“Plurality?” asked the old Tanzanian, looking genuinely perplexed. “Does that mean more than one wife?”

No, that was not what it meant, I explained. It meant that a country should have two or more political parties so that people could have a choice. His eyes lit up. What was the point of that, he asked. Two wives would mean more children, more hands to till the land. Political parties would not do that. So wrote David Martin on the election campaign trail in Masasi (The Independent, November 3, 1990). He went on: ‘In the election campaign here last week the issue of political pluralism was never mentioned … in Dar es Salaam it is a slightly different story. The Law Society voted overwhelmingly in September for a multi-party system and the newspapers published articles and letters debating the issue. In one article, a British academic dismissed advocates of pluralism as “middle level Tanzanians and frustrated professional and business people who feel they have been politically marginalised”.

The elections were held on October 28th 1990; when the results were announced, there were few surprises, except when it was all over and the President chose his Cabinet. But first, the results.

“Your Excellency the President of the United Republic of Tanzania, Your Excellency Father of the Nation, Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere, CCM Vice-Chairman, Your Excellency the Prime Minister and the First Vice-President, Ndugu CCM Secretary General, Your Excellencies, the ministers, ambassadors and the government leaders and all guests ….. (Judge Lameck Mfalila, Chairman of the Election Committee speaking at the Diamond Jubilee Hall in Dar es Salaam on November 3rd 1990)… the number of Yes votes is 5,195,124 which is equivalent to 95.5% of all votes cast” (prolonged tumultuous applause, song). Thus was the popular Ali Hassan Mwinyi, the sole candidate, re-elected as President of Tanzania.”

5,441,286 people voted which represented 74.7% of all Tanzanians registered to vote.

97. 74%
Dr Salmin Amour won his election as President of Zanzibar with the remarkable total of 97.74% but one third of the electorate did not turn up at the polling stations. The Zanzibar elections also returned the son of the First President of Zanzibar Sheikh Abeid Karume. The son, Amani, won the Rabeho seat.

The biggest casualties of the elections were the veteran politicians Paul Bomani who lost his Mwanza seat and Lucy Lameck who held a National seat. Other casualties included the Dar es Salaam and Mwanza Regional Commissioners – Major General Kimario and Mr Timothy Shindika. Some thirty Members of Parliament lost their seats.

London’s loss is Tanzania’s gain. In the short time he served as High Commissioner the dynamic and hard working Mr John Malecela put Tanzania on the map in London. He was to be seen everywhere and usually taking an active part in what was going on. It was therefore a complete surprise when he first postponed an address he planned to give at the Africa Centre until January 1991 and then, after a rapid departure for Dar es Salaam, cancelled it altogether. He had become Prime Minister and First Vice-President of Tanzania!

AFRICA EVENTS wrote ‘Malecela’s departure from London has provoked a frisson of mixed feelings amongst his ex-colleagues at the at the High Commission …. they are thrilled about his new appointment but saddened because his promotion has ended an era distinguished by an unrivalled zing of benign and caring leadership. He is remembered as a man, rich in dignified humility and untouched by hubris.’

There are six new faces in the new Cabinet and five new Ministries (Tourism, Natural Resources and Environment, Science, Technology and Higher Education, Regional Administration and Local Government, Community Development, Women and Children, and Works). Six former ministers were dropped including, in addition to Paul Bomani, Pius Ng’wandu, and Stephen Wasira and five deputy ministers.

The President said that certain ministries had had too much work. He cited the former Ministry of Lands, Natural Resources and Tourism. “Land had given us a big headache” he said and so he had split this Ministry into two. The same applied to the former Ministry of Communications, Transport and Works. “We realised that road construction had not been properly attended to … in future, emphasis will be placed on road construction and we will ensure that funds allocated for roads are not utilised elsewhere.” “We must move with the times” the President went on. Hence the new Ministries for the Environment and Science and Technology.

As far as Deputy ministers were concerned President Mwinyi said that he wanted to cut the numbers. He announced only seven initially. “We shall see if the need arises for more. This will become clear after we start working.”

Head of State and Minister of Defence – Ali Hassan Mwinyi

President’s Office:
Minister of State for Planning – Kighoma Malima
Minister of State for the Civil Service – Fatma Saidi Ali
Minister of State for Defence- Amran Mayagila

Prime Minister and First Vice-President – John Malecela
Minister of State – Edward Lowasa

Second Vice-President – Salmin Amour
Min. of State, Office of Second Vice-President – Temporarily vacant
Ministers Without Portfolio – Rashidi Kawawa, Horace Kolimba
Regional Admin and Local Government – Joseph Warioba
Finance – Stephen Kibona
Works – Nalaila Kiula
Communications and Transport – Jackson Makweta
Agric. Livestock Dev. and Cooperatives – Anna Abdullah
Industries and Trade – Cleopa Msuya
Water, Energy and Minerals – Jakaya Kikwete
Tourism, Nat. Resources and Environment – Abubakar Mdumia
Education and Culture – Charles Kabeho
Lands, Housing and Urban Development – Marcel Komanya
Health – Philemon Sarungi
Information and broadcasting – Benjamin Mkapa
Foreign Affairs and International Relations – Ahmed Hassan Diria
Science, Technol. and Higher Education – William Shija
Home Affairs – Augustine Mrema
Labour and youth Development – Joseph Rwegasira
Community Development, Women and Children – Anna Makinda

NEW AFRICAN: Nothing seems to ruffle the single party monolith in Tanzania. The election results confirm that the CCM Party. though showing its age and conservatism is still in charge.

AFRICA EVENTS: President Mwinyi rides into the second and final lap of office on a wave of frothy public approval. Free from the trusses of doctrine and the ‘camaraderie culture’ of the previous era, he has bared the economy to market charms and has, with limited prospects of success, boldy hacked away at the sinews of corruption …. in 1985 President Mwinyi came to power to find Tanzania brick. Will he, when he goes in 1995, leave it marble?

The Dar es Salaam DAILY NEWS: The CCM National Executive Committee in Zanzibar met on November 16th to assess the economic and political situation in the Isles …. Pemba North was, between July and last month, hit by a wave of political banditry where Party offices were dynamited and people who were known to have registered for the polls had their houses and farms burnt ….

AMNESTY INTENATIONAL (September 1990): ‘Amnesty International is concerned by a wave of arrests in Zanzibar. The arrests, over 60 on Pemba alone, have come as the authorities have sought to counter an opposition boycott of preparations for the elections. Some of those arrested have been charged with public order offences. Others have been held without charge or trial, sometimes for only brief periods …’

The Dar es Salaam BUSINESS NEWS: ‘Salmin Amour inherits a tattered economy with faint signals of a fragile recovery and a political crisis that is far from healing …

AFRICA EVENTS: ‘The opposition in Zanzibar has succeeded in converting this years elections there into a referendum on the Union between the spice islands and the mainland. Despite all the limitations on its operation in a one-party state, with most of its prominent leaders under detention, and with enormous pressure applied by the government, the new President has been elected with the support of only 65% of the eligible voters, not the 98% plurality that the authorities claim …. In Pemba less than 40% of eligible voters registered … in the elections to the Zanzibar House of Representatives and the Union Parliament the Party National Executive Committee bypassed the choice made in district primaries including a number of the most effective incumbents … the polls as a whole failed to convey legitimacy and have merely exposed the deep fissure that exists in society in Zanzibar …‘
David Brewin


Despite the Government order that the Iraqi Embassy in Dar es Salaam should stop recruiting Tanzanians to work in Iraq, hundreds of youths continued to throng the embassy premises yesterday (November 2nd 1990). The youths who flocked to the embassy as early as seven o’clock said they were optimistic about being recruited ‘although some big shots are against the recruitment’ some of them said.

Meanwhile, a number of readers have expressed their anger at the alleged illegal recruitment of Tanzanian youths to join the Iraqi army. One who had lived in Kuwait for 16 years said that Tanzanians should be warned of what they were likely to face in the Gulf . Although the Iraqi government was recruiting Tanzanians by luring them with cash, it had failed to pay its own soldiers for almost two years during the Iran-Iraq war. Several people also blamed the Iraqi government for using religion to condone its ambitions over oil-rich Kuwait. ‘Tanzanians will not only face religious humiliation but also discrimination in Iraq’ they added. Another caller was flabbergasted at how the Iraqi embassy had managed to recruit people without the government’s knowledge. ‘There is something fishy about the whole issue’ he said.

Meanwhile the Implementation Committee in Ukerewe District has condemned the recruitment of Tanzanian youths for military training in Iraq . The Committee claimed that if the tendency is not checked it stands to complicate national matters in the future – Daily News.

Tanzania has protested to Iraq (November 2nd 1990) over reports that the Iraqi Embassy in Dar es Salaam has been recruiting Tanzanians to serve in the Iraqi army. A Tanzanian Foreign Ministry spokesman said the Iraqi Ambassador, Mr Fauzi Ali al-Bander, had been told that any such recruitment should stop immediately. Tanzania has condemned the Iraqui invasion of Kuwait and called for an immediate withdrawal (Press agencies).

The Iraqi Ambassador has denied the reports. He said some young Tanzanians, mostly from Zanzibar, had visited the embassy to express their support for Iraq during the Gulf crisis – Press agencies.

BODY BLOW Tanzania’s economy has suffered a body blow. Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait and the subsequent tremors it sent to world oil prices have seen the Tanzanian fuel bill shoot up to 80% of its foreign exchange earnings. President Mwinyi had just visited the Emirates and had come back with handsome promises of aid. These have also dried up now – Africa Events.

(The sequel to these stories is not quite clear but we believe that no Tanzanians were in fact recruited – Editor)


Sisal production by Tanzania has dropped significantly since the 1960’s and has stabilised over the last five years at approximately 30,000 tonnes of line fibre per annum. In 1989 approximately one third came from public sector estates of the Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) and the remaining two thirds from privately owned estates. Recently, obvious signs of a move towards increased demand have encouraged new investment in the industry and, with it, technical changes.

Sisal has been processed traditionally by large stationery decorticators with effluent being removed by water pumped to the factories to wash the fibre. Transport costs for the collection of leaf have always been high in relation to the amount of sisal fibre extracted (about 4% dry fibre/leaf) and, in consequence, any way of reducing transport costs has been of interest to growers. During the 1970’s experimental work was carried out to develop a ‘mobile decorticator’ capable of radically reducing transport costs. Early machines were initially developed and constructed in Kenya by Mr Evan Spyropoulos. They met with a mixed and guarded reception mainly because of doubts about their reliability, their productivity and the quality of the fibre produced.

In the mid-eighties Spyropoulos entered into a partnership with Michael Dobell, a UK based entrepreneur, and, eventually, production moved from Mombasa to Chard in Somerset and the machine received a brand name – the ‘Crane’ mobile decorticator. The machine now offers sisal growers in Tanzania and elsewhere a cost effective alternative to the hauling of thousands of tonnes of leaf to machines designed, and often built, before the Second World War. The TSA has already invested in a number of the units which are driven by a 100-120 bhp tractor. They are operating with some success in the Central Line production area around Morogoro. Other sisal growers in Kenya and Tanzania are becoming increasingly interested in seeing how effective they will prove to be in the long term.

An alternative invention developed by Ralli Estates, a joint venture between the TSA and the UK’s ‘Chillington Corporation’, has been the utilisation of weight transfer hitches and large trailer units for leaf transport to traditional decorticator units. These have replaced the 6-7 tonne capacity lorry units on estates where no railway systems exist so that 95 bhp tractors can now be seen successfully hauling loads of 15-18 tonnes with little difficulty. Ralli Estates has also undertaken significant modifications to ‘Stork 20-12′ 8nd ’20-10’ decorticator units which they hope can significantly increase production efficiencies.

The recent improvement in the price of sisal, as the green movement encourages greater use of organic hard fibres, has brought about a significant change in mood in the Tanzanian industry, aided by a number of devaluations of the Tanzania Shilling and a liberalisation of marketing regulations for sisal. The result has been increasing new investment in the industry from non-traditiona1 sources. Examples include the purchase of a number of estates by Tan Farms owned by the Chavda Group, the Ralli Estates investment by Chillington Corporation and the recently started Ngomezi project on TSA estates near Korogwe, funded by the German Government and managed by the British firm Booker Tate.

On the processing front the TSA has negotiated funding from Italy to rehabilitate machinery at their Ngomeni factory and hopes to see the Mruazi factory between Muheza and Korogwe reopened in due course.

All the spinners are short of fibre in all grades and there is an expectant atmosphere pervading the industry with hopes that production can rise to meet the demand that already exists. Processing capacity, once the Ngomeni factory has been refurbished, will total more than double the existing total production of fibre nation wide. Providing the market remains strong there seems little doubt that local processors will be keen to add value to all available production.

The prospects for sisal therefore look much better than they did a decade ago and one would hope that growers fibre could soon resume its place as the ‘White Gold’ of Tanzania.
Steve Vaux

Mr S.G.M. VAUX is an agriculturalist with Booker Tate. He is working as a Project Controller whose main responsibility is co-ordination of the five and a half year Ngombezl Sisal Estate Project near Korogwe.


It is not every day that you receive a letter from Iceland. But I was in Copenhagen when the letter was received and I am sure it is not such a rare occurrence there.

I was with Ms Ulla Baagoe (pronounced in Danish something like ‘bar eu’ without the g; it is also difficult to type on an English typewriter as it, and so many other Danish words, have uniquely Danish accents!). She is the recently elected new Chairperson of the Denmark Tanzania Association (DANTAN). She was opening her mail. It was a letter, apparently inspired by the Tanzanian Ambassador to the Scandinavian countries, from an Icelander asking how he could learn more about DANTAN. So the Britain Tanzania Society’s (BTS’s) opposite numbers in Denmark seem to be broadening their horizons and should soon have at least one new member.

Ulla Baagoe is clearly well chosen as Chairperson because she is so well informed. She works on the Tanzania desk of DANIDA, the Danish Department of International Development Cooperation. Cooperation between Denmark and Tanzania has always been very close and relations always very warm. Ulla Baagoe gave me the latest figures: Total assistance US$73 million in 1990 including US$ 58 million in grants and 80 technical assistance personnel; 50% was expected to go into water, health and education, 38% on transport and 15% on various ongoing commitments in industry, agriculture and the environment.

The former Chairperson, for eight years, Mr Keld Jorgensen, the Roger Carter of DANTAN, outlined to me, in some detail, how DANTAN began and had developed over the years. And it became possible, while listening to him, to begin to compare and contrast DANTAN with the BTS.

The two societies are about the same age – DANTAN 10, BTS 11, but DANTAN has had a far more changeable leadership and, unlike the BTS, many of its early members and even its leaders had never been to Tanzania when they joined. Original motivations in the case of DANTAN were more oriented towards the creation of a New World Order I obtained the impression, as I listened to Mr Jorgensen, (I am sure he will correct me if I am wrong) that, to some extent, the fact that it was Tanzania which so many early members became attracted to was almost incidental. I assume that it was the socialist orientation and the magnetism of its leader, Julius Nyerere, which appealed to the early members. Something similar applies to the BTS which originally seemed to have and probably still has a preponderance of members with socialist sympathies.

The changes in leadership of DANTAN make an interesting tale and illustrate the way in which it continues to modernise and rejuvenate itself at regular intervals.

The first Chairperson resigned after three months when she became head of a committee on male-female equality. She was soon replaced. The second of DANTAN’s Secretaries became Chairman of a political society and couldn’t carry on. The third Treasurer left because he also worked for the Danish State Railway and became far too busy working on the construction of the bridge with the longest span in Europe at the main exit from the Baltic Sea – 1.8kms in length. The first editor of the Association’s quarterly journal ‘Kumekucha’ was lost when she married an Australian and went to live there. The driving force in the Association’s Aahus branch went to Borneo. His successor later left for Botswana! But the Association still thrives.

‘Kumekucha’ the Swahili for ‘Dawn’ is better illustrated and better printed than the journal you are now reading and ‘Kumekucha’ is a much more attractive title than ‘Bulletin of Tanzanian Affairs.’ But it has its disadvantages. I was told that few people in Denmark know what it means! Kumekucha’s 37th issue was published in November 1990. The Bulletin’s 37th issue was published in September 1990.

Usually ‘Kumeckucha’ is produced largely in Danish but its 10th anniversary issue in April 1990 was entirely in English and contained many articles by Tanzanians. One, by Mr Ilyas Abdulrahman, Vice-Chairman of DANTAN, under the title ‘DANTAN for Ten Years’ makes fascinating reading in London where Tanzanians meet regularly in the Tanzania Association and Britons meet in the Britain Tanzania Society.

Mr Abdulrahman wrote that ‘Recently there has been a meeting in Copenhagen where a friendship association between Denmark and Tanzania was discussed’ said my friend Elias … We asked a lot of questions. Where did the initiative come from? Is it official? How does one qualify to be a member? … Could we influence the course (of the association) if we joined? How much can the two countries benefit from such an organisation? Elias smiled and said “We are talking friendship, not politics!”. My reply was “if you want to maintain a friendship, make sure you understand your friend!”

‘Ambassador Mhina was visiting Copenhagen (he resides in Stockholm) … we had a get-together evening …. he was a good lobbyist …. many enrolled at the end of the meeting. They all had different ideas about the organisation … one thing we all agreed on was that it was a good idea. Our (Tanzanian) profile was a heterogeneous group of workers, retired seamen, students, political refugees (from Zanzibar), short term visitors, unemployed permanent residents, mixed (Tanzanian/ Danish) couples. Their (Danish) profile was active politicians, senior government officials, people who contribute in influencing or running the policy of this country. Some of the names mentioned were familiar from the newspapers or television. An interesting combination.

‘(Later) an invitation to an informal evening came from DANTAN .. an appeal to Tanzanians living in Denmark to join the club. We turned up. lnger and Keld Jorgensen were extra sweet … we were all inquisitive; everybody wanted to know everything about everyone. There wasn’t enough time for us all to give our life histories; but what I recall is that our Danish friends got to know more about us than we did about them … That was the time ‘Kumekucha’ was mentioned as a slogan. The sun is rising, wake up, open your eyes and get to know more about each other’s country,culture, traditions, not to mention mentality. Some time later we (my wife and I) became members no 48 of DANTAN.

‘DANTAN was now one year old. The general meeting was held at the Parliament building of Christiansborg … We went through the whole procedure as normal in such meetings. Some Tanzanian’s got a bit bored; could have been problems with the Danish language. The time came when all could have the floor … some militant Zanzibaris raised up to exercise their democratic rights. They aired their opinion about DANTAN and in quite a dramatic way. The situation was a bit unbecoming to some of the parliamentarians present ; other Danes were totally confused … I couldn’t help smiling. With the Zanzibar population in Copenhagen an incident like that was bound to take place. DANTAN had passed the first year without having managed to accommodate the Zanzibar wing … Zanzibaris were quite great in number in those days … Other wise our first general meeting was a success.

More activities followed. Member groups in other parts of Denmark were set up… but as the years went by the number of active Tanzanians decreased drastically. Some of the active Danes took a low profile, too, but they were always replaced by others. Why has the association become less interesting for the Tanzanians living in Denmark? Did they have expectations which were not met? Are DANTAN activities not that interesting? Have they given up making friends and contributing to creating better understanding between the two nationalities? No, actually many think positively about the association, but just as many don’t feel at home in the many meetings held around. I hope these questions will be answered and debated by many others.’

Members of the BTS perhaps need the same debate!

In many other respects DANTAN and BTS are similar. DANTAN tends to have better attended seminars end meetings, usually in the presence of a Tanzanian Cabinet Minister, but less frequently than the BTS. It has development projects in Tanzania and actively campaigns in Denmark in support of Tanzania. DANTAN has 245 members. BTS has twice as many. But the population of Britain is more than ten times that of Denmark. Membership subscription in DANTAN is about £12 for a family – everything is more expensive over there.

And I almost forgot to mention one major difference between the two societies – DANTAN has organised Danish Tanzanian soccer games!
David Brewin



Under this heading AFRICAN BUSINESS in its July 1990 issue stated that 1I1any businessmen in Dar es Salaam had welcomed the new Investment Code (analysed in Bulletin No 37). While many felt that it could have offered more carrots, it represented a crucial break with the past and thus an important beginning. The new code was said to have offered few new guarantees to investors but had restated the constitutional position that no property could be nationalised without compensation. Tanzania would be joining the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) as well as the World Bank’s Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA). A local business consultant was quoted as having said that potential investors had nothing to fear. Tanzania was undergoing fundamental changes.

‘One hundred years ago Baron Adalbert Emil Redcliffe le Tanneur von Saint Paul-Illaire, the Governor of German East Africa (later Tanzania) found a pretty blue-flowered plant growing around limestone out crops near Tanga … he posted some seeds to his father who grew the plant … and in turn sent some seeds to the Royal Botanic Gardens at Herenhausen. The first of those plants to flower were exhibited lit the International Horticultural Exhibition of 1893 in Ghent under the name Saintpaulia ionantha – the African violet.’ Thus began an article by Jonathan Kingdon in the May 1990 issue of BBC WILDLIFE.

The article went on to describe how the Tanga region was later taken over by estates and the plant became extinct in its original habitat. The wild Saintpaulia was then lost to science for several decades until , in 1985, it was rediscovered by John Lovett in the Uzungwa mountains 300 miles from the place where it had been found originally.

In October 1989 the Society for Environmental Exploration (Bulletin No 35) enabled Jonathan Kingdon to visit Tanzania and in particular the Matumbi range of sandstone hills close to the Indian Ocean. He found a second surviving population of African violets . He went on to explain why he expected he might find the violet there and compared and contrasted what he described as ‘stable’ as distinct from ‘fluctuating’ habitats in many other parts of Africa. He stated that about a quarter of Africa’s species are clustered in old enclaves with stable climates. He concluded by referring to the ‘profligate and irreversible waste’ now occurring in the Matumbi forest and the need for conservation of the remaining forest.

Commenting on the Pope’s frequent use of Kiswahili during his visit to Tanzania for three days from September 2, 1990 one local priest said he “sounded like a foreigner who had lived in Tanzania a long time” (UNIVERSE September 9, 1990).

This visit gave Tanzania much greater publicity in the international press than it is accustomed to.

The DAILY TELEGRAPH: ‘Pope’s Call to Shun Condoms Fuels AIDS Row’ According to the Telegraph the Pope had declared in Dar es Salaam that condoms would only encourage – the very patterns of behaviour which have greatly contributed to the expansion of the disease”

The French newspaper LIBERATION: ‘Jean Paul II Face a L’Afrique Qui Bouge’: ‘Addressing 80,000 people in Dar es Salaam yesterday the Pope ordained 43 new priests who would help to ‘prepare the African Catholic Church for the third millennium.’

The NEW YORK TIMES wrote of the Pope’s intention to prepare an encyclical reinforcing the Catholic Church’s hostility to all forms of contraception.

The London TIMES: ‘Pope Calls for Moral Drive Against AIDS.’ The Pope arrived at the Jangwani sports ground to the rhythms of Swahili hymns and traditional drums. As he drove through the crowd in an open black Rolls Royce the huge congregation rose to its feet , ululating, clapping and waving ….

UNIVERSE: ‘AIDS Cure Rivalry Must End’ . “AIDS brings a unique cultural unease because in it the life giving functions of human sexuality, and the blood which epitomises health and life itself, have become a roadway to death”. The Pope praised the rapidly growing Church in Tanzania for its ministry to the sick and needy and for its overall spiritual vitality.

The DAILY TELEGRAPH: ‘Africans Flock for Pope’s Blessing’. Father Giorgio Battifolo, an Italian who has been working In Tanzania for 36 years, said “I never thought to live to see this. It’s beautiful. This is a great reward for the early missionaries who had so many difficulties~

Reviewing police efforts to deal with the problem of prostitution in Dar es Salaam during the last eighteen months, AFRICAN CONCORD in a recent issue, described how the Police had launched a major campaign at the end of 1989. About 100 prostitutes had been rounded up and within days some 50 had been sentenced to prison for six months. Several others were fined and the youngest and oldest were placed under the care of the social welfare services. But the nation, led by fervent feminist groups, reacted angrily, saying it was unfair for the Police to carry out a one-sided scoop, singling out women and leaving behind their male counterparts. AFRICAN CONCORD said that it believed that the women had eventually received a Presidential pardon. As one of them put it recently “it is now business as usual”.


‘Almost everywhere in tropical Africa where there are ore deposits, iron ore is produced. The Negro possesses a marked talent for working iron. Reportedly, even entire rifles have been fabricated including the bores for the barrels’ . With this quotation from a 1910 document entitled ‘Handicraft and Industry in East Africa’ a recent issue of the German publication AFRIKA reviewed historically the work of craftsmen in Africa with particular reference to Tanzania.
‘Colonialism based on the primitive exploitation of men and raw materials afforded traditional crafts no new opening or markets … Liberation brought no improvement – traditional artisans ‘under a tree’ were viewed by the new elites as a sign of backwardness and underdevelopment …..

Far more than churches, schools, or health centres, the structures that Strike the eye in rural Tanzania are the water tanks. These are all so sophisticated in their design that maintenance and repair can only be carried out by specialists with modern equipment … hardly any system of water supply is today operational except where a new development project has been initiated to rehabilitate the dilapidated water tanks.

For years now efforts have been made to develop appropriate technologies for the Third World. The spread effect has remained minimal for various technical, economic and ideological reasons …

But in Singida, the Usambara mountains and Morogoro a new approach to craft promotion has begun in arrangements made in partnership with the churches. The key concept is that promotion should be directed at existing, local workshops … aid donors provide direct business consultancy in conjunction with credit facilities and flexible individual training of craftsmen. Particularly successful is the Crafts and Artisans Promotion Unit (CAPU) set up in Singlda. In the first phase the craftsman is provided with what he needs to fabricate axes, hoes, knives, spears, arrows etc with new tools in a more rational manner. In the second phase … a workshop is constructed and provided with manual machines … In the third phase new technologies are introduced.’

The German publication AFRIKA (9-10/90) stated th8t Tanzania had launched ‘a fire and environment war’ to reduce the damage caused by bush fires and discourage firewood 8nd charcoal use. Tanzania’s trees, which supplied 90% of domestic fuel requirements, were being felled at an annual rate of 300-400,000 hectares and another 65,000 hectares were destroyed by fire each year. New planting accounted for only 20,000 hectares.

New measures included taking tax off electric, gas and solar stoves, a ban on charcoal exports, extra fire fighting units, more patrols and a public awareness campaign.

Under this heading AFRICA HEALTH in its September 1990 issue reported that in Bukoba, one of the districts worst affected by AIDS, a major problem has arisen in the disposal of bodies of people who have died from the disease. Relatives often do not come to collect bodies for burial. The Red Cross has provided 2,400 metres of shroud cloth to the Kagera Regional Hospital which has no cold room.


NEW AFRICAN in its November 1990 issue wrote that many South African exiles were having second thoughts about returning home due to the instability and violence there. In Tanzania, it stated, ‘where most of the exiles found refuge, about 50 school teachers are known to have applied for jobs … Over 200 South African students have just joined the Soloman Mahlangu Freedom College in Tanzania because there are no alternatives at home.’

The Tanzanian writer Adam Lusekelo has been spending a year working with the BBC in London. He wrote in the November-December 1990 issue of the BBC magazine FOCUS ON AFRICA about his ‘homecoming’:

‘Sweltering Dar es Salaam. The sun burns you as you walk down the busy Samora Machel Avenue – now avoiding a heap of rubbish, now making a minor Olympic record as you jump over a pot-hole. Pretty damsels walk the opposite way but you ignore them. AIDS. But you are home again. It feels good ….

A friend hails me from across the street. “I say. When did you come?” You tell him that you came back four months ago … “Have you been to the Kremlin?” he suggests. .. Kremlin?” “Yeah. In Moscow. It’s a nice place. You can get roast chicken. Goes down well with ugali. There are also some very cold beers there.” So you take a cab to Kinondoni shanty township – the people there call it Moscow. The cab would have made Peugeot manufacturers pleased with themselves – if that is, they are still alive …. the friend takes out a packet of cigarettes. “Don’t” yells the driver.
“This car will explode” he says. You agree from the smell of petrol that is getting increasingly intolerable. The Kremlin is full of youngish men and women …
“Back to TZ, eh? We’ll see about those fancy shirts you are wearing. They will fade. And that hair will turn red. You see, God has lowered the sun by an inch or two. And those nice smells you are wearing will disappear. You will end up smelling of good old Tanzanian sweat…

WORLD BANK NEWS in its September 26, 1990 issue compared and contrasted statistically the economies of 185 countries. Tanzania’s GNP in 1989 was given as US$ 3,079 compared with US$ 3,775 in 1988. Its growth rate for the period 1980 to 1989 averaged 1.8% (compared with a population growth rate of 3.5%). Tanzania’s GNP per capita was US$ 120 in 1989 – equivalent to a real growth rate between 1980 and 1969 of minus 1.6%. Tanzania came out at the very bottom of the list in terms of GNP per capita. Only Mozambique with a figure of US$ 100 came lower. Ethiopia was said to have had the same rate as Tanzania in 1989 – ie: US$ 120.

The United Kingdom had a GNP of US$ 834,166 in 1989 equal to a per capita GNP of US$ 14,570. The figures for the United States were US$ 5,237,707 or US$ 21,100. Other African country GNP’s per capita were given as: Kenya US$ 380, Angola US$ 620, Botswana US$ 940, Burkina Faso US$ 310, Cote d’ Ivoire US$ 790, Gabon US$ 2,770, Gambia US$ 230, Lesotho US$ 470, Malawi US$ 160, Nigeria US$ 250, South Africa US$ 2,460 and Swaziland US$ 900.


A national campaign by the accountancy profession in Tanzania over the last five years has successfully resulted in the 460 parastatal organisations bringing their accounts up to date according to E. B. Mndolwa writing in the September 1990 issue of CERTIFIED ACCOUNTANT. At present Tanzania needs some 6,000 – 7,000 qualified accountants and 15 – 20,000 accounting technicians according to the article but the numbers available total only 1,000 and 3,000 respectively.


The relatively new part of the Tanzanian media the privately owned newspapers continue to illustrate the press freedom now apparent in Tanzania. The following items appeared in the privately owned Dar es Salaam press during the last part of 1990 – Editor.

Musa Membar, who took a free ride to Britain aboard an Air Tanzania Boeing 737 which he hijacked with four other youths in 1982, was arrested on September 14th 1990 when he crossed the Kenya-Tanzania border. He had been jailed in Britain for eight years. After his release he became a founder member of the Tanzania youth Democratic Movement under the umbrella of a Tanzanian opposition front headed by Oscar Kambona, former Foreign Minister who has been in exile in Britain since 1967.

Speaking in a BBC interview the other day, Mr Kambona denied any prior knowledge of Member’s departure from London. “He did not bid any of us farewell” he said.
In a letter from the Ukonga maximum security prison, where he is being held, Member said “I returned to Tanzania … to lead a peaceful campaign for multi-party democracy …… (Business Times, October 19).

‘Last year the CCM Party ordered the cooperative unions and marketing boards to clear their outstanding debts by the new year, failing which they would face liquidation. Almost a year later the unions owe the banks a staggering Shs 30 billion and the marketing boards owe another Shs 26 billion. To date not a single union has been liquidated.

The Nyererarian state’s handling of agricultural marketing is probably the worst example of the negative impact of collectivist policy …. during the last thirty years. From colonial times until Independence authentic farmers’ crop marketing cooperatives developed in different parts of the country … .. after Independence the freedom of the cooperative movement was systematically undermined by the state …..

Socialism worldwide and nation-wide has demonstrated its tragic but undeniable inability to provide either freedom or progress to the toiling masses. Trying to use cooperatives to achieve socialist objectives in 1990 is a complete aberration. The overpowering majority of CCM members do not believe that cooperatives can be a vehicle for building socialism. They do not want socialism. We all know that, after a generation of Ujamaa, there are hardly any socialists left in Tanzania!

In his parting address to the nation Mwalimu reiterated the CCM’s commitment to building a socialist Tanzania ….’ (Family Mirror, October 16 – 31).

‘It raises no eyebrows to hear of loads of cashewnuts stuck in Newala, tobacco in Igalula or coffee in Muleba. These, after all, are confined crops whose markets are out there over the deep blue sea. The sole agents are the bureaucratic laden state marketing boards.

But not when beans are said to be stuck in Karagwe, maize in Sumbawanga or paddy in Malampaka. All these are staple foods, with ready markets in all the major towns …. What is sad about it all is the mentality we have cultivated over the years. The farmers in their memoranda to visiting leaders always appeal to government to help with trucks, with wagons, with gunny bags, with markets.

Given market in formation, loans for trucks and cash from the banks, entrepreneurs from the villages and towns alike could haul and sell off all the surplus crops …

Crying out to the government to undertake every task in this era of trade liberalisation is like shedding crocodile tears.’ (Business Times October 19).

‘The Commission, under the respected Judge J. A. Mroso, appointed to investigate the closure of the University of Dar es Salaam last May has at last submitted its report, and, together with a number of actions taken since the closure, it seems that the students have been largely vindicated while the government’s handling of the crisis has been heavily criticised ….

A number of corrupt top officials of the university named by the students have been or are in the process of being moved or removed and the badly dilapidated campus is being hurriedly rehabilitated to remove one of the major grievances …

The report indicates that students had good reason to lose confidence in the government and VIJANA, the youth wing of the sole ruling party, which has been lording over the students ever since their autonomous organisation was suppressed in 1978 ….

In July-August last year, at the instigation of VIJANA, two student leaders were detained under humiliating conditions … for calling into question the corrupt and oppressive behaviour of some Party leaders during a visit to Korea for the Youth Festival …’

The article went on to describe the students’ loss of confidence in VIJANA, the government and the Ministry of Education which is heavily criticised in the report. The Principal Secretary had been ‘unnecessarily provocative’, The Commission also did not agree with government criticisms of the staff for supporting the students. The Commission felt that they had played a ‘very positive role in preventing a breakdown in communication’. The Vice-Chancellor, Professor G. R. V. Mmari was described in the article as extremely hard working and honest and the most popular Vice-Chancellor the University had ever had.

The Commission examined the grievances presented by the students and, not surprisingly, in almost every case it found them to be genuine …. The Commission also illustrated how the government controlled radio and newspapers were used in this case as important tools of state against the students ‘some reports did not give an accurate picture of the events and others used language that could have provoked resentment;’ words like ‘traitors’ and ‘not one of us.’ Some of the reports wanted to ridicule the students in front of the nation … letters sent to the newspapers from the University community were either not published or published very late’…… (Family Mirror, October 1-15).

‘When the Prince of Wales invited a group of wealthy Asians to dinner last June, he asked them if they could subscribe one million pounds to his Youth Business Trust. By the time coffee was served five million pounds had been raised ….. four of the top seven Asians in Britain, all millionaires, came from Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda … ‘ (Business Times, September 7).

President Mwinyi has lashed out at foreign journalists who under-play the contribution made by the former President, Mwalimu Nyerere to the country’s social and economic development. Recounting the country’s achievements under the National Economic Recovery Programme he said that Mwalimu Nyerere was fully involved in formulating and adopting all economic policy reforms. “Our achievements are the product of collective leadership and efforts in the Party. Government and all the people, and Mwalimu played a major role” he said. “It is through his dedication and selflessness that we are here today.” – Daily News

Tanzanian consultants will be more involved in national projects undertaken through the World Bank and the African Development Bank. Disclosing the move, the President of the Federation of African Consultants (FECA) Aloyse Peter Mushi, said the two banks would change their procurement rules to accommodate more African consultants. “We are currently negotiating with the bilaterals, some of whom come in with tied aid, using their own consultants, to adopt the same system”. “Some of them, including the governments of Germany, Netherlands and Canada have come out very clearly, that where local expertise exists, this should be given priority in the awarding of consultancy assignments” Mushi said. Tanzania formed its consultancy body, the Tanzania Association of Consultants (TACO) in November 1989.

At a German sponsored joint consultant seminar in Arusha in mid-December 1990 a member of the Tanzanian Planning Commission, Dr Mbogoro, said that development projects in Tanzania were only those which donor countries initiated and preferred to implement. “Because of economic constraints Tanzania does not have its own projects” he said.

This pronouncement provoked strong objections from a member of the German Government who said that Germany did not dictate to recipients but always assisted them to undertake their own projects – Daily News.


Matumbi Cave illustration on postage stamp

The illustration is of a non-postage stamp showing the entrance of one of the Matumbi caves, produced about 1910 by the Benedictine Mission. The picture size is 45mm x 31mm and it is grey in colour.

Although limestone caves exist at Tanga and at Songwe, (Mbeya District), very little is known of others elsewhere in Tanzania. It was therefore with the greatest interest that I saw a cutting from the Cape Argus of 17th June 1911 describing the discovery of two sizeable caves in the Matumbi Hills, some 50 kms from the coast in Kilwa Province.

Library research revealed three more contemporary accounts. Two were in the Berlin magazine ‘Deutsches Kolonialblatt’ and the third in the publication of an Austrian cave-exploring society at Graz. The caves were first noticed and recorded in August 1909 by Police Sergeant Weckauf from Kibata. Investigating an isolated patch of forest, he was surprised to find the large entrance of the Nangoma Cave, used as a refuge in the fighting of a few years before by tribesmen who had left the forest uncleared to hide it. This entrance, 43m wide and 21m high, is at the bottom of a deep hollow in the limestone. Weckauf’s find came to the notice of Ambrose Mayer, a Catholic missionary at the Nambiligja mission, and in February 1910 both men went there together, exploring more of the Nangoma Cave and recording passage lengths which totalled 329m.

At the very end of 1910 the much larger Nduli Cave was visited and found to be 3,630m long. As cave lengths are so often exaggerated in popular accounts, I should emphasise that Mayer has given precise passage lengths for each part of the caves, as if measured, or at least paced, and the totals have been obtained by summing these.

A stream flows through the Nduli Cove and eels and fish were found in it. Many fruit bats were seen there also. ‘A passage at the back of the third hole, leading perhaps to the Nangoma Cave, could not be entered because the flying foxes hung on the head, chest and back of anyone coming in and flew against the lanterns so that they were in danger of being extinguished.

That the caves were moderately well known locally at this time is evidenced by the fact that the Catholic mission produced adhesive stamp-like seals, showing ‘cave entrance at Matumbi’ as illustrated here. It seems likely that these may have been sold for charity and they certainly date from the period when the country was still German East Africa.

One problem that I faced when attempting to discover more about the caves was that their exact location was not known. Thurmann had published his sketch map in 1911, but direct correlation of this with modern maps could not be done because the small area it covers made it impossible to fit the river pattern, especially in view of its unknown accuracy. Fortunately. a copy of the 1900 map used by Thurmann as a basis for his sketch exists in the Royal Geographical Society in London. It names the rivers referred to by Thurmann and so allows the cave locations to be determined in two stages from the 1911 sketch map to the relatively small scale map of 1900 in which details are often only approximate, and then from there to the large scale map of 1968. The river confluence close to the caves is at 8″ 28′ 34″ 5, 38° 48′ 23″ E (grid reference 4787 0633) and the Nangoma and Nduli caves are in grid squares 478063 or 4 78064. The presence, on the 1968 map, of a main track (motorable) from Nandembo to the village at Nakilago should prove useful for reconnaissance.

A cave more than 3.5 km long cannot easily be lost, but the Matumbi caves have attracted hardly any attention since their discovery. A brief mention of their bat guano was made in 1934 and 1948 but I have not been able to find anything else in the normal scientific end general literature. Then in 1966 a list of the world’s long caves included Nduli, but the length given is the same as that in the original accounts, so there had evidently been no subsequent exploration, or at least none recorded. Similarly no plan seems to have been made.

Of course Matumbi was not a tourist area and the caves had negligible economic value, but surely someone must have explored or at least visited them in the last 80 years or so. Dr Waane, the present Director of Antiquities for Tanzania tells me that he went there in 1985 though he di d not travel the full length of Nduli Cave.

DOES ANY READER OF THE BULLETIN KNOW OF ANY OTHER VISITS TO THE MATUMBI CAVES, RECENT OR LONG AGO? Perhaps there are photographs, diary accounts, articles in newspapers or magazines or mentions in regional guide books.
Trevor Shaw

Dr TREVOR R. SHAW is a retired Royal Navy officer who has made a life-long study of caves. His doctorate (as an ‘antique student’) was awarded for work on the history of scientific cave studies.


The Chancellor of the University of Dar es Salaam, President Mwinyi, has announced that the University will reopen on January 1st 1991 for students who were expelled in May 1990 to enable them to finish their studies. It is likely that fresh students will be able to join the university in October 1990. The Chancellor has however ordered the expulsion of 13 students for their leading role in the earlier unrest. He directed that eight other students should be given stern warning for ‘utterings and conduct associating them with the instigation.’ Expelled students may re-apply for admission one year after the university reopens. Their applications will be determined by their behaviour during the one year period. Among those awarded honorary degrees on December 1st were Mr Amon Nsekela, who was made a Doctor of Literature.

The former Chief Minister of Zanzibar, Mr Seif Shariff Hamad, who has been charged with possession of secret state documents has a case to answer said District Magistrate Taratibu Adama who has been conducting a 17 month Preliminary Enquiry. Mr Hamad has been committed for trial in the Zanzibar High Court – Daily News.

The Government has foiled a plot to burn the Ministry of Education Headquarters building in Dar es Salaam – one of the most beautiful structures in the city. The aim of the plot was to destroy evidence for the alleged theft of Shs 40,224,436 between May 1988 and April 1989. The Principal Secretary of the Ministry announced that 125 workers had been sacked and that 86 of them would be appearing in court for the alleged theft. Those sacked included a chief accountant, a senior finance management officer, six teachers, 73 accounts personnel and stores assistants, 42 personal secretaries, registry assistants, office supervisors and typists and two artisans.

The crimes include false imprest claims, night allowances, meal allowances and entertainment allowances. Some secretaries were being paid travelling allowances when they did not travel. The drama began on the weekend of October 13th 1990 when the Ministry’s building was surrounded by armed policemen. Some of the accused persons are still missing.

A month later the Home Affairs Minister, Mr Augustine Mrema, announced that the government had formed a 16-man task force of Senior Investigation Officers to deal with the scandal – Daily News.

President Mwinyi has set up a Presidential Commission to monitor peoples’ views on the political system most suited to Tanzania. The Commission is to be known as the ‘Presidential Commission on Single or Multi-Party, 1990.’ Daily News.

One hundred and ten year old retired Alpine guide Mzee Yohana Kinyala Lauwo, probably the oldest man in Tanzania, has been given a replica of the British Empire Medal given to him by the British Government in 1958. He got the original medal after rescuing British mountaineers in difficulty on the mountain but the medal was stolen by thieves a few years later. The British High Commissioner, Mr Thorold Masefield, made the presentation at the Regional Commissioner’s office in Moshi – Daily News. Mzee Lauwo became famous as the person who led Hans Meyer up the mountain in 1889. The full story was given in Bulletin No 35 – Editor.

Prime Minister and First Vice-President John Malecela has sent a congratulatory message to John Major on his appointment as British Prime Minister. Mr Malecela said the good relations which exist between Tanzania and Britain and their two peoples are based on a strong foundation. “It is my genuine desire to work very closely with you in consolidating and enhancing these relations for the benefit of our present and future generations” he said – Sunday News.


Mr Malecela, who, since taking up office again in Tanzania. has pursued a vigorous programme of work himself with meetings, speeches and travel all over the country, has warned that he will not hesitate to take punitive action against public officials violating civil service regulations. Apparently setting the standards of his new leadership, he said, in Dodoma, where he received a warm welcome, that he would start by dealing with leaders and other top civil servants. He emphasised accountability and gave as an example reporting time for duty in government offices. He noted that senior officials, even though they had cars, were setting a bad example. “Don’t be surprised if leaders like regional commissioners are sacked” he said – Daily News.

The Registrar of Companies has cautioned companies seeking to invest in the country under the National Investment Promotion Policy (Bulletin No. 37) that they must abide by the provisions of the Companies Ordinance. The new policy did not repeal the company law he said.

There are great discrepancies between the investor’s registered authorised capital and the costs of projects expected to be undertaken by the firms under the National Investment Policy. According to a list of investors released to the press recently, most of the firms that intend to invest in a wide range of agricultural and industrial projects are local companies. And most of these applied for ventures whose costs greatly exceeded their registered authorised capital – Daily News.


Livingstone Museum in association with Multimedia, Lusaka, the Indiana University Press and James Currey, London. 1990. f. 30.

This selection of letters and documents, many of them previously unknown or unpublished is without doubt a major contribution to Livingstone scholarship and also an important footnote to the history of African exploration. It covers four areas of Livingstone’s life and travels: the early years (]841-1853), the Zambezi Expedition (1857-1864), the Interlude in Brilain (1864-1865) and finally, the Last Journey of Livingstone (1865-1872).

It is obviously the concluding section which is of most interest to serious students of Tanzanian history and affairs but, unfortunately, though the time-span covered is long the letters during this period are few and far between. There are very many gaps so that we simply do not know what Livingstone was doing or thinking in any detail for much of his time In Tanganyika as it was then called. But one must be grateful for small mercies. There is sadly no letter or document here which describes 1n Livingstone’s own words anything of his famous meeting with Stanley at Ujiji. If there had been it might have thrown a valuable light on an encounter which has probably been seen with at least some distortion, through the eyes of Stanley alone. But there is a lot of detail of the last great journey and one feels something of the strain and loneliness of the explorer’s life in its last phase.

Livingstone’s desperate search for the source of the Nile, which grew more feverish with each passing year, is brilliantly recorded in his own words. ‘I hope’ he writes with eagerness, ‘I am not premature in saying that the sources of the Nile arise from 10 to 12 South – in fact where Ptolemy placed them. The Chambezi is like the Chobe 40 to 50 yards broad … but the country is not like that at all .. it is full of fast-flowing perennial burns .. . we cross several every day … and crossed the Chambeze in 10 34 South”. This was written near Lake Bangweolo on 8th July 1868 and in the same letter he gives vent to some of his frustrations. He complains bitterly of much needless annoyance by two blockheads, the busybodies on the Council writing ‘instructions for my guidance and demanding all my notes – copies if not originals’. This, of course, is only one of many quarrels with his official sponsors in Britain, and there 1s considerable sadness as well as anger in his comment in another letter – ‘all who serve me will have a good lump of wages to show. When I have finished I shall have nothing except empty fame and sit down as a slave and copy my notes for the gaping busybodies of the Council’. How many of the world’s finest composers, artists, writers and creators would echo that comment!

There are marvellous insights into his life and character in these closing years, full of grim humour and superb courage. In a letter of 1872 to W. C. Boswell sent from what he merely describes as ‘Tanganyika’ he wriites, ‘Did I dream that Baker had all his guns taken away from him by niggers of whom he speaks so contemptuously – I could not pitch into even slaves without being certain of finding them all gone through the first night afterwards, but he thrashed them and the Arabs and they carried him meekly while I have to tramp every step I go.’

This is the last letter but one and to some extent the iron has enterred his soul. The accumulated effects of so much labour, hardship and privation, quite apart from the sheer loneliness of this final march, had taken its inevitable toll. And as he makes his way by grim determination from Southern Tanganyika to the borders of the country now known as Zambia, the threads of his life begin to unravel. But they are marvellous letters, full of description of the natural landscape and the African scene he had made so much his own. And we must be very grateful for them and to the editor, Timothy Holmes, for giving us the opportunity to hear Livingstone the man speaking directly of the land he loved and yet sometimes cursed – the land which seemed not to want to let him go.

An excellent book and probably more moving than any mere book ABOUT Livingstone could possibly be.
N.K. Thomas

FOOD INSECURITY AND THE SOCIAL DIVISION OF LABOUR IN TANZANIA 1919-85 by Deborah Fahy Bryceson. Macmillan/St Antony’s College, Basingstoke and London. 1990.

This solid book brings an impressive range of material to bear on the problems of food supply in Tanzania. The author has been writing on related subjects since the mid- 1970’s. As a result the volume has a sense of drawing together many themes: the roles of women in production and reproduction; the nature of patron-client relations in Tanzania; the relationships between peasants, markets and the state.
The many short chapters are gathered into six substantive parts. We start with a statement of the problem ‘Roughly 85% of Tanzania’s population live in rural areas and derive a liveliehood directly from the soil, yet the country has experienced repeated shortfalls of food supplies during this century’ (p 1)

Various theoretical approaches to food supply within historical development are applied to this paradox. Particularly interesting here is the inclusion of Preobrazhensky’s prophetic views on the extraction of surplus from peasants by the state in the Soviet Union, which, as Bryceson notes, became the strategy in the Tanzania of the 1970’s


This paper examines the extent to which Villagers participated in three Irish NGO-supported projects (in forestry, agricultural extension and oxen training) at Ismani in Iringa Region. The conclusion of the study was that there was very little involvement of the villagers and that while village government leaders were involved by the project organisers often they did not reflect villagers’ views. Although democratically elected the elections were ‘often shabbily run affairs’ with the first twenty or twenty five names mentioned being elected by a voice vote.

In one case studied there was no great enthusiasm to be a ‘ten-cell’ village leader (these leaders had the main responsibility for implementing the projects but were not part of the decision making process) because the previous ten cell leaders had all been fined for not implementing government policy, a policy which required Villagers to plant two acres of sorghum.

The main factors influencing participation by Villagers were described as the strength of the leadership, the sex (males were more involved), age (older people were more involved), marital status (married people being more involved), literacy and adult education (literate people were more involved). The authors conclude with these words: ‘Perhaps Camus best sums up what participation is attempting to do:

Don’t walk before me I may not follow
Don’t walk behind lie I may not lead
Just walk beside me and be my friend.’

THE SERENGETI. LAND OF ENDLESS SPACE. L. and S. Lindblad. Elm Tree Books. London. £ 25.

This is a coffee table book of many splendid photographs interspersed with four articles by people who are much involved professionally with African wildlife: Alan Earnshaw, Keith Sh8ckleton, Sandy Price and Lisa Lindblad. It is not a book to use in order to obtain details of flora and fauna or statistics 8bout present-day Serengeti but it 1s a pleasure to read and to look through leisurely, and it does convey a lot of information in some depth.

The first article, ‘Ash, Rain, Earth, Fire’ covers the pre-history of the area including the geological formation and how our ancestors lived. It begins, of course, with an imaginative account of how the footprints discovered by Mary Leakey in 1976 came to be made 3.6 million years ago. The fact that the scene has changed little over 4 million years adds to the mystique of the area. ‘Consequently the great web of life on the savannah, the whole intricate network of interrelationships between soil and vegetation, vegetation and herbivore, herbivore and carnivore, has coevolved over an immense span of time.’

The second article, ‘Cycled Rhythms’, deals with animal life. We should remember that in 1890 Rinderpest struck East Africa and in two years about 95% of wildebeest and buffalo died. It was not until the early 1960’s that this disease was eliminated. This makes the great migration of today all the more remarkable. The point is also made that the herds cross the border into Kenya’s Masai Mara and remain there for four months. ‘The Serengeti-Mara cries out for a unified management , with power and courage, a level horizon, sufficient sense of urgency to bury national and tribal prejudice and see the place for what it is – a wild heritage’

The third article, ‘Preserving the Serengeti’ traces the human management of the Park. In 1929 900 square miles were set aside as a lion sanctuary by the colonial government which was somewhat alarmed at the excesses of hunters. All legal hunting was stopped in 1937. In 1940 the Serengeti, including the Ngorongoro Crater Highlands, was made the first National Park in East Africa. In the 1950′ s there followed some debate between government and conservationists culminating in 1957 in the final setting of the Park’s bound8ries. The Ma8s8i were then banned from the Central Highlands. In 1975 they were banned from cultivating in the Crater area and the Olduvai Gorge.

Various names which we need to remember are mentioned such as Professor Grzimek and his son Mich8el; Miles Turner, the first and long-serving Warden of W. Serengeti; and, Dr G. Schaller who writes the Forward to this book. George Schaller is quoted as having introduced ‘conservation biology’ which seems to me what our attitude today should be. He says ‘The biologists collect scientifically precise information about the ecosystem … we take this knowledge to direct conservation of resources, to help human need, to help local people to sustain the environment.’

The fourth article is a brief history of the Maasai connection with the Serengeti, learned through personal friendship with a Maasai elder. There is inevitably a thread of sadness running through: ‘When you take a nomad’s land away you are altering so much more than a pastoralists lifestyle .. . you are erasing his stories, the collective memory of his culture, the map he must give his children so that they can find their way back to themselves.’ But perhaps it is the same for all of us to some extent as we become more and more city folk. It is just that the Maasai, also the Ndorobo and others, are nearer to the event.
George Schaller says: ‘At least once in a lifetime every person should make a pilgrimage into the wilderness to dwell on its wonders and discover the idyll of a past now largely gone … There dwell the fierce ghosts of our human past, there animals seek their destiny, living monuments to a time when we were still wanderers on a prehistoric earth. To witness that calm rhythm of life revives our W8rm souls and recaptures a feeling of belonging to the natural world. No one can return from the Serengeti unchanged, for tawny lions will forever prowl our memory and great herds throng our imagination. ‘

This is a good book to read before making that special visit to the Serengeti, and even if you are unable to go at all.
Christine Lawrence

. Bruce F Johnston. Food Research Institute Studies. Vol XXI . N03. 1989.
This paper is based on a chapter of a forthcoming book on the political economy of agricultural development and structural transformation by Bruce Johnston and others commissioned by the World Bank’s Economic Development Institute and supported by the Stanford Research Institute. On the basis of this paper the book should be a must for all followers of the effects of political ideology on agricultural and rural development. The paper presents an excellent and comprehensive summary/comparison of the differences in the rate and nature of agricultural development in Kenya and Tanzania over the past three decades, analyses clearly the differences in Government ideology and resultant agricultural sector policies and their effects and discusses why the Governments of Kenya and Tanzania chose such different approaches to development.

There are similarities in their physical and agricultural characteristics, colonial background, dominance of agriculture in their economies, total populations (Tanzania 22 million, Kenya 20 million) and amount of aid received. However, they have important differences, notably the population growth rates (3.8 to 4.0% in Kenya and 3.2 to 3.4% in Tanzania), the degree of colonial commitment to agricultural research and infrastructure (much greater in Kenya) and the transport networks (relatively poor in Tanzania and good in Kenya).

The major difference however has been the in the economic performance. In Tanzania the growth in per capita GNP increased at an annual rate of 0.9% between 1965 and 1984; it was US$ 210 in 1984 but since (and perhaps contrary to the author’s expectations) has declined to USS 120 in 1989. In contrast, Kenya’s per capita GNP increased at an estimated 2.3% between 1965 and 1984; it was US$ 350 in 1984 and US$ 380 in 1989. In short, in Tanzania the economy underwent a worsening crisis in the seventies which, by 1982, brought the economy of the country to the brink of economic collapse, a deteriorating food situation and shortages of all types of goods. By contrast, Kenya achieved considerable economic success over the same period.

The author maintains that internal factors (ie ‘unfortunate government sectoral and macro-economic policies’ would have given rise to the crisis and difficult food situation even without the exacerbating effects of some external factors (ie: the sharp rise in oil prices, the breakdown of the East African Community, the Uganda War and poor weather conditions). These ‘unfortunate’ policies adversely affected the six ‘I s’ necessary to influence agricultural production, namely: incentives, infrastructure, inputs, institutions, initiatives and innovations.
The causes of these adverse effects were, in summary: a) excessive bureaucracy and authoritarian intervention by government officials who lacked confidence in small scale farmers and their decision-making abilities; b) compulsory villagisation (ujamaa); c) disruption of agricultural marketing by government, leading to a deterioration of production incentives; d) a proliferation of parastatals; e) a large budget deficit (due to investment in industry, regional expansion of health, education and water supplies and financial assistance to ailing public corporations /parastatals).

In Kenya the dynamism of the rural economy was a result of the favourable government policies which positively affected the six ‘I s’ referred to above. The main reasons were, in summary: a) the emphasis on small farm production; b) the development of cash crops by smallholders ie: tea, coffee, sugar, cotton, pyrethrum and modern dairying; c) the essential point that the choice of what to grow was left to individual smallholders; d) the continuity of policies and smooth transition from colonial to independent rule (despite the Mau Mau emergency of the 195O’s and independence in 1963) due to the influence of Kenyatta and British civil servants; e) the benefits of greater colonial involvement in agricultural research; f) innovations such as policies for arid and semiarid lands and self-help ‘Harambee’ activities in relation to improvement of rural social services; and, g) greater expansion of secondary education.

The essential differences between the two countries were therefore the greater ability of smallholders to earn cash in Kenya and the lack of government intervention in Kenya as compared with excessive public sector interference and inappropriate and unstable agricultural policies in Tanzania.

The reasons why the respective policy makers chose different approaches clearly lie in ideological differences. In Tanzania the main aim was removal of inequality (through socialism). In Kenya the government favoured accumulation of wealth (through capitalism) rather than its redistribution. In Tanzania the dominance of a bureaucratic class with vested interests in enlarging control over agriculture had a negative effect on small farmers and muzzled local initiatives. In Kenya official government policy was to permit civil servants to engage in private business activities. This capitalist elite has a strong self interest in a prosperous agricultural economy.

As regards the future the author concludes that in Kenya, due to basic problems of high population growth and lack of additional good agricultural land, agricultural growth and the agricultural economy may deteriorate; due to problems of inequity he accepts that political instability may arise. Tanzania’s economy however is likely to improve as a result of macroeconomic policy reforms adopted in 1986, devaluation, and liberalisation of the marketing of agricultural products so as to positively affect producer incentives.

Overall, the paper provides a compelling analysis of the changing patterns and ups and downs of development in which the lessons for emergent agriculturally dependent economies are clear although the whole picture is far from complete.
Ian Talks