their own advantage. Bujra shows throughout her article that Tanzanian women have traditionally done more work and exercised less political influence than men. Moves to accelerate development, even when these were overtly socialist or aimed at women, merely exacerbeted this imbalance. Thus Bujra concludes that the inclusion of women in liability for a development tax on grounds of their equality is unconvincing – they already pay a tax in kind through their greater contribution. Indeed a tax would reinforce the iniquities already present in the economy.

The reinforcement of existing power structures is the theme of Wendy Hollway’s paper on networking in the Tanzanian civil service. This details a familiar story of social systems which provide opportunities for advancement for men and from which women are excluded. This exclusion is due partly to domestic responsibilities and partly to inaccessibility because of social custom. Hollway reports on attempts to remedy this through women’s networking within the civil service – where it has had mixed results. However the success of such groups in promoting women’s careers depends in turn on the access which the groups have to those in a position of power and influence.

Both these papers analyse the role of women in Tanzania, and attempt to remedy inequalities of opportunity and contribution. Both show what a slow and painstaking task it is to redress imbalances as deeprooted as these. Those who hold power (in this case men) are unlikely to yield it willingly, and will continue to use existing structures and new developments to reinforce their advantage.
Catherine Price


This detailed seventeen-page study examines the factors which have influenced the choice of techniques of production in Tanzanian public enterprises with specific examples taken from sugar factory operations. The author begins by describing the conventional way in which managers choose the most appropriate technique. He goes on to describe the history of the sugar industry. The first company – the Danish-owned Tanzanian Planting Company was established in Arusha-Chini in 1930 and its first factory, with a capacity of 350 tons of cane per day, began operations in 1936. Then followed the Madhvani-owned Kagera factory (1958), the Kilombero Sugar Company in Morogoro district (owned by the Colonial Development Corporation from Britain, a Netherlands company and the Standard Bank) in 1962, the Greek owned Mtibwa Estates in 1963. In 1974 the parastatal Sugar Development Corporation took over the whole industry.

The author describes the various efforts made to make Tanzania self sufficient in sugar production and then analyses the two main sugar producing processes. He argues that the technique chosen, which involved heavy capital investment, was not the most appropriate. He describes the problems the industry has faced because of such factors as tied foreign aid, lack of standardisation, under utilisation of plant, low production of cane, shortage of labour and so on – DRB.

. Goren Hyden. Food Policy. August 1990.

Weak institutions are often cited as a major constraint to overcoming hunger in Africa. The author of this too brief six-page aper spent time in 1988 in two Villages – Mung’elenge on the main trunk road in Iringa region and Bulungura in a distant corner of Muleba district, Kagera Region, studying local institutions. He writes of the ‘parental authority’ of the CCM Party, the assumption that a village consists of 250 households organised into cells of ten with a village government or committee of about 25 (with obvious variations between villages) but noted that in his two villages the committees never met. But in Mung’elenge official institutions (including the womens and youth organisations) did play a prominent role in village life, partially because there were revenue earning activities including a sunflower project, beer sales and ox carting. In Bulungura, by contrast, an almost non-existent revenue limited the scope of village government. They tended to rely on ‘home grown’ institutions. Hyden asks who is responsible for food security. Is it a communal responsibility or not? Answer: In Mung’elenge, where weather conditions are good, it is an individual responsibility; in Bulungura which is less favoured climatically it is communal.

The author concludes by noting the disappointing results from the government’s desire to have uniform institutional structures all over the country and the great institutional adaptability that this has brought about in Tanzania. ‘There is much more than meets the eye’ – DRB


In Bulletin No 33 in describing DANTAN it was said that the Britain-Tanzania Society is aged 11 years. In fact it is now 16 years since its inauguration. In Bulletin No 37 the Obituary Notice for Sir Bernard de Bunsen describes correctly how, after preliminary exploration from 1972, the Society was set up in January 1975. The recent AGM on 12 October 1990 was the fifteenth AGM and related to the year 1989-1990.
Mary Boyd
Oops! Editor

You recently published an article by my son on some archaeological sites in Tanzania which I hope your readers enjoyed. I am a trustee of the Southern Africa Studies Trust which supports the work of the Centre for Southern African Studies at the University of York. For our purposes Tanzania, as a member of the SADCC, is within the Centre’s area of expertise. The Centre is the only significant multi-disciplinary academic unit in Europe concerned exclusively with teaching about and research into the affairs of Southern Africa. It has also helped to build an important documentary archive and regularly organises conferences and seminars. Its teaching is at the post-graduate level but currently, although the demand for places remains high, student numbers are restricted by lack of funds and scholarships for students from Britain and Africa. Further information about the Centre and Trust is obtainable from the University of York, Heslington, York YOl 5DD. Telephone 0904 433670.
Eric Vines
(Mr Eric Vines is the former British Ambassador to Mozambique).


The following appeared in TA issue 39 (May 1991)

The following items come from the Tanganyika Standard in the period April July 1941.

THE WHITE MAN IN THE TROPICAL HIGHLANDS (Extracts from an editorial)
In the midst of the new and complex problems of the war it was like a soothing echo of the far off days of peace to find evidence in a recent publication that one of the perennial problems of pre-war times was still alive. Nobody, it seems, can get away with any suggestion that settlement in tropical highlands is not suitable – on physical and mental health grounds – for White men.

‘Trust the experts’ is a proverb which would have a good deal more weight if experts did not differ so frequently and so deeply. What one learned doctor says today you can almost invariably find two other learned doctors to contradict tomorrow. The ‘Great Sun Helmet Controversy’ is a case in point. The proportion of sun helmets to total headgear sold to Europeans in East Africa must have dropped immensely during the last 30 years and, at least as many doctors, sporting their own trilbies or panamas, have been in favour of the change as have been against it. The immense helmets that were ‘de rigeur’ are seen but rarely now, and almost invariably on the heads of old-timers who imbibed the medical opinion prevailing thirty years ago.

According to scientific theory, living in the tropics at great altitudes, ought to have some effect, probably deleterious, on Europeans. Some day scientists might find out what the effect is. In the meantime scientific caution demands that no risks should be taken. However, practical White laymen who come to Tanganyika find the country very good and go ahead with their settlement. What is more, they produce children and grandchildren who show no sign of degeneration – rather the contrary ….

The Director of Manpower, Sir William Lead, has announced in the Legislative Council that the number of unofficial male British Europeans of military age was, in June 1940, 949. The number not available for military service (missionaries, ‘protected’ subjects such as Cypriots) was 254; certificated’ Key Men’ fulfilling essential civilian tasks totalled 480 and the number who had joined the military forces was 215. The number of male officials was 930 of whom 171 were serving in the forces.

COCONUTS AND COMPENSATION (Extracts from an editorial)
In the midst of a world war a Tanganyikan Bill to check the stealing of coconuts seems of small moment but the Coconuts (Thefts) Ordinance caused, and rightly so, one of the most interesting discussions at yesterday’s (July 3, 1941) session of the Legislative Council.

Coconut thefts are very common. Plantation owners are compelled to pick their nuts before they are ripe in order to get ahead of the thief. But from unripe coconuts you cannot get good copra and copra is of value to the war effort. In the new Ordinance there will be delegation of power of arrest to persons other than the police and the setting aside of the principle of British justice that a person is innocent until proved guilty. A coconut estate owner will be able, in future, if he finds somebody in the plantation without a reasonable explanation, arrest and detain him, though, ‘not for longer than is necessary’. A person proved to be in possession of coconuts shall be deemed guilty of stealing them unless he proves himself innocent.

Canon Gibbons, nominated to represent Native interests in the Legislative Council, expressed reservations about the Bill but considered that, as a temporary expedient, it was justified. The question of compensation was also raised. Canon Gibbons said that the African, in his own customs, accepted the principle of restitution and reparation for theft but that this was neglected in British legal practice. Canon Gibbons said that compensation should be in kind. ‘Most Natives have a few coconut trees of their own’ he said.

To be captured by Iraqui rebels, to fail in an attempted escape by flying boat, to be machine gunned by the RAF while prisoner in an Iraqui lorry, to be led blindfold into a trench that he was told would be his grave, and, finally, to have had ‘not at all a bad month’ in an internment camp run by a pro-British Iraqui operating against his superiors’ orders – these were some of the adventures of Mr Henry Davidson, until recently a Tanganyikan resident employed by Imperial Airways. He had been transferred to Iraq a week before a pro-German Iraqui leader had seized power. After Britain defeated the new regime and an armistice had been signed, Mr Davidson was released unharmed.

On the occasion of the departure of the Governor, Sir Mark Young, at the end of his tour of service, the African publication KWETU wrote a valedictory in the form of an open letter to him. ‘It was you who deprecated the idea of officially addressing Africans without the courteous title of Mister; it was you who invited advice from this press in connection with the Tanganyika Development Committee; it was you who wholeheartedly backed Tanganyika’s financial contribution towards building Makerere College; it was you who thought of an African member to the Makerere College Assembly without our pleading for one. We honestly cannot thank you enough’.