The new Catholic University – the St Augustine University of Tanzania (SAUT) – was inaugurated on August 25. The university arises from the various institutions originally established at Nyegezi near Mwanza and will offer a bachelor’s degree course in mass communication, and will also offer diploma and certificate courses in journalism, accountancy, business management and hospital administration.

Photographer Muhidin Michuzi related in the Daily News of October 3 (when he was assigned to cover a three-day visit by Princess Anne to Tanzania to visit donor-supported projects) how he had not only been briefed by the High Commission’s Ian Gleeson to the effect that the Princess did not like to ‘be crowded’ but had also read that the Princess was ‘anti­press photographers’. But when he went to the President’s residence the President asked the Princess to come outside for a photo shoot. “These guys never seem to have enough” he joked. And instead of the customary posed line, popularly known as ‘the firing squad’ in media houses, the VIP’s stood in a way ‘which a film director would have cherished’. For five whole minutes the royal couple and their hosts stood facing the dull noon sun and admired and discussed the magnificent architectural structure of Ikulu. ‘I found myself putting the Princess Royal at the top of my list of favourite dignitaries, after Nelson Mandela, Mwalimu Nyerere, President Mkapa and ministers Jakaya Kikwete and Edward Lowassa’ all of whom show great concern for press photographers’ he wrote.

Minister of Local Government and Regional Administration Kingunge Ngombale-Mwiru has announced that he is moving the HQ of his ministry to the long-designated capital, Dodoma, in the near future -Daily Mail.

Minister for the Civil Service Jackson Makwetta was reported in the October 19 issue of the East African to have ordered all men in his ministry to be clean-shaven and to ‘look sharp’ from now on. Tanzanian men were said to have been infected by ‘Mandela fever’ and to be wearing flowery shirts. The paper recommends a competition to design a new national dress for Tanzania -entries to be judged by women as ‘everyone knows who wears the trousers in the house these days’ .

A new foundation -the Mkwawa Foundation -has been inaugurated. Its aim is to erect historical monuments in Iringa as part of the celebrations marking the death of Chief Mkwawa of the Hehe a century ago -Guardian.

There has been a serious leak of the November Form 4 ‘0’ level examination papers and the exams are to be repeated in January 1999. Two police officers will be assigned to each of the 750 secondary schools when the examinations are repeated. It is estimated that the financial loss might exceed $1.2 million. Education Minister Professor Kapuya, who was recalled from Paris when the crisis broke, has refused demands that he should resign -East African.

The Commonwealth Development Corporation (CDC) and other international agencies have launched the ‘Fedha Fund Ltd’, a new private equity fund capitalised at $13 million which has begun to make loans to Tanzanian companies wishing to expand or to have management buy-outs and buy-ins -Guardian.

The US Census Bureau believes that Tanzania’s population will reach about 40 million by 2010 but this is lower than was anticipated because of the AIDS epidemic affecting the country. Life expectancy is predicted to be 46.1 years in 20 10 compared with 60.7 years without the sharp rise in deaths due to AIDS -East African.

According to Michael Okema, writing in the East African, a new word is being used to describe government polices these days. In President Mwinyi’s time it was ‘ruksa’ (free for all); nowadays it is ‘ukapa’ -the shortage of money caused by the President’s stringent monetary policies.

Tanzania’s Joseph Marwa (34) a Prisons Inspector won the Africa professional middleweight boxing title in Dar es Salaam on August 9. He beat Lolengo ‘Saddam Hussein’ Mock from the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Prime Minister Frederick Sumaye expressed his anger on August 22 on hearing that 16 young Tanzanians in the Tanzanian delegation to the World Youth Festival in Lisbon had absconded and not returned to Tanzania with the others -they had besmirched the good image of the country he said. Portuguese police were hunting for them.

At the meeting of the Heads of all secondary schools in Tanzania, Ilboru Secondary School in Arusha was selected as the school with the best overall performance. Second came St Mary Mazinde (Tanga), third was Mzumbe (Morogoro), fourth was Kifungilo (Lushoto) and fifth Mzizima (Dar es Salaam).

The firm ‘Cargill’ announced on August l3 that it would not be operating its two cotton ginneries (built in 1993 and 1997) during the rest of the 1998 cotton season because, after seven weeks of the season, it had bought only 900 tons compared with 18,000 tons at the same time the year before. Flooding in December 1997 had reduced the acreage planted and the world price was said to be insufficient to support price expectations of farmers and the cost of full taxes and levies. Cargill hoped to resume operations in the 1999 season.

The Amani Nature Reserve in the Eastern Usambara mountains was officially launched on September 29 by President Mkapa. He was told that the reserve was one ofthe 25 top bio-diversity sites in the world. Some 25% of the 2,800 fauna species there could not be found anywhere else -Daily News.

The Dar es Salaam ‘Daily Mail’ has been giving considerable publicity to what it describes as the ‘grisly Shinyanga witch hunts’. Some 20 people, especially older women, were being killed each month and, on one day in August, twelve 2 people were said to have been killed. The Shinyanga Regional Police Office was quoted as reporting that the killings were worst after the harvest when people could afford (about five cows per killing) to pay contract killers. The police could not offer any immediate solution ‘as witchcraft was so much entrenched in the region’.

President Mkapa spoke at the consecration ceremony on October 11 of the Reverend Donald Mtetemela as the fourth Anglican Archbishop in Tanzania. A capacity crowd filled the church in Iringa -Daily News.

A Japanese medical technician at Muhimbili, Rieko Anaoku, was killed by armed bandits at Mikocheni, Dar es Salaam on September 17 when she struggled with them. Foreign Minister Jakaya Kikwete delivered a condolence message at the funeral in Dar es Salaam. On October 5 seven main suspects in the case appeared in court on various charges including the theft of many other vehicles. -Daily News.

The Regional Commissioner in Iringa has instructed agricultural extension staff in his region to sign village registers and jot down remarks on the agricultural expertise they had offered to farmers. This would maintain a duty performance record he said.

A resident of Pawaga in Iringa District has been sentenced to 24 years in prison for killing a giraffe in the Ruaha National Park on December 14 1994. The giraffe was said to be worth Shs 420,000 and the magistrate said that he was giving a severe punishment because of the ‘alarming rate of poaching’ ­Daily Mail.

The government was forced to withdraw a Bill it presented to parliament which would have raised the retirement age in the public service from 55 to 60. MP’s said that many educated people were waiting for jobs in the civil service -The African.

Vice-President Dr Omar Ali Juma opened the renovated Olduvai Gorge Museum near Ngorongoro crater on October 15. Financial and technical support came from the Getty Conservation Institute in Los Angeles. A recent survey of government-sponsored students studying abroad indicated that there were 147 in the Commonwealth of Independent States (former Soviet Union), 98 in India, 73 in the USA, 62 in Britain, 39 in Poland, 26 in Bulgaria, 25 in China, 21 in Cuba, 11 in Hungary and 10 in Canada with smaller numbers in 9 other countries.

Tanzania’s 30-strong team at the Commonwealth Games in Kuala Lumpur in September came back with three medals. Tanzania took the silver (Simon Mrashani) and bronze (Andrea Suja) medals in the marathon and the gold medal (Michael Yombayomba) took the gold in boxing -the first gold medal Tanzania has won at the Commonwealth Games. All three work in the Police service and were promoted on their return. Tanzania came 16th out of the 70 countries which took part.


CANADA -Shs 45 million for aid to bomb victims in Dar es Salaam. IRELAND -a multi-million shilling 12-year development programme (Shs 165 million in the first year) to support various sectors, to be identified, in Muheza, Tanga District. OIL PRODUCING AND EXPORTING COUNTRIES (OPEC) and the AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FUND -$6 million (Shs 4 billion) for the Mtukula-Kigoma Road. USA -$125,000 for medical supplies at Muhimbili Hospital following the bomb blast. UNDP­$454,000 for prevention and control of AIDS. NORWAY -$3 million to boost the multilateral debt fund. BRITAIN (during a four-day visit by International Development Minister Clare Short (from August 25) -Shs 66 billion for debt relief and the Civil Service Retrenchment Programme for the period 1998-2001. BRITAIN has also granted $110,000 to the Mwalimu Nyerere Foundation to facilitate the peace efforts in Burundi. FINLAND ­Shs 1.7 billion for the third phase activities of the East Usambara Catchment Forestry Project and for Management of the Amani Nature Reserve. The EU -Shs 1.6 billion to strengthen the capacity of the East African Cooperation Secretariat in Arusha. USA -$50 million for people and infrastructure affected by the August 7 bombing of the US Embassy. NIGERIA -$100,000 also for aid to bomb victims. The AGA KHAN FUND -Shs 45 million to facilitate relocation of an army site to make way for a new Serena beach hotel in Zanzibar.


Veteran journalist AIDAN CHECHE (64) died at Muheza on August 10 after a long illness. He was News Editor of Radio Tanzania at the time of independence and later worked for the BBC, Reuters and Radio Deutschewelle. In his final months he participated in translating the Bible into modem Swahili.

In January 1964 there was a mutiny among troops of the Tanganyika Defence Force at Colito Barracks, Dar es Salaam and the government called for help. Britain’s 45 Commando embarked in haste in the carrier Centour and 2 Troop, led by MAJOR DAVID SCOTT LANGLEY, who has died at the age of 74, flew ashore in Wessex helicopters. Using a loud-hailer, Langley called on the mutineers to surrender. When they refused a 3.5 inch rocket was fired over the closed gates to the guardroom. It hit an overhead wire and rebounded, narrowly missing Langley. The mutiny was quelled in less than two hours. Langley accepted surrender from a Tanzanian Lieutenant Colonel who had been one of his cadets at Aldershot. Langley received a C-in-C’s commendation. The commander of the operation, COLONEL PATRICK STEVENS, (76) also died in August 1998 -from the Times Obituaries.

MICHAEL WISE who died recently has been Reviews Editor of ‘Tanzanian Affairs’ (ably assisted by John Budge) for the last two years. His wife, Angela, has kindly sent us the following words: ‘Michael first went to Africa in 1957, to a post in the library of the Royal Technical College in Nairobi, later to become the University of Nairobi. He moved in January 1962 to a similar post at the new University of Dar es Salaam. This started off in a building in Lumumba Street and Michael was closely involved with the Chief Librarian in the planning and development of the new university library on Observation Hill. Seven happy and productive years followed, the later ones as Deputy Librarian. He made the most of every opportunity to see more of the country and its people, climbed to the crater of Kilimanjaro and formed enduring friendships. Links with Africa and Tanzania were not broken when he moved to a post in Wales in 1969. Many Tanzanian students were entertained at his home near Aberystwyth; he drew on Tanzanian contacts for contributions to the books and journals he edited on international librarianship; and this year it gave him great pleasure to meet again many old Tanzanian friends on a return visit to Dar es Salaam.

GUY YEOMAN (78), described in the Times as ‘veterinary surgeon and explorer’, died on August 3, having developed a lifelong passion for the sources of the Nile and the people of the Rwenzori mountain ranges. He had become fluent in Swahili while recruiting troops for the war in Burma in 1942 and was devastated when the troopship Khedive Ismail was sunk while on passage from Mombasa to Ceylon on February 12, 1944 with the loss of 1,511 lives, almost all African troops of his own regiment. His work on the cattle disease East Coast Fever in Tanzania was the basis of the thesis which won him his fellowship of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. His book The Ioxid Ticks of Tanzania (jointly written with Jane Walker) was published in 1967 and his successful disease control schemes are still largely in place in Tanzania.

Nigel Durdant Hollamby has informed us of the recent deaths of DENIS THORNE MABEY BENNETT (73) who was DC Kilwa when he retired in 1961, ARTHUR PHILIP HUGH LOUSADA (81), who was DC in Kwimba and Bagamoyo and ERIC LOVELOCK (81) who achieved a reputation as a rainmaker in Tanganyika and retired from the Colonial Service to begin a teaching career in Britain.


Readers will be shocked to hear that Michael Wise, our Reviews Editor, died suddenly and unexpectedly on November 11. He brought his considerable experience plus great enthusiasm to his task and his own reviews were always a delight to read. He was in the process of preparing this section of TA when he died but has left his files in good order and it has not been too difficult to complete the work for this issue. Reviewers whose work is not included in this issue can contact me although Michael had intended to hold over some reviews to a later date because of shortage of space. For this reason it has been necessary to abbreviate some of the material he did receive. I am sure that readers will support me in sending our deepest sympathy to his wife on her terrible loss – a loss which we also share – David Brewin.

. Severine Rugumamu. Africa World Press, Trenton, New Jersey, 1999

It was the subtitle which grabbed my attention, but the first sections didn’t keep it -a stodgy literature review discussing concepts of the unequal power relationships between aid donors and recipients.

However, when the author starts writing about Tanzania in Chapter three, it’s much better. There’s an excellent historical survey, and a lot of very helpful economic statistics, not merely about foreign aid, but also about the whole economy. The author has also found a 1968 quote from Nyerere about foreign debt: “To burden the people with big loans, the repayment of which will be beyond their means, is not to help them but to make them suffer”.

He analyses the giving and receiving of aid-the interests of the donor state and those of the ruling class receiving it tend to outweigh “development”. In the longer term, aid has fostered dependence which “forces its victims to lose faith and confidence in their own abilities and paralyses their initiatives”, and has made a mockery of the old slogan of “Self-reliance”.

Tanzania did not have a policy framework for absorbing aid. Also, it was very difficult for Tanzanian civil servants to dispute aid-givers conclusions, however misinformed, or funds would disappear, so projects which any local could tell were misguided went ahead.

To illustrate his more general conclusions, he has three case studies ­a Norwegian fishing project “a classic example of a poorly conceived, designed and executed project”, Danish aid at Sokoine University (lecturers obtained higher degrees in Denmark and studied Danish veterinary issues) and Swedish aid at the bureau of statistics (successful in meeting its objectives, but also responsible for “notorious aid-dependence mentality”). He shows how inherent in much of the project design was the interests of the donors, while Tanzanian interests had to be fitted in as best as possible. Tanzanian institutional weakness also meant that they were often not even able to negotiate well.

In the last few pages the author suggests the solutions of better governance, so that the state acts in the interests of the whole country, and of genuine self-reliance-selective delinking from the world economy. But that would be another book.

It is easy to complain that the book minimises the successful impact of aid. Donors have done a lot of good with Tanzania’s roads and railways, for example, but his conclusion that much aid has not helped is incontrovertible, and his analysis as to why is very thought-provoking. It would have been interesting to compare how NGO aid fares compared with government aid ­this could perhaps have painted a slightly more encouraging picture.
Tim Idle

TANZANIA POLITICAL ECONOMY SERIES, 1 TRANSITIONAL ECONOMIC POLICY AND POLICY OPTIONS IN TANZANIA. Eds: Samuel Wangwe, Haji Semboja and Paula Tibendbage of the Economic and Social Research Foundation. Mkuki wa Nyota. Distributed by African Books Collective, The Jam factory, 27 Park End St. Oxford OXl lHU. 130 pages. £18.00.

Many friends of Tanzania, anxious to see its people prosper, have viewed with sadness the failure of many economic experiments of past decades and look forward eagerly to the success of the new policies of President Mkapa. To us this little book will be an encouragement; and to the powers that be it should be a valuable guide.

The book puts forward a set of economic policy options. They reflect current thinking on the role of the state as liberator of market forces, stimulator of private investment, creator of a competitive commercial environment and provider of efficient health, education and social services.

The book was published early last year yet most of the text appears to have been written 2 ‘is years ago; no statistic is given after the Spring of 1966 and frequently the writers indicate that they are putting forward their ideas at the outset of the ‘Third Phase Government’ whose remit runs from 1995 to 2000. I have just one other complaint. The book loses impact by being just a little too academic. The generalisations leave the reader uncertain at times what the authors really want their government to do in a given situation. Just a few comparisons are made with other developing countries; far more would have been helpful. Practical examples of theoretical arguments are rare. We learn of the beneficial privatisation of the Morogoro Shoe Company and the valuable effect on productivity of the Sasakawa Global 2000 Project, but that is about all. Some figures are quoted but the analysis lacks any graphs or charts to clarify movements in the country’s economy during the period under study.

The editors have been very ambitious. They had five objectives: to assess the tentative economic reforms initiated by the ‘Second Phase’ Government of President Mwinyi between 1985 and 1995; to draw lessons from the past; to set out the challenges facing the ‘Third Phase’ Government; to put forward policy options for it to consider when developing its plans; and, to set benchmarks from which future evaluations could be made.

Twenty senior academics and civil servants contributed to the text and the job of the editors cannot have been easy. They provided a good short introduction and a concise summary of the author’s views. In between, one by one, just about all relevant areas of public policy are discussed ­financial, industrial, agricultural, service, the environment, education, women, children, civil service reforms, water, health and so on as well as some ‘cross-cutting’ issues. Each one is reviewed under the headings: ‘current status’, ‘problems and challenges’, ‘short term’ and ‘long term’ policy options’. This rigorous demarcation does not always prevent duplication of ideas but it does help the reader through some fairly complex arguments.

The dryness of some of the text can be an advantage. It has enabled the authors to report the tragic deterioration of conditions in the country in the 70’s and 80’s without comment and without offence. The authors recognise the beginnings of a shift from state control to a more market­oriented economy after 1985, but see reform as far from complete. Their list of policy changes necessary to set Tanzania on the road to prosperity is very, very long.

All the authors are agreed that, the role of the government should be to provide public goods; improve the infrastructure; correct for ‘externalities’; increase the intensity of competition; create an environment suitable for private investment; and, tackle poverty by helping the poor to increase their productivity and incomes. The principle challenge facing the present government is to enhance its ability to manage development through a much stronger legal and institutional framework.

Looking at foreign aid, the authors record that the foreign debt due for repayment in 1995/96 was about 60% of Tanzania’s national debt and 50% of the recurrent budget. We are given three powerful reasons why it must be reduced by attracting private investment and using internal resources. It must come down, not merely to lesson the massive diversion of hard-won taxes, but also to enable the country to stand finally on its own two feet and to continue development from its own efforts when eventual ‘donor fatigue’ leads to the withdrawal of aid.

In sum, if the E&SR Foundation has not succeeded in all it undertook, at least the authors have made an important contribution to the national debate. The Foundation should pursue this exercise. Let them update the economic statistics with graphs to illuminate recent trends, accompany the up-date with a concise list of the policy options and conclude with a set of specific and quantified benchmarks, not merely of GDP, inflation and the like but also of production, productivity, literacy, health, educational attainment and so on. This would surely be helpful as a means of measuring the nation’s progress towards the stated objectives.
Dick Eberlie

TANU WOMEN: GENDER AND CULTURE IN THE MAKING OF TANGANYIKAN NATIONALISM, 1995-1965. Susan Geiger. James Currey, 1997. 217p. £15.95 (paperback) £40.00 (hardback).

This book provides an absorbing and detailed account of the part played by women activists in the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU). Their role in the nationalist movement which set out to secure independence for Tanganyika has previously gone mostly unacknowledged. Whilst Susan Geiger carried out her research from written sources both in the UK and Tanzania, much of her book is based on dictated and recorded accounts, the oral life histories, that the women themselves provided in the 1980s. These, whilst given individually, when combined emerge as a collective biography of a larger whole. Paramount place and space is given to Bibi Titi Mohammed, the most prominent women leader in the nationalist phase (1955-65), whose story provides the thread throughout the narrative.

The author sets the scene and describes the social and political conditions that prevailed in the ’50’s and motivated the women to get involved and play an active part. What stands out is that there was the tendency, at least in the early days, for these women to be drawn from the urban Muslim, Swahili coastal community with little formal or western education; often divorced with few or no children. (It was common practice for girls to marry young and divorce early). In contrast in Moshi the women were usually younger than their Dar es Salaam counterparts with more schooling, more children, fewer divorces and with greater religious diversity. It is their influence which has continued to a greater extent into the post-colonial period.

Regardless of the ethnic backgrounds from which they came, common to all these women was an over-riding belief not only in the right of Tanzanians to rule themselves but also in the equality of the sexes ie that their daughters should have the right to education and employment denied or still not widely open to themselves. Women’s then lack of standing in society and considered inferiority was a strong force and motivating factor in their call for change which they felt would only come with independence and its aftermath. This book therefore does not confine itself purely to the struggle for independence but also looks at the continuation of women’s political culture of nationalism in the post-colonial years and with it the disappointments and setbacks that have since been encountered.

Notwithstanding the fact that TANU Women is both a scholarly and methodically researched book aimed primarily at an academic audience it is also of broader appeal to those with a more general interest in Tanzania.
Pru Watts-Russell

THE RIGHT TO CHOOSE A LEADER. ESSAYS ON THE 1995 GENERAL ELECTION. Edited by C K Omari. Dar es Salaam University Press. 1996. 160 pages.
TANZANIA POLITICAL REFORM IN ECLIPSE. CRISES AND CLEAVAGES IN POLITICAL PARTIES. Max Mmuya. Freidrich Ebert Stiftung. PO Box 4472. Dar es Salaam. 1998. 192 pages.

The recent past, the present and, to some extent, the future of political development in Tanzania are covered competently in these two books.

Regular readers of TA will find little new in ‘The Right to Choose a Leader’ but to others, this is probably the most informative account of Tanzania’s 1995 elections yet produced. Editor Omari proved his credentials by accurately forecasting the results ahead of the elections. Factors he describes in detail which influenced the results include the importance of personality rather than policy in voter choice; the religious factor (the efforts of Muslim fundamentalists in Dar es Salaam backfired); ethnicity (still very important) and NGO involvement. Chapter 5, written by the young Dr Festus Limbu, describes politics at the grass roots and how he tried but failed to win the Magu (Mwanza) seat for the NCCR party. The final chapter on Zanzibar explains concisely the complicated historical background to what happened but steers clear, perhaps wisely, of expressing an opinion on whether the results represented the true will of the electorate.

Senior Lecturer in Government and Politics at Dar es Salaam University, Dr Max Mmuya, in his profound and original book, brings us up to date on the way in which the effort to introduce multipartyism to Tanzania has been pervaded by ‘crisis and cleavages’ and is now, in the view of most observers, in eclipse.

In describing the five main parties, the author, who is a member of the committee set up to propose revisions to Tanzania’s constitution, struggles hard to define CCM’s present policy (‘CCM -The Establishment United ­ From Ujamaa to Ruksa’) but states that recent research indicates that most rural poor people still prefer ujamaa to capitalism, something CCM has to take into account as it becomes more and more capitalist in its orientation.

CUF (Utajirisho -Enrichment) which, according to the author, was the only other party which originally had a vision of the kind of society it wanted (what about John Cheyo’s creation, the UDP, and its Margaret Thatcherism?) but, because its only real strength is now in Zanzibar, has had to ‘form into the same rigid ideology as the CCM on the Isles’.

In the heart of the book Mmuya points out that conflict is a necessary aspect of any political party and reveals in detail the internal conflicts in the CCM (eg: between the elders and the youth; between the mainland and Zanzibar parties) and how it has (so far) successfully coped with them. Mmuya wisely rejects the conspiracy theory that the collapse of the other parties has been instigated by CCM. He prefers such causes as their flouting of their own constitutions, personal ambition and ethnic affiliations.

In a fascinating discussion on how the new multiparty parliaments operate, the book reveals that if Tanzania had had proportional representation rather than the ‘first-past-the-post’ system, CCM would now have 137 seats (rather than the actual 186) and NCCR would have 50 compared with its existing 16.
There is an intellectual discussion in Chapter 6 on relations between parties and civil society organisations. He writes: ‘Unfortunately, as though colonialism was not atrocious, post-independence regimes have either attempted to control the single party or, as in the case of the current reform movement, the colonial laws and regulations have been invoked to drive a wedge in the natural and logical process of parties being founded in civil society organisations’. Case studies in Bariadi, Shinyanga (not very successful), and Dar es Salaam showed civil society to be weak and undeveloped. By contrast, in Zanzibar before the revolution, there were 48 registered organisations -religious, social, recreational and charitable.

Mmuya’s rather brief conclusions make sad reading. He writes, with much support from his own research, that Tanzania is ‘lacking in the appropriate infrastructure upon which to build a liberal democratic system ­a vision shared by all the parties …the cOlmtry cannot afford to pay for countrywide elections for local, parliamentary and presidential elections and leave enough funds for other important allocations’. But, as he says correctly, democracy will eventually triumph.

He concludes the book with these questions: ‘Where are the liberals and where is the liberal infrastructure for them?’ I conclude that this well­researched and well-written book is essential reading for anyone seriously interested in Tanzanian political development.
David Brewin

TREKKING IN EAST AFRICA. David Else. Lonely Planet Publications. New Edition 1998. 348p. £11.99.

This book is a comprehensive guide to mountain treks throughout the whole of East Africa, Malawi and Ethiopia. It includes the standard Lonely Planet advice about the countries covered, getting there and away, information about health and safety, including a section on mountain sickness and notes on tipping guides and porters.

Tanzania is covered in 69 pages and, as you would expect, Kilimanjaro is given a lot of space with good maps and six routes described. There are diagrams showing the steepness of ascent and there is a full list of trekking companies with appropriate warnings about rogue companies. There is a smaller but useful section on Mount Meru which, as the book says, is frequently overlooked by trekkers, but provides an excellent climb through varied landcapes, culminating in a scramble along an exposed crater rim to the summit. The book provides welcome sections on other mountain areas visited by few tourists which are the hidden jewels of the country. Tanzania’s Five Year Tourism Plan seeks to encourage tourists to spread out from the ‘Northern Circuit’ and Zanzibar and with the assistance of the Dutch aid project (SNV) villagers are being encouraged to provide tourist facilities in these areas.

The areas given good coverage in the book are the Crater Highlands, Mt Hanang and the Western Usambaras. I was particularly pleased to see Hanang included as this is a splendid 11,500 ft. isolated extinct volcano, providing an excellent two days trekking. Short sections devoted to the Monduli Mountains, the Pare Mountains, the Eastern Usambaras and the Southern Highlands centred on Mbeya do not do these areas justice and there is no mention at all of the Uluguru Mountains or of Udzungwa. The Southern Highlands in particular offer a vast range of attractions -high mountains, waterfalls, gorges, volcanic features, pleasant climate and excellent walking country.

This book is an essential guide to planning a trek in the region but Tanzania has enough natural treasures to justify a book for Tanzania alone. !
Tony Janes

A VET ABROAD. Stuart Wilson. The Book Guild, High St. Lewes, Sussex. BN7 2LU. TeI: 01723 472534. £15.95.

Books about travel; memoirs; animal stories; all may be of interest. But when you have a combination, you have a winner!
Stuart Wilson gave up a profitable vet practice in Lincolnshire to spend five years in Tanzania. Part of the time he was involved in research programmes and vet practice, but mostly he was training veterinary assistants to mn the animal health control services. He has either used extensive notes made at the time, or has a remarkable memory for detail and moves from animal stories (wild as well as domestic), descriptions of the country as it was some 30 years ago, amusing characters and incidents, many of them at his own expense, with a skill reminiscent of the vet stories in Yorkshire which have been so popular in book and on TV in the UK.

This book would be fun for anyone to read, but for those who knew some of the characters and who experienced Tanzania at the time, it is fascinating. Stuart spent part of his time at Mpapwa but most at the Ministry of Agriculture Training Institute at Tengeru near Arusha. His obvious enjoyment of the work, his involvement with cattle, sheep, horses and dogs both in the area and as far away as West Kilimanjaro and far into Masailand, illustrate that he was much more than just a teacher. His students obviously recognised this when they said in a speech prior to his departure “your teaching has always been systematic, simple and thought­provoking”. I have visited Tengeru several times recently and it is sad to see that the facilities which Stuart struggled so hard to build up have deteriorated disastrously. Further, the Government has not employed veterinary assistants since 1992, and as there are no job prospects, there are hardly any students. As Stuart was about to leave, Tengeru was to be handed over to the East African Community for a few years. At least it is now back to its earlier function and there is a prospect of major renovation. A further regret is that so many of the well established commercial farms to which the author refers have ceased to function.

There are some endearing features. Stuart starts off with a fairly colonial attitude, as one might expect so soon after the colonial era, but he visibly mellows over the five years and clearly gets on well with his students. He realises his own fiery nature (I should like to see if the door in which he hit a hole is still at Tengeru) and is able to joke about it. He jumps fully clothed into a pool when he sees his daughter apparently in trouble! He gets into trouble with lions, snakes, rabid animals, not to mention senior officers. A few minor criticisms should not detract from a warm recommendation. A Swahili speaking editor would have made many corrections to the spelling; in fact the editing in general leaves something to be desired. I wish he had put the full name of all his colleagues. But these are very small points in what is otherwise an entertaining, amusing and a fascinating story not to be missed.
David Gooday

MEMORY AND MAPS. An exhibition of paintings by Jonathan Kingdom at the Royal Geographical Society. October 16-22, 1998.

The paintings in this exhibition followed an expedition to Mkomazi, Southern Tanzania, in which the well-known naturalist and painter 10nathan Kingdom was involved in 1995/96. His oil paintings blend art, science and memories of a lifetime in East Africa (he was born and brought up in Tanzania). They have an immediacy which gives them vibrant life and his interpretation overlays these with topographical and historical knowledge. His intimate knowledge of the area enables him to paint locales invested with weather, temperature and a shifting light.

The wildlife is predominant in the pictures, the physical elements giving an impressionistic landscape but showing the paths and conditions along which the wildlife travels. Prey is watched by predators, the frail confront the elements, competition is played out. A few of the pictures can be seen as abstracts though the viewer can solve the patterns. They are not drawing room pictures; they need some explanation (which was provided in a booklet at the exhibition) but repay close attention.
Cherridah Coppard